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Sanchéz

(92 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Sanchéz, Tomás (1550 Cordoba – 19.5.1610 Granada), Jesuit (seit 1567), Moraltheologe. Seine Ehelehre (3 Bde.) wurde zum Standardwerk, obwohl seine offene und detailreiche Darstellung gerügt wurde. Modern war seine Auffassung, nicht jeder Ehevollzug bedürfe der Zeugungsabsicht. Jansenisten warfen ihm Laxismus vor. Rolf Decot Bibliography Vf. u.a.: Disputationum de sancto matrimonii sacramento …libri 10, 3 Bde., 1602–1605 Opus morale in praecepta Decalogi, 2 Bde., 1613–1621 Über S.: BCJ 7, 1896, 530–537, Suppl. Nr.2280.5266 J. Theiner, Die Entwic…

Stensen

(162 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Stensen, Nils (11.1.1638 Kopenhagen – 5.12.1686 Schwerin), studierte Sprachen, Anatomie und Mathematik in Kopenhagen, Amsterdam und Leiden. Anatomische Entdeckungen verschafften ihm früh den Ruf eines Wissenschaftlers. Seit 1666 war er Arzt am Hof von Florenz, wo er zum Katholizismus konvertierte. Auf Forschungsreisen gewonnene Erkenntnisse ließen ihn zum Mitbegründer der wiss. Geologie, Paläontologie und Kristallographie werden. Nach seiner Priesterweihe (1675) wurde er Apostolis…

Petavius

(156 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] (Petau), Dionysius (21.8.1583 Orle´ans – 11.12.1652 Paris). Franz. Jesuit (seit 1605). P. lehrte zunächst Rhetorik in Reims, La Fle´che und Paris; von 1621–1644 war er Prof. für Theol. am Colle`ge de Clermont in Paris. Bedeutend sind seine Editionen (Synesius von Cyrene, Epiphanius von Salamis) und seine Arbeiten zur Chronologie. Sein Hauptwerk »Theologica Dogmata« verweist die kirchl. Lehre auf Schrift und Tradition und trug ihm den Ruf eines Begründers der positiven Theologie ei…

Ringeisen

(87 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Ringeisen, Dominikus (6.12.1835 Unterfinnigen – 4.5.1904 Ursberg), kath. Priester (1864), Gründer der Schwesternkongregation St. Joseph (Joseph, Orden vom Heiligen Joseph) für Pflege, Erziehung und Unterricht. Im säkularisierten Kloster Ursberg schuf er 1884 eine Pflegeanstalt für Geistesschwache, sog. Taubstumme und Körperbehinderte. Weitere Anstalten: Pfaffenhofen (1885), Bildhausen (1897), Krönenbach (1901). Er gilt als ein Initiator der Behindertenhilfe in Bayern. Rolf Decot Bibliography J. Pemsel, R., 1904 F.X. Kerer, D.R. von Ursberg, 219…

Ulenberg

(158 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Ulenberg, Kaspar (2.1.1549 Lippstadt – 16.2.1615 Köln), kath. Theologe, Bibelübers. und Psalmendichter. Nach Studien in Wittenberg konvertierte er 1572 vom Luthertum zum Katholizismus. Pfarrer in Kaiserswerth (1576–1583), Köln (1583–1594), ebd. Regens am Laurentianum (1592–1611), Rektor der Universität (1610–1612). Durch viele katechetische Schriften wirkte er gegenreformatorisch. Seine Bibelübers. (Druck 1630) erlangte überarbeitet als »Mainzer Bibel« (1662) weite Verbreitung. Gr…

