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Rādhanpūr

(357 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a former princely state, headed by a Nawwāb [ q.v.], of British India, at that time in the Pālānpūr [ q.v.] Agency of Bombay Province, now in the Gujarat State of the Indian Union. It is also the name of its capital (lat. 23° 49′ N., long. 7° 39′ E.), lying 90 km/56 miles to the southwest of Pālānpūr and to the east of the Rann of Cutch. The rulers of Rādhanpūr traced their descent from a Muslim adventurer who came to India from Isfahan about the middle of the 11th/17th century. His descendants became fawd̲j̲dārs and farmers of revenue in the Mug̲h̲al province of Gud̲j̲arāt [ q.v.]. Early in the 12t…

Doʾāb

(176 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, (Pers.) ‘two-waters’, corresponding to the Greek μεσοποταμία, is in the Indo-Pākistān subcontinent generally applied to the land lying between two confluent rivers, and more particularly to the fertile plain between the D̲j̲amnā and the Ganges in Uttar Prades̲h̲. The long tongues of land between the five rivers of the Pand̲j̲āb are also known as doʾābs . Between the Satlad̲j̲ and the ¶ Beʾās lies the Bist doʾāb ; between the Beʾās and the Rāwī, the Bārī doʾāb; between the Rawī and the Čenāb, the Rečnā doʾāb; between the Čenāb and the D̲j̲helam, the Čad̲j̲ or D̲j̲eč doʾāb; and between the …

Amīr K̲h̲ān

(279 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, 1768-1834, the famous Paṭhān predatory chief and associate of Ḏj̲aswant Rāo Holkar, was born at Sambhal in the Murādābād district of Rohilkhand. As a young man he and his adherents were employed by various zamindārs and Marāṭha officials as sihbandi troops for the collection of the revenues. He rapidly developed into a leader of banditti and as such was successively employed by the rulers of Bhopāl, Indore and Ḏj̲aypūr. In 1798 he received the title of nawāb from Ḏj̲aswant Rāo Holkar. The following year he plundered Saugor and the surrounding coun…

Awadh

(1,793 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(oudh), a tract of country comprising the Lucknow and Fayḍābād divisions of the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh. It has an area of 24, 168 square miles and a population of 15, 514, 950, of which 14, 156, 139 are to be found in the rural districts. (Census of India, 1951). From very early times Awadh, which forms part of the great alluvial plain of northern India, has been the peculiar home of Hindu civilisation. It corresponds roughly to the Middle Country, the Madhya-desha of the sacred Hindu writings, where dwelt the gods and heroes of the Epic Period whose deeds are recorded in the Mahābhārata

Bakkār

(195 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a fortified island in the river Indus lying between the towns of Sukkur and Rohri. Its importance was noted by Ibn Baṭṭūṭā who visited it during the reign of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ. In 1522, S̲h̲āh Beg, the founder of the Arg̲h̲ūn dynasty, made ¶ it his capital. When, in 1540, his son, S̲h̲āh Ḥusayn, refused to grant an asylum to the fugitive emperor Humāyūn the latter unsuccessfully attempted to capture this island fortress In 1574, in the time of Akbar, it was annexed to the Mug̲h̲al empire. The best and fullest account of the Mug̲h̲al conquest of Sind is to be found in the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Maʿṣūmī

Pand̲j̲dih

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
( Pend̲j̲deh ), a village now in the Turkmenistan Republic, situated to the east of the Kus̲h̲k river near its junction with the Murg̲h̲āb at Pul-i Kis̲h̲ti. The fact that the inhabitants of this area, the Sarik Turkomans, were divided into five sections, the Soktīs, Harzagīs, K̲h̲urāsānlis, Bayrač, and the ʿAlī S̲h̲āh. has been put forward as a possible explanation of the origin of the name Pend̲j̲deh, but it carries no weight as the Sariks were only 19th-century immigrants, whereas the name was in use in the 15th century. This obscure oasis owes a somewhat melancholy importance to…

Abū Ṭālib K̲hān

(240 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(1752-1806), the son of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Muḥammad Beg, of Turkish descent, was born at Lucknow. His early years were spent in Murs̲h̲idābād at the court of Muẓaffar Ḏj̲ang. With the accession of Āṣaf al-Dawla (1775) he returned to Oudh and was appointed ʿamaldār of Itāwah and other districts. He also served as a revenue official under Colonel Hannay who farmed the country of Sarwār. He was later employed by Nathaniel Middleton, the English Resident, and was connected with Richard Johnson in the management of the confiscated d̲j̲āgīrs of the Begams of Oudh. He re…

Mullagorī

(238 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a tribe on the north-west frontier of Pakistan. They inhabit the hilly country around Tārtāra and Kambela to the north of the K̲h̲yber Pass, in the southern part of the Mohmand [ q.v.] territory. Their territories are bounded on the north by the Kābul river; on the west by the S̲h̲ilmānī country; on the south by the settlements of the Kuki K̲h̲ēl Afrīdīs; and on the east by the Pes̲h̲āwar district. The tribe is divided into three clans: the Aḥmad K̲h̲ēl, Ismāʿīl, and the Dawlat K̲h̲ēl. Like the Ṣāfīs and the S̲h̲ilmā…

Pargana

(691 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a Hindi word, ultimately from a Sanskrit root “to compute, reckon up”, a term in Indo-Muslim administrative usage denoting an aggregate of villages, a subdivision of a district or sarkār [see mug̲h̲als. 3. Administrative and social organisation]. In later Anglo-Indian usage, the term was often rendered as pergunnah , see Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson , a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases, 698-9. The first reference to this term in the chronicles of the Sultanate of Dihlī appears to be in the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Fīrūz S̲h̲āhī of S̲h̲ams-i Sirād̲j̲ ʿAfīf ( Bibliotheca Ind…

D̲jō̲ōd̲h̲pur

(326 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
or Mārwāŕ was the largest of the former Indian States in the Rajputana Agency with an area of 36,120 sq.m. and a population of 2,555,904 (1941 Census). There appears to be no evidence to support the Rād̲j̲pūt legend that the state of D̲j̲ōdhpur was founded by the Rād̲j̲pūts of Kanawd̲j̲ after their defeat by Muḥammad of G̲h̲ūr in 590/1194. Siyāhd̲j̲ī, the founder of the Rāthōr dynasty of D̲j̲ōdhpur, was probably descended from Rāthōr rād̲j̲ās whose inscriptions are found in …

Ayyūb K̲h̲ān

(280 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the fourth son of S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, Amīr of Afg̲h̲ānistān, and brother of Yaʿḳūb Ḵh̲ān. Like all rulers of Afg̲h̲ānistān, S̲h̲īr ʿAlī had trouble with his sons. When, in 1873, he nominated his favourite son ʿAbd Allāh Ḏj̲ān as his heir-apparent, Ayyūb Ḵh̲ān fled to Persia. In 1879, when Yaʿḳūb Ḵh̲ān succeeded S̲h̲īr ʿAlī as amïr, Ayyūb Ḵh̲ān returned to Afg̲h̲ānistān and was appointed governor of Harāt. Towards the end of the Second Afg̲h̲ān War (1878-80) Lord Lytton’s government selected a Sadōzai prince, named S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, as the wālī of Ḳandahār. From this pos…

Mahsūd

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a Pat́hān tribe on the north-west frontier of Pakistan, in British Indian times the fiercest opponents there of British rule. The Mahsūds inhabit the heart of Wazīristān around Kāniguram and are s̲h̲ut off from Pakistan territory by the Bhittanni country. On all other sides they are flanked by Darwīs̲h̲ K̲h̲ēl Wazīrīs. It is now generally accepted that they left their original home in the Birmal hills of modern Afg̲h̲ānistān sometime towards the close of the 8th/14th century and gr…

Bālā-G̲h̲āt

(133 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(“above the g̲h̲āts or passes”), a name given to several elevated tracts in central and southern India. It was usually applied to the highlands above the passes through the Western G̲h̲āts. On the east side of the Indian peninsula it was the term used to distinguish the Carnatic plateau from the Carnatic Pāʿīng̲h̲āt or lowlands. In Berār it was the name of the upland country above the Ad̲j̲anta pass, the most northerly part of the table-land of the Deccan. It was also applied…

