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Walenburch, Adrian and Peter van

(198 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Adrian: May 23, 1609, Rotterdam – Sep 12, 1669, Wiesbaden; Peter: 1610, Rotterdam – Dec 21, 1675, Cologne), theological controversialists and bishops. After completion of their legal studies in Angers, in 1641 the nuncio Fabio Chigo persuaded them to go to the confessionally unstable duchy of Jülich-Berg. Adrian went to Cologne in 1645, where he became a canon of the cathedral in 1647, officialis in 1648, and auxiliary bishop in 1661. Pet…

Raynaldi, Oderico

(91 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Reinaldus; 1595, Treviso – 1671, Rome), theologian, historian, from 1680 Oratorian, between 1650 and 1656 superior general. He continued¶ the 12-volume Annales ecclesiastici of the Oratorian C. Baronius with nine further volume…

Francis of Borgia, Saint

(197 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Oct 28, 1510, Gandia, Spain – Oct 1, 1572, Rome), third general of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Francis came from a highly situated family of Spanish nobility (great-grandchild of Pope Alexander VI and King Ferdinand of Aragon). In 1539–43 he was viceroy of Catalonia, 1543–50 duke of Gandia. After the death of his wife (eight children), he became a Jesuit in 1546, renounced his worldly rights in 1551, became a priest, and used his fortune on behalf of the Collegium Romanum (se…

Sanchez, Thomas

(105 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (1550, Cordoba – May 19, 1610, Granada), Jesuit (from 1567) moral theologian. His three-volume treatment of marriage became a standard work, although its open and detailed description drew censure. He anticipated the modern view that not every instance of marital intercourse need be intended for procreation. Jansenists accused him of laxism. Rolf Decot Bibliography Works include: Disputationum de sancto matrimonii sacramento... libri 10, 3 vols., 1602–1605 Opus morale in praecepta Decalogi, 2 vols., 1613–1621 On Sanchez: BCJ 7, 1896, 530–537, suppl. no. 2280, 5266 J. Theiner, Die Entwicklung der Moral-Theologie zur eigenständigen Disziplin, 1969, 277–280 J. Madey, BBKL VIII, 1994, 1295f.


(358 words)

Author(s): Schenke, Hans-Martin | Decot, Rolf
[German Version] 1. Johannes (1502/1503, Nidda – Jan 25, 1583, Nidda), Reformer in Hesse, pastor in Nidda from 1526, from 1541 to 1580 also superintendent of Alsfeld. Throughout his life, Pistorius devoted himself to introducing and consolidating the Reformation in the church of Hesse. In 1538/1539 he participated in drawing up the Ziegenhain order of discipline and the Kassel church ord…

Gregory of Valencia

(185 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Mar 1549, Medina del Campe, Castile – May 24, 1603, Naples), SJ (1565), and besides his disciple, Adam Tanner, the most important post-Tridentine theologian in Germany. He studied in Salamanca (1566–1568 and 1571/72) and Valladolid (1569–1571), and was professor of dogmatics and controversial theology …

Saint-Martin, Louis Claude de

(385 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jan 18, 1743, Amboise, Département Indre-et-Loire – Oct 13, 1803, Paris), French theosophist (Theosophy). After study-¶ ing law and pursuing a military career, in 1771 he got to know Martinez de Pasqualis (1715–1799) in Bordeaux, who introduced him to mystical Freemasonry (Freemasons). This group of “Martinists,” with its center in Lyon, practiced a mysticism drawn from kabbalistic sources (Kabbalah: II), in which magical and theurgic rites played a role. In his travels he encountered other myst…

Stensen, Nils

(191 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] ( Jan 11, 1638, Copenhagen – Dec 5, 1686, Schwerin) studied languages, anatomy, and mathematics in Copenhagen, Amsterdam, and Leiden. His anatomical discoveries soon gained him the reputation as a scientist. In 1666 he was appointed physician to the court in Florence, where he converted to Catholicism. Discoveries during various expeditions placed him amongthe founders of scientific geology, paleontology, and…

Sirmond, Jacques

(194 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf

Gretser, Jakob

(177 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1562, Markdorf – Jan 18, 1625, Ingolstadt), SJ (1679), a controversial theologian. He taught initially at the Jesuit gymnasia in Freiburg, Switzerland and Ingolstadt; after 1589, he was professor of philosophy, then of scholastic theology (1592–1605) and moral theology in Ingolstadt (1610–1615). After the departure of his…