Walenburch

(159 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Walenburch, Adrian (23.5.1609 Rotterdam – 12.9.1669 Wiesbaden) und Peter van (1610 Rotterdam – 21.12.1675 Köln). Kontroverstheologen, Weihbfe. Nach ihrem Rechtsstudium in Angers veranlaßte Nuntius Fabio Chigi sie 1541, ins konfessionell labile Herzogtum Jülich-Berg zu gehen. Ab 1645 in Köln, wurde Adrian Domkanoniker (1647), Offizial (1648) und Weihbf. (1661). Peter wurde Auditor an der Nuntiatur. 1658 holte ihn Johann Philipp von Schönborn als Weihbf. nach Mainz. Hier bemühte er sich u…

Sylvan (Silvan), Johannes

(147 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (born in South Tyrol – Dec 23, 1572, Heidelberg), theologian, preacher, convert to Protestantism. Around 1555 he was active in Würzburg as a preacher on current controversies for the bishop. His reading of the works of Melanchthon led him to Reformation theology. In 1560 he converted to Lutheranism in Tübingen and became a pastor in Calw. Frederick III of the Electoral Palatine appointed him to serve as a Reformed pastor and superintendent in Kaiserslauten and after 1567 in Ladenb…

Ems, Congress of

(555 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] The Congress of Ems was a meeting of deputies representing the archbishops of Mainz (Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr v. Erthal), Cologne (Max Franz of Austria), Trier (Klemens Wenceslaus of Saxony), and Salzburg (H. Graf Colloredo). They met at Bad Ems from Jul 25 to Aug 25, 1786, to decide on joint action by the German metropolitans against jurisdictional interference by the Roman Curi…

Gretser, Jakob

(177 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1562, Markdorf – Jan 18, 1625, Ingolstadt), SJ (1679), a controversial theologian. He taught initially at the Jesuit gymnasia in Freiburg, Switzerland and Ingolstadt; after 1589, he was professor of philosophy, then of scholastic theology (1592–1605) and moral theology in Ingolstadt (1610–1615). After the departure of his teacher Gregory of Valencia, he was the leader of the Jesuits in Bavaria and adviser to the dukes (i.e. the Bavarian elector). He harshly persecuted all…

Thomassin, Louis

(103 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1619, Aix-en-Provence – Dec 24, 1695, Paris), Catholic theologian and canonist. He joined the Oratorians in 1633 and served as professor of theology at Saumur (1648) and Paris (1653). Removed from his teaching duties on account of doctrinal differences, after 1673 he devoted himself to historical studies, primarily applying historical methods to the study of canon law. Rolf Decot Bibliography P. Clair, Louis Thomassin, 1964 (bibl.; Fr.) F.J. Busch, Lex Christi secundum naturam, 1975 (Ger.) H.J. Sieben, Die katholische Konzilsidee von der Reformation…

Martin of Cochem

(194 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1634, Cochem – Sep 10, 1712, Waghäusel), Capuchin (1653), theologian, and popular writer. After ordination to the priesthood (1657/1658), Martin taught in the order's houses of studies, served as a pastor and a official visitor in the dioceses of Mainz (1682–1685) and Trier (1698/1699), and occasionally as a domestic missionary in Passau, Linz, and Prague. He was one of the most important writers of popular religious literature and an exponent of passion piety. His explanation of the mass ( Meßerklärung, 1695; ET: Cochem's Explanation of the Holy Sacrifi…

Stensen, Nils

(191 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] ( Jan 11, 1638, Copenhagen – Dec 5, 1686, Schwerin) studied languages, anatomy, and mathematics in Copenhagen, Amsterdam, and Leiden. His anatomical discoveries soon gained him the reputation as a scientist. In 1666 he was appointed physician to the court in Florence, where he converted to Catholicism. Discoveries during various expeditions placed him amongthe founders of scientific geology, paleontology, and crystallography. After ordination to the priesthood in 1675, he was appo…