Berār

(398 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, formerly a province of British India consisting of the four districts of Amraotī, Akola, Buldāna, and Yeotmāl; area: 17,809 sq.m.; population: 3,604,866 of whom 335,169 were Muslims (1941 Census). Under British rule it was administered as part of the Central Provinces. It has recently been incorporated in the Bombay State. The territories of the Vākātakas, comtemporaries of the Guptas, roughly corresponded to modern Berār. It was first invaded by Muslims in 1294 but was not permanently occupied until 1318. It formed the northernmost province ( ṭaraf ) of th…

Bhaṭṭi

(164 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the Pand̲j̲āb form of the Rad̲j̲put word Bhāti, the name of a widely distributed Rad̲j̲pūt tribe associated with the area stretching from Jaisalmer to the western tract of the Pand̲j̲āb between Fatḥābād and Bhatnair. Large numbers of those settled in the Pand̲j̲āb accepted Islam. According to one of their traditions the Jādons of Jaisalmer were driven from Zābulistān to the Pand̲j̲āb and Rād̲j̲putāna, the branch settling in Rād̲j̲putāna being named Bhāti. The references in the Čač-nama to the Bhaṭṭi king of Ramal in the Thar desert confirm the legends preserved in Tod’s Annals and ant…

Rāmpur

(1,142 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a former Muslim-ruled princely ¶ state of Rohilk̲h̲and [ q.v.] in northern India. In British times, the state was under the political supervision of the government of the United Provinces. In the post-1947 Indian Union, Rāmpur became a district of Uttar Prades̲h̲, bounded on the north by Nainī Tāl, on the east by Bareilly, on the south by Badāʾūn and on the west by Murādābād districts, with an area of 2,318 km2/895 sq. miles and a population in 1961 of 701,537; in 1931, 45% of the population was Muslim. The early history of Rāmpur is that of the growth of Rohilla power [see rohillas …

Afrīdī

(1,680 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a large and powerful Paṭhān tribe, with an estimated fighting strength of 50,000, on the northwest frontier of Pākistān. The territories inhabited by the Afrīdīs stretch from the eastern spurs of the Safīd Kūh through the northern half of Tirāh and the Khyber (Ḵh̲aybar) [ q.v.] pass to the west and south of the Pes̲h̲āwar district. On the east they are bounded by the settled districts of Pākistān; on the north by the territories of the Mohmunds; on the west by the S̲h̲inwārīs; and on the south by the Ōrakzays and Bangas̲h̲ tribes…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān K̲h̲ān

(915 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(c. 1844-1901), Amīr of Afg̲h̲ānistān, was the son of Afḍal Ḵh̲ān, the eldest surviving son of Dōst Muḥammad Ḵh̲ān, the founder of the Barakzay dynasty in Afg̲h̲ānistān. In 1853 he proceeded to Afg̲h̲ān Turkistān where his father was serving as governor of Balk̲h̲. Despite his youth he took part in a series of operations which extended Dōst Muḥammad’s power over Katag̲h̲ān, Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, and Derwāz. Before his death in 1863 Dōst Muḥammad had nominated a younger son, S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, as his success…

Pālānpur

(413 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a former, Muslim-ruled princely state of India, now in Gujarat State of the Indian Union but in British Indian times included in the Western India States Agency. The territory incorporated in this agency included the area formerly known as Kāthiāwār together with the Cutch and Pālanpūr agencies. Its creation in October 1924 marked the end of the political control of the Government of Bombay and the beginning of direct relations with the Government of India. The old Pālanpūr Agency with its headquarters at the town of Pālanpūr was a group of states in Gud̲j̲arāt [ q.v.] lying between 23° …

Bāra Sayyids

(870 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the descendants of Sayyid Abu ’l-Faraḥ of Wāsiṭ near Bag̲h̲dād, who with his twelve sons emigrated to India in the 7th/13th century and settled in four villages near Patiāla in the sarkār of Sirhand in the sūba of Dihlī. The four main branches of the farnily were named after these four villages. Sayyid Dāʾūd settled in Tihanpūr; Sayyid Abu ’l-Faḍl in Čhatbanūr or Čhatrauri; Sayyid Abu ’l-Faḍāʾil in Kūndlī; and Sayyid Naẓm al-Dīn Ḥusayn in Jagner or Jhajari. From this area they later migrated into the Muẓaffarnagar district of the Ganges-Jumna doāb . The Kundlīwāl…

Rād̲j̲pūts

(1,676 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, inhabitants of India, who claim to be the modern representatives of the Ks̲h̲atriyas of ancient tradition. (From the Sanskrit rād̲j̲aputra “a king’s son”. For the connection between Rād̲j̲anya and Ks̲h̲atriya see Macdonell and Keith, Vedic index, i, s.v. Kṣatriya) The term Rād̲j̲pūt has no racial significance. It simply denotes a tribe, clan, or warlike class, the members of which claim aristocratic rank, a claim generally reinforced by Brahman recognition. The origin of the Rād̲j̲pūts is a problem which bristles with difficulties. The theory which was held earl…

Akbar

(1,592 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, abu ’l-fatḥ ḏj̲alāl al-dīn muḥammad (15 Oct. 1542-16 Oct. 1605), the greatest of the Mug̲h̲al emperors of India, was born at Umarkot in Sind while his father Humāyūn, who had been ousted by the Afg̲h̲ān usurper S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh Sūr, was escaping to Persia. A grandson of Bābur, he was both a Tīmūrid Turk and a Čag̲h̲atāy Mongol. His mother, Ḥamīda Bānū, was a Persian. After thirteen years of exile Humāyūn, because of the decline of Sūr power, decided to attempt the reconquest of H…

Buxar

(164 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a town on the south bank of the Ganges in the S̲h̲āhābād district of the Patna division of the Indian State of Bihār. Population: 18,087. (1951 Census). It seems to have been a place of great sanctity in ancient times and was originally called Vedagarbha ‘the womb of the Vedas’. Local tradition derives the name of the town from a tank originally called aghsar , or effacer of sins, which was later changed to baghsar , the tiger tank. It was at Buxar, on 23 October 1764, that the forces of Mīr Ḳāsim, ex-nawāb of Bengal, and S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ al-Dawla, na…

Awrangābād Sayyid

(31 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a small town in the Bulands̲h̲ahr district of Uttar Pradesh, founded in 1704 by Sayyid ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, a descendant of Sayyid Ḏj̲alāl al-Ḥusayn of Buk̲h̲ārā. (C. Collin-Davies)

Bād̲j̲awr

(239 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, tract of mountainous country in the Dīr, Swāt, and Čitrāl agency of the Pes̲h̲āwar division, West Pākistān. It is bounded on the north by Dīr; on the east by Dīr and Swāt; on the southeast and south by the Utmān Ḵh̲ēl and Mamund territories; and on the west by Afg̲h̲ānistān. It has an area of about 5,000 square miles and is intersected by five valleys—the Čahārmung, Bābūkara, Watalai, Rūd, and Sūr Kamar. In the absence of any census the population has been estimated at 100,000. Bād̲j̲awr is th…

Awrangābād

(237 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a town and district in the state of Bombay having in 1951 a population of 1,179,404. During the reign of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī the Hindu rulers of this part of the Deccan were forced to pay tribute to the Muslim invaders. In 1347 it was incorporated in the Bahmanī kingdom and with the disintegration of that kingdom became part of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhī sultanate of Aḥmadnagar. Under Malik ʿAmbar, an able Abyssinian minister, Aḥmadnagar offered a stubborn resistance to the Mug̲h̲al invaders, but, …

Mastūd̲j̲

(350 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, village, fort, and district in the upper Yārkhūn valley formerly included in the Dīr, Swat and Citrāl Political Agency of the North-West Frontier Province of British India and now in Pakistan. It apparently formed part of the ancient territory of Syāmāka (Sylvain Lévi, in JA, ser. 11, vol. v, 76; and H. Lüders, Weitere Beiträge zur Geschichte und Geographie von Ostturkestan , 1930, 29 ff.). Stein identifies Mastūd̲j̲ with the territory of Čü-wei or S̲h̲ang-mi which was visited by the Chinese pilgrim Wu-k’ung in the 8th century A.D. ( Ancient Khotan , Oxford 1907, i, 15-16, Serindia

Orissa

(512 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Odra-deça), a part of the modern Indian province of Bihar and Orissa, has an area of 13,706 square miles and a population of 5,306,142, of which only 124,463 profess the Muslim faith. For administrative purposes it is divided into the five districts of Cuttack, Balasore, Purl, Angul and Sambalpur. There are in addition twenty-four native states, the Orissa feudatory states, with a population of 4,465,385, the Muḥammadans numbering only 17,100 (Census of India, 1931). Modern Orissa, which embraces the deltas of the Mahānadī and neighbouring rivers, extends from the Ba…

Rādhanpūr

(288 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a Muslim state in India now included in the Western India States Agency and situated to the south-west of Pālanpūr. The rulers of Rādhanpūr trace their descent from a Muslim adventurer who came to India from Iṣpahān about the middle of the xviith century. His descendants became fawd̲j̲dārs and farmers of revenue in the Mug̲h̲al province of Gud̲j̲arāt [q. v.]. Early in the xviiith century Ḏj̲awān Mard Ḵh̲ān Bābī, the head of the family at that time, received a grant of Rād̲h̲anpūr and other districts ( Mīrʾāt-i Aḥmadī, Ethé, N°. 3599, fol. 742). With the decline of the Mug̲h̲al em…

Pālanpūr

(369 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a Muslim state in India now included in the Western India States Agency. The territory incorporated in this agency includes the area formerly known as Kāthiāwār together with the Cutch and Pālanpūr agencies. Its creation in October 1924, marked the end of the political control of the Government of Bombay and the beginning of direct relations with the Government of India. The old Pālanpūr Agency with its headquarters at the town of Pālanpūr was a group of states in Gud̲j̲arāt [q. v.] lying betw…

Pānīpat

(466 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a town and taḥṣīl in the Karnāl district of the Pand̲j̲āb [q. v.]. On three occasions has the fate of Hindustān been decided on the plain of Pānīpat: in 1526, when Bābur [q. v.], the Barlās Turk, defeated Ibrāhīm Lodī; in 1556, when Akbar [q. v.] crushed the forces of Hēmū; and lastly, in 1761, when the Marāṭhās where defeated by Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī [q. v.]. The geographical factor combined with internal decay and a weak system of frontier defence has been chiefly responsible for this. From the s…

Dhārwār

(309 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a district in the Belgaum division of the Indian State of Mysore. It has an area of 5,305 square miles and a population of 1,575,386 of whom 15% are Muslims (1951 Census). Until the 7th/13th century it remained free from the Muslim invader. In the following century it formed part of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ’s extensive empire. After the decline of Tug̲h̲luḳ power its geographical position, especially its proximity to the Rāyčūr Dōʾāb, made it a bone of contention between the Bahmanī kingdom of th…

Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī

(1,804 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the first of the Sadōzay rulers of Afg̲h̲ānistān and founder of the Durrānī empire, belonged to the Sadōzay section of the Popalzay clan of the Abdālī [ q.v.] tribe of Afg̲h̲āns. In the early 18th century the Abdālīs were to be found chiefly around Harāt. Under their leader Zamān Ḵh̲ān, the father of Aḥmad Ḵh̲ān, they resisted Persian attempts to take Harāt until, in 1728, they were forced to submit to Nādir S̲h̲āh. ¶ Some time later they rebelled under Ḏh̲u’l-Fiḳār Ḵh̲ān, the brother of Aḥmad Ḵh̲ān, but were once more defeated by the Persian r…

D̲j̲unnar

(129 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, town in the Indian State of Bombay, 56 m. north of Poona. Its proximity to the Nānā Pass made it an important trade centre linking the Deccan with the west coast. The fort of D̲j̲unnar was built by Malik al-Tud̲j̲d̲j̲ār in 840/1436. The district around D̲j̲unnar was one of the ṭarafs or provinces of the Bahmanī kingdom of the Deccan during the administration of Maḥmūd Gāwān [ q.v.]. It later formed part of the Sultanate of Aḥmadnagar. In 1067/1657 the town was plundered by S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī, the Marāt́hā leader, who was born in the neighbouring hill-fort of S̲h̲iwn…

Bid̲j̲nawr

(168 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(bijnor), a town and district in the Rohilk̲h̲and division of the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh. The district has an area of 1,867 square miles with a population of 984,196, of which 36% are Muslims. The town has a population of 30,646 (1951 Census). Little is known of the district’s early history. In 1399 it was ravaged by Tīmūr. Under Akbar it formed part of the sarkār of Sambhal in the sūba of Dihlī. During the decline of Mug̲h̲al power it was overrun by Rohillas under ʿAlī Muḥammad. It contains the town of Nad̲j̲ibābād founded about 1750 by Nad̲j̲ib al-Dawla who became wāzīr

Pūna

(419 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city and district of British India in the Central Division of the Bombay Presidency. The district has an area of 5,332 square miles and a population of 1,169,798 of whom 54,997 are Muslims ( Census Report, 1931). It was included in the powerful Āndhra kingdom of the Dakhan which came to an end about the middle of the third century a. d.. The available ¶ evidence also points to the fact that later the Western Čālukyas, the Rās̲h̲trakūtas, and the Deogīrī Yādavas ruled over this area. With the Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī and Ṭug̲h̲luḳ [see muḥammad ṭug̲h̲luḳ] invasions of the Dakhan it came under Muslim…

Rāwalpindi

(303 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a division, district, taḥṣīl, and town in the north-west of the Pand̲j̲āb. The division has an area of 21,347 square miles and a population of 3,914,849 of whom 3,362,260 are Muḥammadans. The district, which is divided for administrative purposes into four ¶ taḥṣīls, has an area of 2,050 square miles, with a population of 634,357 (524,965 Muḥammadans). The taḥṣīl covers an area of 770 square miles and supports a population of 289,073 (212,256 Muḥammadans). The town and cantonment, situated on the north bank of the river Leh, have a population of 119,2…

Nūr Ḏj̲ahān

(424 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, name given to Mihr al-Nisāʾ, the famous queen of Ḏj̲ahāngīr, the Mug̲h̲al Emperor. She was born at Ḳandahār in 1577 when her father, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ Beg, was migrating from Persia to Hindustān ( Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ, i. 129). In the reign of Akbar she was married to ʿAlī Ḳulī Beg, a Persian who had rendered distinguished military service to the Emperor and who, because of his bravery, was known as S̲h̲īr Afgan. The assassination of her first husband will always remain a matter of controversy, some regarding it as a repetition of t…

Oud̲h̲

(1,285 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Awad̲h̲), a district now forming part of the United Provinces of modern India, has an area of 24,154 square miles and a population of 12,794,979, of which 11,870,266 are to be found in the rural districts (Census of India, 1931). From very early times Oud̲h̲ and the neighbouring countries of the great alluvial plain of northern India have been the peculiar home of Hindu civilization. The ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala corresponded very nearly to the present province of Oud̲h̲. Its capital, Ayod̲h̲yā, the modern Ad̲j̲od̲h̲yā on the r…

Mahsūd

(860 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a Paṭhān tribe on the north-west frontier of India. The Mahsūds inhabit the heart of Wazīristān around Kāniguram and are shut off from British territory by the Bhittanni country. On all other sides they are flanked by Darwes̲h̲ Ḵh̲ēl Wazīrīs. It is now generally accepted that they left their original home in the Birmal hills of modern Afg̲h̲ānistān sometime towards the close of the fourteenth century and gradually extending eastwards occupied the country in which they now reside. The tribe has three main branches: the Bahlolzai, S̲h̲aman Ḵh̲ēl, and the ʿAlīzai. Ignorant, ill…