Innocent XI, Pope

(374 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (papacy Sep 21, 1676 – Aug 12, 1689) (Benedetto Odescalchi, b. May 19, 1611, in Como). Odescalchi, made cardinal in 1645, served as legate in Ferrara from 1646 to 1650 and as bishop of Novara from 1650 to 1656. He was renowned for his exemplary lifestyle and concern for the poor. After a two-month conclave, he was unanimously elected pope in 1676, after the resistance of France, who had opposed him in 1670, was overcome. Within the church, he sought a middle way in the controversy…

Walenburch, Adrian and Peter van

(198 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Adrian: May 23, 1609, Rotterdam – Sep 12, 1669, Wiesbaden; Peter: 1610, Rotterdam – Dec 21, 1675, Cologne), theological controversialists and bishops. After completion of their legal studies in Angers, in 1641 the nuncio Fabio Chigo persuaded them to go to the confessionally unstable duchy of Jülich-Berg. Adrian went to Cologne in 1645, where he became a canon of the cathedral in 1647, officialis in 1648, and auxiliary bishop in 1661. Peter was appointed auditor of the nunciature. In 1658 Johann Philipp v. Schönborn brought him to Mainz as a…

Sirmond, Jacques

(194 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Oct 12, 1559, Riom – Oct 7, 1651, Paris), French Jesuit (1576). From 1581 to 1590 he taught in Pont-à-Mousson and Paris (where Francis of Sales was one of his students). From 1590 to 1608 he served as secretary to C. Aquaviva, the superior general of the Jesuits, in Rome, where he also worked with C. Baronius. In 1617 he was appointed rector of the Collège de Clermont in Paris. From 1637 to 1643 he was the confessor of Louis XIII. He wrote scholarly works on history and the history of dogma. He distinguished ¶ between Dionysius of Paris and Dionysius Areopagita, wrote on p…

Labbé (Labbeus), Philippe

(153 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1607, Bourges – Mar 17, 1667, Paris), French Jesuit (1623), theologian, philologist, and editor of sources pertaining to church history. After lecturing in Caen, Bourges, and Paris, Labbé worked mainly as an author. An erudite compiler with many interests (geography, chronology, patristics, Byzantine studies), he wrote more than 80 works and was regarded as one of the leading scholars of his time. His most important publication is the compilation of the acts of the counci…

Petavius, Dionysius

(168 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Petau; Aug 21, 1583, Orléans – Dec 11, 1652, Paris), French Jesuit (from 1605). Initially Petavius taught rhetoric in Reims, La Flèche, and Paris; from 1621 to 1644 he was professor of theology at the Collège de Clermont in Paris. He published significant editions of patristic texts (Synesius of Cyrene, Epiphanius of Salamis) and important studies on chronology. His major work, Theologica dogmatica, which bases the church’s teaching on Scripture and tradition, earned him a reputation as a pioneer of positive theology. He also wrote polemica…

Gregory of Valencia

(185 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Mar 1549, Medina del Campe, Castile – May 24, 1603, Naples), SJ (1565), and besides his disciple, Adam Tanner, the most important post-Tridentine theologian in Germany. He studied in Salamanca (1566–1568 and 1571/72) and Valladolid (1569–1571), and was professor of dogmatics and controversial theology in Dillingen from 1573. He was in Ingolstadt from 1575 to 1592, and in Rome from 1597 to 1602, where he defended L. de Molina in the dispute over grace. He commented on all the impo…

Francis of Borgia, Saint

(197 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Oct 28, 1510, Gandia, Spain – Oct 1, 1572, Rome), third general of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Francis came from a highly situated family of Spanish nobility (great-grandchild of Pope Alexander VI and King Ferdinand of Aragon). In 1539–43 he was viceroy of Catalonia, 1543–50 duke of Gandia. After the death of his wife (eight children), he became a Jesuit in 1546, renounced his worldly rights in 1551, became a priest, and used his fortune on behalf of the Collegium Romanum (se…