Pīs̲h̲wā

(1,215 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the title given to one of the ministers of the Bahmanī sulṭāns of the Deccan; the chief minister of S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī; the head of the Marāṭhā confederacy. (Persian “leader”; Pahl. pēs̲h̲ōpay; Arm. pēs̲h̲opay. For older forms see Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik, i. 230). S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī, the founder of Marāṭhā political power in the Dakhan, was assisted by a council of ministers known as the As̲h̲ta Pradhan, one of whom was the Pīs̲h̲wā or Muk̲h̲ya Pradhan. The office of Pīs̲h̲wā was not hereditary and the nature of S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī’s autocratic…

Nāgpur

(913 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city, taḥṣīl, district, and division of the Central Provinces of British India. The modern Central Provinces and Berār, which formed part of the eighteenth century Bhonsla kingdom of Nāgpur, lie between 17° 47′ and 24° 27′ N. and 75° 37′ and 84° 24′ E., with an area of 113,285 square miles, and a total population of 17,951,147. Nāgpur division contains a population of 3,595,578; Nāgpur district 933,168; and the city 215,003 (1931 Census Report). The history of this area, which roughly corresponds to Gondwāna, has been profoundly influenced by the long range of the S…

Pand̲j̲dih

(881 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, (Pend̲j̲deh) a village in the Turkoman republic of the U. S. S. R., situated to the east of the Kus̲h̲k river near its junction with the Murg̲h̲āb at Pul-i Kis̲h̲ti. The fact that the inhabitants of this area, the Sarik Turkomans, were divided into five sections, the Soktis, Harzagis, Ḵh̲urāsānlis, Bairač, and the ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, has been put forward as a possible explanation of the origin of the name Pend̲j̲deh, but it carries no weight as the Sariks were only nineteenth century immigrants whereas the name was in use in the fifteenth century. This obscure oasis owes a somewhat melancholy…

Rangoon

(956 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city in the Pegu division of Burma lying on both sides of the Hlaing river at its point of junction with the Pegu river and the Pazundaung creek, twenty-one miles from the sea. Legend, not entirely undocumented, relates that the great pagoda at Rangoon (Mon, Kyaik Lagung; Burmese, Shwe Dagon) was founded during the life-time of the Buddha and was repaired by the emperor Açoka ( J. B. R. S., xxiv. 4 and 20). History proper begins with the establishment of Pegu as the capital of a Mon kingdom in 1369. ¶ A convenient port was required for this kingdom. Bassein, which had been the chief…

Riḍīya

(451 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(1236-1240 a. d.), the only woman to succeed to the throne of Dihlī during the period of Muslim rule, and, with the exception of S̲h̲ad̲j̲ar al-Durr [q. v.] of Egypt, the only female sovereign in the history of Islām. After the death of his eldest son, Īltutmis̲h̲ [q. v.], despite the protests of his advisers, nominated his daughter Riḍīya as his successor on the grounds of her fitness to rule. On the death of Īltutmis̲h̲) the courtiers, disregarding the late king’s wishes, raised one of his sons, Rukn al-Dīn Fīrūz, to the throne. Th…

Niẓām S̲h̲āh

(618 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, title assumed in 895 (1490) by Malik Aḥmad Baḥrī, founder of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhī state of Aḥmadnagar [q. v.], one of the five independent sulṭānates which arose out of the ruins of the Bahmanī kingdom of the Dakhan towards the end of the fifteenth century. Fora chronological list and genealogical table of these kings of Aḥmadnagar see Cambridge History of India, iii. 704—705; also Zambaur, Manuel, p. 298—299. The second ruler, Burhān Niẓām S̲h̲āh I (914— 960 = 1509—1553), adopted, in 1537, the S̲h̲īʿa form of Islām which, except for a brief period under Ismāʿīl w…

Pand̲j̲āb

(1,791 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the land of the five rivers, is a province of modern India which, together with the North-West Frontier Province and Kas̲h̲mīr [q. v.], occupies the extreme north-western corner of the Indian Empire, and, with the exception of ¶ the recently-constituted Delhi province, comprises all of British India north of Sind and Rād̲j̲pūtāna and west of the river Ḏj̲amna. Geographically therefore it includes more than its name implies, for, in addition to the country watered by the Ḏj̲helum, Čināb, Rāwī, Beās, and Satled̲j̲, it embraces the t…

Rampur

(1,141 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, an Indian state in Rohilk̲h̲and under the political supervision of the government of the United Provinces. It is bounded on the north by the district of Nainī Tāl; on the east by Bareilly; on the south by the Bisauli taḥṣīl of Budāūn; and on the west by the district of Morādābād. The early history of Rāmpur is that of the growth of Rohilla power in Rohilk̲h̲and. After the establishment of Muslim rule. in India large ¶ bodies of Afg̲h̲āns or Paṭhāns settled down in the country. So powerful did they become that they were twice able to establish their rule in northern In…

Pes̲h̲āwar

(1,130 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a district, taḥṣīl, and city in the North-West Frontier Province of British India. The district which lies between 71° 25′ and 72° 47′ E. and 33° 40′ and 34° 31′ N. has an area of 2,637 square miles and a population of 947,321 of whom 92 per cent are Muslims (1931 Census Report). It is bounded on the east by the river Indus, which separates it from the Pand̲j̲āb and Hazāra, and on the south-east by the Nīlāb G̲h̲as̲h̲a range which shuts it off from the district of Kōhāt. Elsewhere it is bounded b…

Mohmand

(755 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a Paṭhān tribe on the north-west frontier of India. The territories inhabited by the Mohmands stretch from the north-west of the Pes̲h̲āwar district across the Durand boundary into Afg̲h̲ānistān. Towards the end of the xvth century according to local tradition, two large branches of Paṭhān tribes, the Khakhai and the G̲h̲orīa Ḵh̲ēl, migrated from their homes in Afg̲h̲ānistān to the northwest frontier of India. By the opening years of the xvith century the Mohmands, who were a tribe of the G̲h̲orīa Ḵh̲ēl, had reached the Khyber area. They were never reall…

Quetta

(658 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Pas̲h̲tu: Kwaṭṭa), a taḥṣīl and town in the Quetta-Pis̲h̲īn district of British Balūčistān [q. v.]. The district, which contains the taḥṣīls of Quetta and Pis̲h̲īn and the administrative sub-division of Čaman, has an area of 4,806 square miles and a population of 147,541, of whom 107,945 are Muslims. Nearly all these Muslims are Pas̲h̲tu speaking Paṭhāns, only a very small minority speaking Brahūī and Balūčī. The district, which is very mountainous, is bounded on the north-west by Afg̲h̲ān territory, on the east b…

Mullagorī

(223 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a tribe on the north-west frontier of India. They inhabit the hilly country around Tārtāra and ¶ Kambela to the north of the Ḵh̲yber Pass. Their territories are bounded on the north by the Kābul river; on the west by the S̲h̲ilmānī country; on the south by the settlements of the Kuki Ḵh̲ēl Afrīdīs; and on the east by the Pes̲h̲āwar district. The tribe is divided into three clans: the Aḥmad Ḵh̲ēl, Ismāʿīl, and the Dawlat Ḵh̲ēl. Like the Ṣāfīs and the S̲h̲ilmānīs they are vassal clans of the Mohmands. N…

Pargana

(617 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the Indian name for an aggregate of villages. The first reference to this term in the chronicles of the Sultanate of Delhi appears to be in the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Fīrūz S̲h̲āhī of S̲h̲ams-i Sirād̲j̲ ʿAfīf ( Bibliotheca Indica, 1891, p. 99), for it is not used by Ḥasan al-Niẓāmī in ¶ his Tād̲j̲ al-Maʾāsir or by Minhād̲j̲ al-Dīn in his Ṭabaḳāt-i Nāṣirī. Although it first came into prominence in the xivth century partially superseding the term ḳaṣba, it is, in all probability, based on still more ancient divisions in existence before the Muslim conquest. The exact date of its c…