Oberthür, Franz

(303 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Aug 6, 1745, Würzburg – Aug 30, 1831, Würzburg), ordained priest in 1769; professor of dogmatics and history of dogma in Würzburg from 1773 to 1809 (temporarily removed from office in 1803 following secularization); canon at the Hauck Stift in 1774; cathedral canon in 1821; in 1829 Bavarian privy counselor. Oberthür was the author of theological handbooks and encyclopedias; he also wrote on local history and edited patristic texts. Not strikingly speculative as a thinker, he was …

Maldonado, Juan

(171 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (c. 1533, Casas de la Reina, Estremadura, Spain – Jan 5, 1583, Rome), Jesuit (1562) theologian and exegete. As a professor at the Jesuit college in Paris (1565), he turned his back on Scholasticism and developed a positive theology based on the Bible. His influence was impaired by accusations of ¶ heresy regarding the Immaculate Conception and purgatory. Despite opposition, Maldonado was very popular and successful, not least in debate with the Calvinists. In Rome he helped shape the Jesuit Ratio studiorum and was a member of the pontifical commission for the …

Raynaldi, Oderico

(91 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Reinaldus; 1595, Treviso – 1671, Rome), theologian, historian, from 1680 Oratorian, between 1650 and 1656 superior general. He continued¶ the 12-volume Annales ecclesiastici of the Oratorian C. Baronius with nine further volumes, bringing it up to 1564 (Rome, 1676f.; his ninth vol., vol. XXI of the Annales, appeared posthumously). The quality of his work is superior to that of his predecessors. Thus Catholics could put forward a work equal in value to the Protestant Magdeburg Centuries. Rolf Decot Bibliography Annales ecclesiastici, ed. G.D. Mansi, 15 vols.,…

Klesl, Melchior

(213 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Feb 19, 1552, Vienna, Austria – Sep 18, 1630, Wiener Neustadt, Austria), was reared a Protestant and converted to Catholicism under the influence of the Jesuits. He was cathedral provost and chancellor of the university in Vienna (1579), Passau official for Lower Austria (1580), administrator of the diocese of Wiener Neustadt (1588–1630), bishop of Vienna (1598/1602–1630), and cardinal (1615). From 1590, he was active under Emperor Rudolph II in the Counter-Reformation, and joine…

Ulenberg, Kaspar

(192 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jan 2, 1549, Lippstadt – Feb 16, 1615, Cologne), Catholic priest, Bible translator, and psalmist. After studying in Wittenberg, he converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism in 1572. He served as a parish priest in Kaiserswerth (1576–1583) and Cologne (1583–1594); he also taught at the Laurentianum in Cologne (1592–1611) and served as rector of the university (1610–1612). He promoted the Counter-Reformation in many catechetical works. A revised version of his Bible translation (pr…

Colloredo, Hieronymus Graf von

(307 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (May 31, 1732, Vienna – May 20, 1812, ibid.) was the last prince-archbishop of Salzburg. His family (his father, and later his brother, were imperial vice-chancellors) secured his accession to ecclesiastical positions from early on: cathedral canon in Salzburg in 1747, auditor of the Rota in Rome in 1759, bishop of Gurk by appointment of Maria Theresia in 1761. In the latter function, his administration was marked by reform-Catholic tendencies. Elected a…

Gorizia

(202 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Ger. Görz) is an archdiocese, a city and province in Friaul, Italy; mentioned after 1001 as a duchy of the reeves of the patriarchate of Aquileia. Around 1500, the duchy came into the possession of the Habsburgs. Gorizia's ecclesiastical affiliation with Venetian Aquileia led to tensions with Austria until Pope Benedict XIV, under pressure from Maria Theresia, dissolved Aquileia and established the archdioceses of Udine for the Venetian segment and Gorizia for the Austrian segmen…

Erthal, Franz Ludwig von

(168 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Sep 16, 1730, Lohr – Feb 14, 1795, Würzburg) was the pro-reform prince-bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg. Under the bishop of Würzburg, Adam Friedrich v. Seinsheim, he became president of the secular administration of the diocese in 1763. In 1767 Joseph II called him to visit the Imperial Supreme Court in Wetzlar and in 1775 the continuing Reichstag at Regensburg. …

Gregory XIII, Pope

(318 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (May 14, 1572 – Apr 10, 1586; Ugo Buoncompagni, b. Jan 7, 1502, Bologna). Professor of canon law in Bologna (1531–1539), and member of the curia from 1539, which sent him to the Council of Trent (1546; 1561–1563). He became bishop of Viesti in 1558, and cardinal and legate in Spain in 1565. Elected in 1572 with Spanish support, he became the pope of the Counter-Reformation and of Catholic reform. He promoted the consolidation of the Catholic church throughout Europe: in France (Hu…

Sanchez, Thomas

(105 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (1550, Cordoba – May 19, 1610, Granada), Jesuit (from 1567) moral theologian. His three-volume treatment of marriage became a standard work, although its open and detailed description drew censure. He anticipated the modern view that not every instance of marital intercourse need be intended for procreation. Jansenists accused him of laxism. Rolf Decot Bibliography Works include: Disputationum de sancto matrimonii sacramento... libri 10, 3 vols., 1602–1605 Opus morale in praecepta Decalogi, 2 vols., 1613–1621 On Sanchez: BCJ 7, 1896, 530–537, suppl. no.…

Montfaucon, Bernard de

(252 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jan 16, 1655, Soulage – Dec 21, 1741, Paris), Order of St. Benedict (1676), member of the Maurists (Congrégation de S. Maur), theologian and editor of patristic texts. Born into a noble family of southern France and already introduced to scholarly life as a child, he served in the military from 1672 to 1674. After joining the Benedictine congregation of the Maurists, he lived in various monasteries before coming to Paris in 1687 in order to contribute to the congregation's publications, especially the editions of the Greek church fathers ( Athanasius, 3 vols., 1698). …

Saint-Martin, Louis Claude de

(385 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jan 18, 1743, Amboise, Département Indre-et-Loire – Oct 13, 1803, Paris), French theosophist (Theosophy). After study-¶ ing law and pursuing a military career, in 1771 he got to know Martinez de Pasqualis (1715–1799) in Bordeaux, who introduced him to mystical Freemasonry (Freemasons). This group of “Martinists,” with its center in Lyon, practiced a mysticism drawn from kabbalistic sources (Kabbalah: II), in which magical and theurgic rites played a role. In his travels he encountered other myst…

Schoppe, Casper

(167 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jun 26, 1576, Pappenberg – Oct 18 1649, Padua), polymath, late Humanist, phi­lologist, controversial theologian, jurisprudent, and politician. The son of a Protestant pastor, he converted to Catholicism in Prague in 1598. In Rome from 1598 to 1607, he cultivated ties with the pope and the Curia. He was sent on several diplomatic missions in Germany and Italy on behalf of the Habsburgs, the Wittelsbachs, and the Curia. He wrote polemics against various ¶ schools of Protestantism. Around 1630, after the emperor’s victory in the Thirty Years War, Schoppe …

Ringeisen, Dominikus

(113 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1835, Unterfinnigen – May 4, 1904, Ursberg), Catholic priest (1864), founder of the St. Joseph Congregation of Sisters (Joseph, Orders of Saint) for nursing, education, and teaching. In the secularized monastery of Ursberg, Ringeisen created in 1884 an institution for the care of the mentally handicapped, the so-called deaf and dumb, and the physically disabled. Further institutions were set up at Pfaffenhofen (1885), Bildhausen (1897), and Krönenbach (1901). Ringeisen is regarded as an initiator of support for the disabled in Bavaria. Rolf Decot Bibliogra…

Canisius, Peter (Saint)