Mastūd̲j̲

(282 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a village, fort, and district in the upper Yārkhūn valley at present included in the Dīr, Swāt and Čitrāl Political Agency of the North-West Frontier Province of India. It apparently formed part of the ancient territory of Śyāmāka (M. Sylvain Levi, in J. A., xi., vol. v., p. 76; and Lüders, Weitere Beiträge zur Geschichte und Geographie von Ostturkestan, 1930, p. 29 sqq.). Stein identifies Mastūd̲j̲ with the territory of Čü-wei or S̲h̲ang-mi which was visited ¶ by the Chinese pilgrim Wu-K’ung in the viiith century a. d. ( Ancient khotan, i., foot note on p. 15—16; Serindia, i. 18). An insc…

Rād̲j̲pūts

(1,638 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, inhabitants of India, who claim to be the modern representatives of the Ks̲h̲atriyas of ancient tradition. (From the Sanskrit rād̲j̲aputra “a king’s son”. For the connection between Rād̲j̲anya and Ks̲h̲atriya see Macdonell and Keith, Vedic Index, i., s. v. Kṣatriya). The term Rād̲j̲pūt has no racial significance. It simply denotes a tribe, clan, or warlike class, the members of which claim aristocratic rank, a claim generally reinforced by Brahman recognition. The origin of the Rād̲j̲pūts is a problem which bristles with difficulties. The theory which at present …

Bāonī

(146 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, formerly a petty Muslim state in the Bundelkhand Agency of Central India, is now administered as part of Madhya Pradesh (area: 122 square miles; population: 25, 256, of which only 12% are Muslims). Its rulers were descended from ʿImād al-Mulk G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn, the grandson of Āṣaf D̲j̲āh, the Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād. About 1784 G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn came to terms with the Marāthās who granted him a d̲j̲āgīr of 52 villages, the name Bāonī being derived from bāwan (fifty-two). This grant was later recognised by the British. Because of his loyalty during the 1857 revolt, the nawāb was granted a sanad

Nūr D̲j̲ahān

(432 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
name given to Mihr al-Nisāʾ the famous queen of D̲j̲ahāngīr, the Mug̲h̲al Emperor. She was born at Ḳandahār in 985/1577 when her father, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ Beg, was migrating from Persia to Hindustan ( Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ , i, 129). In the reign of Akbar she was married to ʿAlī Ḳulī Beg, a Persian who had rendered distinguished military service to the Emperor and who, because of his bravery, was known as S̲h̲īr Afgan. The assassination of her first husband will always remain a matter of controversy, ¶ some regarding it as a repetition of the story of David and Uriah, others holding t…

Arg̲h̲ūn

(812 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, name of a Mongol dynasty claiming descent from Hulāgū. (Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan , 580, refuses to accept this claim). The Arg̲h̲ūns rose to prominence towards the end of the 15th century when Sulṭān Ḥusayn Bāyḳarā of Harāt appointed Ḏh̲ū ’l-Nūn Beg Arg̲h̲ūn governor of Ḳandahār. He soon began to assume an independent attitude and resisted all attempts of the ruler of Harāt to coerce him. As early as 884/1479 he occupied the highlands of Pis̲h̲īn, S̲h̲āl and Mustang which now form part of Balūčistān. In 890/1…

Nāgpur

(951 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a city, district and division of the state of Maharashtra in the Indian Union, formerly in the Central Provinces of British India; the city lies on the Nāg river in lat. 21° 10’ N. and long. 79° 12’ E. The history of this area, which roughly corresponds to Gondwāna, has been profoundly influenced by the long range of the Sātpura hills through which the Burhānpur-Asīrgaŕh gap provided the chief route from Hindustan to the Dakhan. When the Muslim invaders first came into contact with Gondwāna, it contained four independent Go…

Ayyūb K̲h̲ān

(296 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, quatrième fils de S̲h̲ir ʿAlī, amīr d’Afg̲h̲ānistān, et frère de Yaʿḳūb Ḵh̲ān. Comme tous les souverains d’Afg̲h̲ānistān, S̲h̲īr ʿAlī éprouva des difficultés avec ses fils. Quand, en 1873, il désigna son fils favori ʿAbd Allāh Ḏj̲ān comme héritier présomptif, Ayyūb Ḵh̲ān s’enfuit en Perse. En 1879, lorsque Yaʿḳūb Ḵh̲ān succéda à S̲h̲īr ʿAlī comme amīr, Ayyūb Ḵh̲ān revint en Afg̲h̲ānistān et fut nommé gouverneur de Herāt. Vers la fin de la ¶ seconde guerre afghane (1878-80), le gouvernement de Lord Lytton choisit un prince Sadōzai, du nom de S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, comme wālī de Ḳandahār. Il fut…

Awrangābād Sayyid

(31 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, petite ville dans le district de Bulands̲h̲ahr de l’Uttar Pradesh, fondée en 1704 par Sayyid ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, descendant de Sayyid Ḏj̲alāl al-Ḥusayn de Buk̲h̲ārā. (C. Collin Davies)

Nāgpur

(1,004 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, nom d’une ville, d’un district et d’une circonscription de l’État de Maharashtra, autrefois dans les Provinces Centrales des Indes britanniques. La ville est située sur le Nāg à 21° 10′ N. et 79° 12′ E, ¶ Ce territoire, qui correspond à peu près au Gondwāna, a été profondément influencé dans son histoire par l’existence de la longue chaîne de Sātpura à travers laquelle la brèche de Burhānpur-Asīrgaŕh formait la route principale qui va de l’Hindustān au Dakhan. Quand les envahisseurs musulmans pénétrèrent pour la première fois dan…

Berār

(404 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, autrefois province des Indes britanniques, formée des quatre districts d’Amraotī, Akola, Buldāna et Yeotmāl; superficie: 47000 km2 (17809 milles carrés); population: 3 604 866, dont 335 169 Musulmans (recensement de 1941); administrée, sous le gouvernement britannique, comme partie des Provinces du Centre; récemment incorporée à l’État de Bombay. Les territoires des Vākātakas, contemporains des Guptas, correspondaient approximativement à l’actuelle Berār. Elle fut d’abord envahie par des Musulmans en 1294, mais ne fut pas occupée de façon pe…

Awadh

(1,846 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Oudh), région comprenant les districts de Lucknow et de Fayḍābād, dans l’État indien d’Uttar Pradesh. Elle a une superficie de 62 595 km- et une population de 15 514 950 habitants, dont 14 156 139 se trouvent dans les districts ruraux (recensement de l’Inde, 1951). Dès une époque très ancienne, l’Awadh, qui comprend une partie de la grande plaine alluviale du Nord de l’Inde, a été le berceau de la civilisation hindoue. Il correspond à peu près au «pays du milieu», le Madhya-desha des livres sac…

Arg̲h̲ūn

(842 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, nom d’une dynastie mongole qui prétendait descendre de Hulāgū (Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan, 580, s’élève contre cette prétention). Les Arg̲h̲ūn se firent remarquer à partir de la fin du XVe siècle lorsque Sulṭān Ḥusayn Bayḳara de Harāt eut nommé Dhū l-Nūn Beg Arg̲h̲ūn gouverneur de Ḳandahār. Il ne tarda à prendre une attitude d’indépendance, et résista a tous les efforts du souverain de Harāt pour le réduire à l’obéissance. Dès 884/1479, il occupa les régions montagneuses de Pis̲h̲īn, S̲h̲āl et Mustang, qui forment maint…

Mullagorī

(231 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, nom d’une tribu établie sur la frontière Nord-ouest du Pakistan, dans la région accidentée qui entoure Tārtāra et Kambela au Nord de la Passe de Khyber (partie méridionale du territoire des Mohmand [ q.v.]). Son propre territoire est limité au Nord par le Kābul, à l’Ouest par le pays S̲h̲ilmānī. au Sud, par les établissements des Afrīdis Kuki Ḵh̲ēl, et à l’Est, par le district de Pes̲h̲āwar. La tribu se divise en trois clans: les Aḥmad Ḵh̲ēl, les Ismāʿīl et les Dawlat Ḵh̲ēl. Comme les Ṣafīs et les S̲h̲ilmānis, ce sont des clan…