(398 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Peter Kanis until c. 1547; May 8, 1521, Nijmegen – Dec 21, 1597, Fribourg, ¶ Switzerland) contributed to the renewal of the Catholic Church after the Reformation. Residing in Cologne from 1535 onward, he became the first German Jesuit in 1543. He turned to Charles V of Germany for support against the reforming attempt of the archbishop of Cologne (Hermann of Wied). After a brief stay at the Council of Trent and the continuation of his Jesuit training in Rome …

Oberthür

(264 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Oberthür, Franz (6.8.1745 Würzburg – 30.8.1831 ebd.), Priester 1769; Prof. für Dogmatik und Dogmengesch. in Würzburg 1773–1809 (im Zuge der Säkularisation 1803 vorübergehend amtsenthoben); Kanoniker am Stift Hauck 1774; Domkapitular 1821; Bayrischer Geheimer Rat 1829. O. vf. theol. Handbücher und Enzyklopädien, lokalhist. Schriften und war Hg. von Kirchenvätertexten. Weniger spekulativ veranlagt und vom Geist der Aufklärung beeinflußt, betonte er die Humanitätsidee und das Prinzip…

Sylvan

(130 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] (Silvan), Johannes (geb. in Südtirol – 23.12.1572 Heidelberg), Theologe, Prediger, Konvertit zum Protestantismus. Um 1555 wirkt er als bfl. Kontroversprediger in Würzburg. Die Lektüre der Werke Melanchthons führte ihn zur reformatorischen Lehre. 1560 trat er in Tübingen zum Luthertum über und wurde Pfarrer in Calw. Kurfürst Friedrich III. von Kurpfalz übertrug ihm das Amt eines ref. Pfarrers und Superintendenten in Kaiserslautern und ab 1567 in Ladenburg. Er widersetzte sich der E…

Thomassin

(91 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Thomassin, Louis (25.8.1619 Aix-en-Provence – 24.12.1695 Paris), kath. Theologe, Kanonist. Er wurde Oratorianer (1633) und Theologieprof. in Saumur (1648) und Paris (1653). Wegen theol. Differenzen von der Lehre entbunden, widmete er sich ab 1673 theologiegesch. Studien, v.a. untersuchte er das Kirchenrecht mit hist. Methodik. Rolf Decot Bibliography P. Clair, L. Th., 1964 (Bibliogr.) F.J. Busch, Lex Christi secundum naturam, 1975 H.J. Sieben, Die kath. Konzilsidee von der Reformation bis zur Aufklärung, 1988, 274–305 M. Brulin, Le verbe et la voix,…

Scioppius

(163 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Scioppius, Gaspar (Kaspar Schoppe; 26.6.1576 Pappenberg – 18.10.1649 Padua), vielseitiger Späthumanist, Philologe, Kontroverstheologe, Jurist, Politiker. Aus prot. Pastorenfamilie stammend, konvertierte er 1598 in Prag zur kath. Kirche. 1598–1607 knüpfte er in Rom Beziehungen zu Papst und Kurie. Er war auf verschiedenen diplomatischen Missionen im Dienst der Habsburger, Wittelsbacher und der Kurie in Deutschland und Italien tätig. In polemischen Schriften wandte er sich gegen unte…

Raynald

(74 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] (Reinaldus), Oderich (1595 Treviso – 1671 Rom), Theologe, Historiker, seit 1680 Oratorianer, 1650–1656 Generalsuperior. Er führte die zwölfbändigen, bis 1198 reichenden »Annales ecclesiastici« des Oratorianers C. Baronius in 9 Bde. bis 1564 fort und übertraf qualitativ seine Vorgänger (Rom 1676f.; der 9. Bd.=21. Bd. der Annales erschien postum). Damit lag katholischerseits ein den Magdeburger Zenturien ebenbürtiges Werk vor. Rolf Decot Bibliography Neuausg. der Annales ecclesiastici von G.D. Mansi, 15 Bde., 1747–1756.