Pand̲jdih

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, village de la République de Turkménistan, située à l’Est du Kus̲h̲k, près de son confluent avec le Murg̲h̲āb à Pul-i Kis̲h̲ti. La circonstance que les habitants de cette région, les Turcomans Sarik, ont été divisés en cinq fractions, les Soktis, Harzagis Ḵh̲urāsānlis, Bayrač, et les ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, a pu offrir une explication possible de l’origine du nom de Pend̲j̲deh, mais celle-ci ne tient pas compte du fait que les Sarik n’immigrèrent qu’au XIXe siècle, alors que le nom était déjà en usage au XVe. Cette obscure oasis doit une importance assez triste à l’«Incident de Pand̲j̲dih…

Bid̲j̲nawr

(177 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Bijnor), ville et district situésdans la circonsription de Rōhīlkhand, dans l’État indien d’Uttar Pradesh. Le district a une superficie de 4 960 km2 (1867 milles carrés), avec une population de 984 196 habitants, dont 36% de Musulmans. La ¶ ville a une population de 30 646 âmes (recensement de 1951). On sait peu de choses sur la première histoire du district. En 1399, il fut ravagé par Tīmūr. Sous Akbar, il forme une partie du sarkār de Sambhal, dans le sūba de Delhi. Durant le déclin du pouvoir mug̲h̲al, il est dévasté par les Rohillas, sous le commandement de ʿAlī Muḥamm…

Bakkār

(190 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, île fortifiée située sur l’Indus, entre les villes de Sukkur et de Rohri. Son importance ¶ fut remarquée par Ibn Baṭṭūṭā qui la visita sous le règne de Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ. En 1522, S̲h̲āh Beg, le fondateur de la dynastie Arg̲h̲ūn, en fit sa capitale. En 1540, son fils, S̲h̲āh Ḥusayn, refusa de donner asile à l’empereur fugitif Humāyūn, et celui-ci chercha en vain par la suite à s’emparer de l’île. En 1574, sous Akbar, elle fut annexée par l’empire mug̲h̲al. C’est dans le Tārīk̲h̲-i Maʿṣūmī de Mīr Muḥammad Maʿṣūm, qui était de Bakkār, que l’on trouve le récit le plus complet …

Bālā-g̲h̲āt

(135 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(«au-dessus des g̲h̲āts ou cols»), nom donné à plusieurs régions élevées du centre et du Sud de l’Inde. On l’employait communément pour désigner le pays montagneux qui domine les cols des G̲h̲āts occidentaux. A l’Est de la péninsule indienne, c’était par ce nom que l’on distinguait le plateau carnatique de la plaine carnatique ou Pāʿīng̲h̲āt. Au Berār, c’était le nom de la région montagneuse au-dessus du col d’Ad̲j̲anta, la partie la plus septentrionale du plateau du Deccan. Il était également app…

Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī

(1,924 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, premier souverain Sadōzay de l’Afg̲h̲ānistān et fondateur de l’empire Durrānī, appartenait au groupe des Sadōzay du clan des Pōpalzay de la tribu des Abdālī [ q.v.] des Afg̲h̲āns. Au début du XVIIIe siècle, les Abdālī se trouvaient surtout autour de Harāt. Sous la conduite de leur chef Zamān Ḵh̲ān, père d’Ah̲mad Ḵh̲ān, ils résistèrent aux tentatives des Persans de s’emparer de Harāt jusqu’à ce que, en 1728, ils furent obligés de se soumettre à Nādīr S̲h̲āh. Quelque temps après, ils se révoltèrent sous la conduite de Ḏh̲ū l-F…

Pālānpur

(415 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, État princier musulman de l’Inde, qui fait actuellement partie de l’État du Gujarat de l’Union indienne, mais qui, à l’époque britannique, était inclus dans la Western India States Agency. Le territoire incorporé dans cette Agence comprenait le pays anciennement connu sous le nom de Kāthiāwār, en même temps que les agences de Cutch et de Pālānpur. Sa création, en octobre 1924, marqua la fin du contrôle politique du Gouvernement de Bombay et le début de relations directes avec le Gouvernement d…

Amīr K̲h̲ān

(273 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(1768-1834) célèbre chef de bande Paṭhān et associé de Ḏj̲aswant Rāo Holkar, naquit à Sambhal dans le district de Murādābād dans le Rohilkhand. Étant jeune homme, il fut employé, ainsi que ses partisans, par plusieurs zamindārs et fonctionnaires Marāṭha comme troupes sihbandi pour percevoir les impôts. Il devint rapidement un chef de bande, et, en cette qualité, fut successivement utilisé par les souverains de Bhopāl, Indore et Ḏj̲aypūr. En 1798, il reçut le titre de nawāb qui lui fut donné par Ḏj̲aswant Rāo Holkar. L’année suivante, il pilla Saugor et les environs. En 1809, il ¶ s’allia …

Bāonī

(156 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, autrefois très petit État musulman de la Bundelk̲h̲and Agency de l’Inde centrale; il fait maintenant partie du Madhya Pradesh. Superficie: 315 km2; population: 25 256 hab., dont seulement 12% sont musulmans. Ses souverains descendaient de ʿImād al-mulk G̲h̲āzī al-dīn, petit-fils d’Āṣaf Ḏj̲āh, niẓām de Ḥaydarābād. Vers 1784, G̲h̲āzī al-dīn négocia un accommodement avec les Marāthās qui lui concédèrent un d̲j̲āgīr de 52 villages; le nom de Bāonī vient de bāwan (cinquante-deux). Cette cession fut plus tard reconnue par les Anglais. La loyauté du nawāb pendant le révolte de 1857 …

Pargana

(662 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, mot hindi venant d’une racine sanskrite dont le sens est «calculer, compter» et qui était employé dans l’administration indo-islamique pour désigner un groupe de villages, une subdivision d’un district ou serkār [voir Mug̲h̲als. III. Organisation administrative et sociale ]. Dans l’usage anglo-indien postérieur, ce terme était souvent transcrit pergunnah (voir Yule et Burnell, Hobson- Jobson, 698-9). La première occurrence de ce terme dans les chroniques du sultanat de Dihlī semble être dans le Taʾrīk̲h̲- I Fīrūz S̲h̲āhī de S̲h̲ams-i Sirād̲j̲ ʿAfīf ( Bibliotheca Indica, Calcu…

Ḏj̲unnar

(127 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, ville de l’État indien de Bombay, à 90 km. au Nord de Poona. Sa proximité du col de Nānā a fait d’elle un centre commercial important reliant le Deccan à la côte occidentale. Le fort de Ḏj̲unnar fut construit par Malik al-Tud̲j̲d̲j̲ār en 840/ 1436. Le district qui l’entoure était un des tarafs ou provinces du royaume Bahmamde du Deccan sous l’administration de Maḥmūd Gāwān [ q.v.]. H fit ensuite partie du sultanat d’Aḥmadnagar. En 1067/ 1657, la ville fut pillée par S̲h̲īwād̲j̲ī, chef mahratte qui était né dans le fort de la colline voisine de Shiwnēr. Les co…

Akbar

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, Abū l-Fatḥ Ḏj̲alāl al-dīn Muḥammad (15 oct. 1542-16 oct. 1605) le plus grand des empereurs mug̲h̲als de l’Inde, né à Umarkot, au Sind, alors que son père Humāyūn, qui avait été chassé par l’usurpateur afg̲h̲ān S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh Sūr, fuyait yers la Perse. Petit-fils de Bābūr, il descendait à la fois des Turcs tīmūrides et des Mongols Čag̲h̲atāy. Sa mère, Ḥamīda Bānū, était persane. Après treize ans d’exil, Humāyūn, profitant du déclin de la puissance Sūr, décida de tenter la reconquête de l’Hindūstān. P…

Rād̲j̲pūts

(1,814 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, habitants de l’Inde, qui se prétendent les actuels représentants des Ks̲h̲atriyas de l’ancienne tradition. (Du sanscrit rād̲j̲aputra, «fils de roi». Sur le rapport entre Rād̲j̲anya et Ks̲h̲atriya, voir Macdonell et Keith, Vedic index, I, s.v. Kṣatriya). Le terme de Rad̲j̲pūt n’a pas de signification ethnique; il ne concerne qu’une tribu, un clan, ou une classe guerrière, dont les membres se réclament d’un rang aristocratique, cette prétention se trouvant généralement renforcée par une confirmation brahmane. L’origine des Rād̲j̲pūts est un problème hérissé de difficul…

Mastūd̲j̲

(340 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, village, fort et district de la haute vallée du Yārk̲h̲ūn, autrefois inclus dans la «Political Agency» de Dīr, Swāt et Čitrāl de la «North-West Frontier Provice» de l’Inde britannique, et aujourd’hui au Pakistan. Ce lieu semble avoir fait partie de l’ancien territoire de Śyāmāka (Sylvain Lévi, dans JA, 11e série, V, 76; H. Lüders, Beiträge zur Geschichte und Géographie von Ostturkeslan, 1930, 29 sqq.). Stein identifie Mastūd̲j̲ avec le territoire de Čüwei du S̲h̲ang-mi qui fut visité par le pèlerin chinois Wu-K’ung au VIIIe siècle de J.-C. ( Ancienl Kholan, Oxford 1907, 15-16 n.; l…

Bāra

(857 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, Sayyids, descendants de Sayyid Abū l-Faraḥ de Wāsiṭ, près de Bag̲h̲dād, qui, avec ses douze fils, émigra dans l’Inde au VIIe/XIIIe s.; ils s’établirent dans quatre villages proches de Patiāla, dans le sarkār de Sirhand ( sūba de Dihlī). Les quatre principales branches de la famille étaient désignées par les noms de ces villages. Sayyid Dāwūd s’établit à Tihanpūr, Sayyid Abū l-Faḍl à Čhatbanūr ou Čhatrauri, Sayyid Abū l-Faḍāʾil à Kūndlī et Sayyid Naẓm al-dīn Ḥusayn à Jagner ou Jhajari. De cette région, ils émigrèrent par la suite dans le district de Muẓaffarnagar ( doāb de Gange-Jumna). …

Awrangābād

(237 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, ville et district de l’État de Bombay, dont la population s’élevait en 1951 à 1 179 404 habitants. Sous le règne de ʿAlāʾ al-dīn Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī, les souverains hindous de cette région du Deccan furent contraints de payer tribut aux envahisseurs musulmans. En 1347, l’Awrangābād fut annexé au royaume Bahmanī, puis, lorsque ce royaume se désagrégea, il fut rattaché au sultanat Niẓām S̲h̲āhī d’Aḥmadnagar. Malik ʿAmbar, ministre abyssin remarquable, défendit avec acharnement l’État d’Aḥmadnagar contre …

Rādhanpūr

(357 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, ancien État princier gouverné par un nawwāb [ q.v.], qui, dans l’Inde britannique, se trouvait dans l’Agency de Pālanpūr [ q.v.] de la province de Bombay, et appartient aujourd’hui à l’État du Gud̲j̲arāt de l’Union Indienne. Rādhanpūr est également le nom de sa capitale (23° 49’ N., 71° 39’ E.), à 90 km au Sud-ouest de Pālanpūr et à l’Est du Rann de Cutch. Les souverains de Rādhanpūr font remonter leur origine à un aventurier musulman qui arriva dans l’Inde, venant d’Iṣfahān, vers le milieu du XIe/XVIIe siècle. Ses descendants devinrent fawd̲j̲ārs et fermiers de l’impôt dans la provi…

Bād̲j̲awr

(266 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, région montagneuse du Pākistān occidental; elle fait partie de l’ensemble politique formé par les anciens États du Dīr, du Swāt et du Čītrāl dans la province de Pes̲h̲āwar. Elle est limitée au Nord par le Dīr, à l’Est par le Dīr et le Swāt, au Sud-est et au Sud par les territoires de Utmān Ḵh̲ēl et de Moḥmund, et à l’Ouest par l’Afg̲h̲ānistān. Elle a une superficie d’environ 10 000 km2, et est traversée par cinq vallées : Čahārmung, Bābūkara, Watalai, Rūd et Sūr Kamar. En l’absence de tout recensement, on en a estimé la population approximativement à 100 000 hab.…

Doʾāb

(175 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(p.), «deux eaux», correspondant au grec μεσοποταμία, est dans le sous-continent indo- pakistanais généralement appliqué aux terres situées entre deux rivières confluentes, et plus particulièrement à la fertile plaine qui s’étend entre le Ḏj̲amnā [ q.v.] et le Gange dans l’Uttar Prades̲h̲. Les langues de terre allongées entre les cinq cours d’eau du Pand̲j̲āb sont aussi connues sous le nom de doʾāb. Entre le Satlad̲j̲ et le Beʾās s’étend le doʾāb de Bist; entre le Beʾās et le Rāwī, le doʾāb de Bārī; entre le Rāwī et le Čēnāb, le doʾāb de Rečnā;. entre le Čēnāb et le Ḏj̲helam, le doʾāb de Čad̲j…

Dhārwār

(322 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, district de la division de Belgaum dans l’État indien de Mysore. Il a une superficie de 14 270 km2 (5305 milles carrés) et une population de 1 575 386 habitants dont 15% de Musulmans (recensement de 1951). Jusqu’au VIIe/XIIIe siècle, il demeura à l’abri des envahisseurs musulmans. Au siècle suivant, il fit partie du vaste empire de Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ. Après le déclin du pouvoir des Tug̲h̲luḳs, ¶ sa situation géographique — en particulier sa proximité du Dōʾāb de Rāyčūr — en fit une pomme de discorde entre le royaume bahmanide du Deccan et l’empire hindou de…

Afrīdī

(1,687 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, nom d’une grande et puissante tribu Pathān comprenant un nombre de combattants évalué à 50.000, à la frontière Nord-Ouest du Pakistan. Le territoire occupé par les Afrīdīs s’étend des contreforts orientaux du Safīd Kūh à travers la moitié Nord de Tirāh et la passe de Khyber (Ḵh̲aybar [ q.v.]) jusqu’aux régions Ouest et Sud du district de Pes̲h̲āwar. Il est limité à l’Est par les régions colonisées du Pakistan, au Nord par le territoire des Mohmunds, à l’Ouest par les S̲h̲inwārīs, et au Sud par les tribus Ōrakzay et Bangas̲h̲. Les Afrīdīs se …

Nūr Ḏj̲ahān

(446 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
nom donné à Mihr al-Nisāʾ, la fameuse épouse de l’empereur mug̲h̲al Ḏj̲ahāngīr. Elle naquit à Ḳandahār en 985/1577, alors que son père G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ Beg émigrait de Perse en Hindustān ( Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ, I, 129). Sous le règne d’Akbar, elle fut mariée à ʿAlī Ḳulī Beg, un Persan qui avait rendu de distingués services militaires à l’empereur et qui, à cause de sa bravoure, était surnommé S̲h̲īr Afg̲h̲ān. L’assassinat de son premier mari demeurera toujours un sujet de controverse, les uns y voyant une répétition de l’histoire …

Rāmpur

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, ancien Etat princier musulman du Rohilk̲h̲and [ q.v.] dans l’Inde du Nord. A l’époque ¶ britannique, l’Etat était placé sous le contrôle politique du gouvernement des Provinces Unies. Dans l’Union Indienne (après 1947), Rāmpur devint un district de l’Uttar Prades̲h̲, limité au Nord par Nainī Tal, à l’Est par Bareilly, au Sud par Badāʾūn et à l’Ouest par les districts de Murādābād. Il couvre une superficie de 2 318 km2 et compte une population (1961) de 701 537 habitants; en 1931, 45% étaient musulmans. L’histoire ancienne de Rāmpur est celle du développement de la puissance des Rohillas [ q…