Saint-Martin

(377 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Saint-Martin, Louis-Claude de (18.1.1743 Amboise, Département Indre-et-Loire – 13.10.1803 Paris), franz. Theosoph (Theosophie). Nach juristischen Studien und einer militärischen Laufbahn lernte er um 1771 in Bordeaux Martinez de Pasqualis (1715–1779) kennen, der ihn ins myst. Freimaurertum (Freimaurer) einführte. In dieser Vereinigung der »Martinisten« mit Zentrum in Lyon pflegte man eine aus kabbalistischen Quellen (Kabbala: III.) gespeiste Mystik, in der magische und theurgische …

Sirmond

(157 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Sirmond, Jacques (12.10.1559 Riom – 7.10.1651 Paris). Franz. Jesuit (1576), 1581–1590 Lehrer in Pont-à-Mousson und Paris (hier war u.a. Franz von Sales sein Schüler). 1590–1608 in Rom als Sekretär des Jesuitengenerals C. Aquaviva und Mitarbeiter des C. Baronius. Seit 1617 Rektor des Collège de Clermont in Paris. Von 1637–1643 Beichtvater Ludwigs XIII. Als Gelehrter vf. er hist. und dogmengesch. Werke. Er unterschied zw. Dionysius von Paris und Dionysius Areopagita, schrieb über Pr…

Pistorius

(287 words)

Author(s): Zschoch, Hellmut | Decot, Rolf
[English Version] 1.Johannes (1502/03 Nidda – 25.1.1583 ebd.), hessischer Reformator, seit 1526 Pfarrer von Nidda, 1541–1580 zugleich Superintendent von Alsfeld. P. widmete sich lebenslang der Einführung und der Konsolidierung des reformatorischen Kirchenwesens in Hessen. 1538/39 war er an der Ausarbeitung der Ziegenhainer Zuchtordnung und der Kasseler Kirchenordnung sowie eines – vergleichsweise milden – Ratschlags zur Behandlung der hessischen Juden beteiligt. Im Auftrag des Landgrafen Philipp n…

Pistorius

(358 words)

Author(s): Schenke, Hans-Martin | Decot, Rolf
[German Version] 1. Johannes (1502/1503, Nidda – Jan 25, 1583, Nidda), Reformer in Hesse, pastor in Nidda from 1526, from 1541 to 1580 also superintendent of Alsfeld. Throughout his life, Pistorius devoted himself to introducing and consolidating the Reformation in the church of Hesse. In 1538/1539 he participated in drawing up the Ziegenhain order of discipline and the Kassel church order, as well as a proposal – comparatively benign – on how to treat the Jews in Hesse. At the behest of landgrave P…

Katholische Reform

(4,983 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf | Walther, Gerrit | Kanz, Roland
1. Begrifflichkeit Die Reaktion auf die Reformation seitens der kath. Kirche (in der Reformationszeit meist Alte Kirche genannt) setzte erst allmählich ein. Um sie zu charakterisieren, hat die Geschichtswissenschaft unterschiedliche Begriffe entwickelt. Es gibt gegenwärtig allerdings keinen Terminus, der sowohl die Reformbemühungen innerhalb der kath. Kirche während des 16. Jh.s als auch den Versuch, das verlorene politisch-gesellschaftliche Terrain zurückzugewinnen, umfassend kennzeichnet. Konkurrierende Begriffe sind K. R., Gegenreformation (= G.), kath. Kon…

Catholic Reformation

(5,118 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf | Walther, Gerrit | Kanz, Roland
1. Terminology The response of the Catholic Church (usually called the “Old Church” in the Reformation period) to the Reformation began gradually. Historians have coined various terms for it. Today there is still no term that covers both the efforts at reform within the Church during the 16th century and the attempt to win back the Church’s lost socio-political terrain. The competing terms include  Catholic Reformation,   Counter-Reformation, Catholic confessionalization, and recatholization.The reaction of the Old Church (and the states and territories that …
Date: 2019-03-20
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