Bhaṭṭi

(167 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, forme en pand̲j̲ābī du mot rad̲j̲pūt Bhāti, nom d’une tribu rad̲j̲pūte largement répandue dans la zone s’étendant de Jaisalmer à la région occidentale du Pand̲j̲āb, entre Fatḥābād et Bhatnair. De nombreux membres de cette tribu, établis au Pand̲j̲āb, donnèrent leur adhésion à l’Islam. Selon une de leurs traditions, les Jādons de Jaisalmer furent amenés du Zābulistān au Pand̲j̲āb et au Rad̲j̲pūtāna, la branche fixée dans le Rad̲j̲pūtāna étant nommée Bhāti. Les références, fournies par le Čač-nāma, au roi bhaṭṭi de Ramai, dans le désert de Thar, confirment les légendes …

Ḏj̲ōd̲h̲pūr ou Mārwār

(344 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
était le plus grand des anciens États indiens de la Rajputana Agency, avec une superficie de 90 300 km2 et une population de 2 555 904 habitants (recensement de 1941). Il ne semble pas y avoir de preuves à l’appui de la légende rād̲j̲pūte selon laquelle l’État de Ḏj̲ōd̲h̲pūr fut fondé par les Rād̲j̲pūts de Kanawd̲j̲ après leur défaite aux mains de Muḥammad de G̲h̲ūr en 590/1194. Siyāhd̲j̲ī, le fondateur de la dynastie rāthōr de Ḏj̲ōd̲h̲pūr, descendait probablement des rād̲j̲ās rāthōr dont on trouve des inscriptions à Ḏj̲ōd̲h̲pūr dès le IVe/Xe s, La ville de Ḏj̲ōd̲h̲pūr date de 863/14…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān K̲h̲ān

(947 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(1844-1901), émir d’Afg̲h̲ānistān, était le fils de Afḍal Ḵh̲ān, fils aîné survivant de Dost Muhammad Ḵh̲ān, fondateur de la dynastie Barakzāy en Afg̲h̲ānistān. En 1853, il se rendit au Turkestān afghan, où son père servait comme gouverneur de Balk̲h̲. Malgré son jeune âge, il participa à une série d’opérations qui eurent pour résultat l’extension du pouvoir de Dost Muhammad sur Katag̲h̲ān, Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān et Derwāz. Dost Muhammad avait choisi comme successeur, avant sa mort en 1863, son fils S̲…

Mahsūd

(1,090 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, nom d’une tribu pafhane de la frontière Nord-ouest du Pakistan qui fut jadis l’adversaire le plus acharné de la domination britannique. Les Mahsūd habitent au cœur du Wazīristān autour de Kāniguram et sont séparés du territoire pakistanais par la région de Bhittani. Sur tous les autres côtés, ils sont bordés par les Wazīris Derwīs̲h̲ Ḵh̲ēl. On admet généralement aujourd’hui qu’ils ont abandonné leur habitat primitif des collines de Birmal en Afg̲h̲ānistān, vers la fin du VIIIe/XIVe siècle, et que, s’étendant peu à peu vers l’Est, ils occupèrent la région dans laquelle…

Buxar

(163 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, ville située sur la rive Sud du Gange dans le district de S̲h̲āhābād, de la division du Patnā, dans l’État indien de Bihār; population: 18 087 habitants (recensement de 1951). Elle semble avoir été un centre sacré dans les anciens temps, et s’appelait à l’origine Vedagarbha «le sein des Védas». Une tradition locale fait dériver le nom de la ville d’un réservoir dont le nom, ag̲h̲sar «qui efface les péchés», fut par la suite changé en bag̲h̲sar «réservoir du tigre». Ce fut à Buxar, le 23 octobre 1764, que les forces de Mīr Ḳāsim, ex-nawāb du Bengale, et S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ al-dawla, nawāb-wāzir d’Awad…

Pand̲j̲āb

(2,954 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin | Talbot, I.
(p., “land of the five rivers”), a province of the northwestern part of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. In pre-Partition British India it comprised all that part of the Indian Empire, with the exceptions of the North West Frontier Province and Kas̲h̲mīr, north of Sindh and Rād̲j̲pūtāna and west of the river D̲j̲amna. Geographically therefore it includes more than its name implies, for, in addition to the country watered by the D̲j̲helum, Čināb, Rāwī, Beās, and Satled̲j̲, it embraces the table-la…

Pand̲j̲āb

(3,123 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin | Talbot, I.
(en persan «pays des cinq rivières», province située dans le Nord-ouest du souscontinent indo-pakistanais. Avant la «partition», l’Inde britannique comprenait toute cette partie de l’empire indien, à l’exception de la province Frontière du Nord-ouest et du Kas̲h̲mīr, du Nord du Sindh et du Rād̲j̲pūtāna ainsi que l’Ouest de la Ḏj̲amna. Géographiquement, par conséquent, il renferme plus de régions que son nom ne l’implique: en effet, en plus de la région arrosée par le Ḏj̲helum, le Čināb, le Rāwī, le Beās et le Satled̲j̲, il comprend le plateau de ¶ Sirhind entre le Satled̲j̲ et la Ḏ…

Pes̲h̲āwar

(1,459 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin | Bosworth, C.E.
, a city of Muslim India, in the northwestern part of the subcontinent, now in Pakistan (lat. 34° 01′ N., long. 71° 40′ E., altitude 320 m/1,048 ft.). In modern Pākistān, it is also the name of various administrative units centred on the city (see below). The district is bounded on the east by the river Indus, which separates it from the Pand̲j̲āb and Hazāra, and on the south-east by the Nīlāb G̲h̲as̲h̲a range which shuts it off from the district of Kō…

Rāwalpindi

(355 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin | Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a city, district and division of the northern Pand̲j̲āb in Pākistān. The city lies in lat. 33° 40ʹ N. and long. 73° 08ʹ E. at an altitude of 530 m/1,750 feet. In British Indian times, it was one of the most important military stations of northern India, and is now the headquarters of the Pākistān Army, with extensive cantonments, as well as being an important commercial and industrial centre and the starting-point of the route into Kas̲h̲…

Pānīpat

(661 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin | Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of northern India (lat. 29° 24′ N., long. 76° 58′ E.) situated 86 km/57 miles north of Dihlī; it is also the name of the southernmost taḥṣīl in the Karnāl District of what was in British Indian times the province of the Pand̲j̲āb [ q.v.] but has since 1947 been in the eastern or Indian part of the divided province of the former Pand̲j̲āb, at present in Haryana province of the Indian Union. On three occasions has the fate of Hindustān been decided on the plain of Pānīpat: in 1526, when Bābur ¶ [ q.v.], the Barlās Turk, defeated Ibrāhīm Lōdī [ q.v.]; in 1556, when Akbar [ q.v.] crushed the forces …

Saʿādat ʿAlī K̲h̲ān

(599 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin | Bosworth, C.E.
, Nawāb of Awadh or Oudh (regn. 1798-1814). His brother Aṣaf al-Dawla had died in September 1797, but after a four months’ interim, Āṣaf al-Dawla’s putative son Wazīr ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān was set aside and the British governor-General Sir John Shore installed in his place Saʿādat ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, who had been living under British protection in Benares since 1776. His reign is noteworthy for the extension of British control over the Oudh territories. A treaty concluded with the late Nawāb in 1775 had placed these terri…

Nāʾib

(711 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R. | Davies, C. Collin
(a.), literally “substitute, delegate” (nomen agentis from n-w-b “to take the place of another”), the term applied generally to any person appointed as deputy of another in an official position, and more especially, in the Mamlūk and Dihlī Sulṭānates, to designate a. the deputy or lieutenant of the Sulṭān and b. the governors of the chief provinces (see also the article egypt, above, vol. ii., p. 16a). In the Mamlūk system the former, entitled nāʾ ib al-salṭana al-muʿaẓẓama wa-kāfil al-maniālik al-s̲h̲arīfa al-islāmīya, was the Vice-Sulṭān proper, who administered all the te…
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