Erthal, Franz Ludwig von

(168 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Sep 16, 1730, Lohr – Feb 14, 1795, Würzburg) was the pro-reform prince-bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg. Under the bishop of Würzburg, Adam Friedrich v. Seinsheim, he became president of the secular administration of the diocese in 1763. In 1767 Joseph II called him to visit the Imperial Supreme Court in Wetzlar and in 1775 the continuing Reichstag at Regensburg. …

Ems, Congress of

(555 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] The Congress of Ems was a meeting of deputies representing the archbishops of Mainz (Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr v. Erthal), Cologne (Max Franz of Austria), Trier (Klemens Wenceslaus of Saxony), and Salzburg (H. Graf Colloredo). They met at Bad Ems from Jul 25 to Aug 25, 1786, to decide on joint action by the German metropolitans against jurisdiction…

Thomassin, Louis

(103 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1619, Aix-en-Provence – Dec 24, 1695, Paris), Catholic theologian and canonist. He joined the Oratorians in 1633 and served as professor of theology at

Schoppe, Casper

(167 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf

Maldonado, Juan

(171 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (c. 1533, Casas de la Reina, Estremadura, Spain – Jan 5, 1583, Rome), Jesuit (1562) theologian and exegete. As a professor at the Jesuit college in Paris (1565), he turned his back on Scholasticism and developed a positive theology based on the Bible. His influence was impaired by accusations of ¶ heresy regarding the Immaculate Conception and purgatory. Despite opposition, Maldonado was very popular and successful, not least in debate …

Oberthür, Franz

(303 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf

Ulenberg, Kaspar

(192 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf

Martin of Cochem

(194 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1634, Cochem – Sep 10, 1712, Waghäusel), Capuchin (1653), theologian, and popular writer. After ordination to the priesthood (1657/1658), Martin taught in the order's houses of studies, served as a pastor and a official visitor in the dioceses of Mainz (1682–1685) and Trier (1698/1699), and occasionally as a domestic missionary in Passau, Linz, and Prague. He was one of the most important writers of popular religious literature and an exponent of passion piety. His explanation of the mass ( Meßerklärung, 1695;

Montfaucon, Bernard de

(252 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jan 16, 1655, Soulage – Dec 21, 1741, Paris), Order of St. Benedict (1676), member of the Maurists (Congrégation de S. Maur), theologian and editor of patristic texts. Born into a noble family of southern France and already introduced to scholarly life as a child, he served in the military from 1672 to 1674. After joining the Benedictine congregation of the Maurists, he lived in various monasteries before coming to Paris in 1687 in order to contribute to the congregation's publications, especially the editions of the Greek church fathers (

Canisius, Peter (Saint)

(398 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Peter Kanis until c. 1547; May 8, 1521, Nijmegen – Dec 21, 1597, Fribourg, ¶ Switzerland) contributed to the renewal of the Catholic Church after the Reformation. Residing in Cologne from 1535 onward, he became the first German Jesuit in 1543. He turned to Charles V of Germany for support against the reforming attempt of the archbishop of Cologne (Hermann of Wied). After a brief stay at the Council of Trent and the continuation of his Jesuit training in Rome and Messina, he completed his doctorate in Bologna (1549) and worked on behalf of the reform of the Catholic Church in the empire: as professor in Ingolstadt (1549–1552), then in Vienna (1552–1556, where he was also cathedral preacher). His elevation to bishop of Vienna was thwarted by Ignatius of Loyola (he presided over the bishopric as administrator in 1554/1555). From 1556 to 1569, he was provincial superior in Germany, thereafter officiating in Innsbruck and, from 1580, in Fribourg, Switzerland. Canisius was entrusted with church-political tasks by emperor, pope, and bishops. In 1555, he accompanied Ferdinand I to the Diet of Augsburg (Augsburg, Peace of). He was the most important supporter of the Catholic party at the religious colloquy of Worms. During the third period of the Council of Trent (1562/1563), he spoke out in favor of authorizing the use of the communion cup. He was given the task of communicating the council's decrees to the bishops and princes in the empire. His influence was based on his literary activity, especially on his three catechisms (1555–1559, over 200 editions and translations continuing into the 19th cent.). Canisius did not devote himself to speculative theology, but to pastoral care and preaching. His scholarly refutation of the Centuriators of Magdeburg (commissioned by Pius V in 1558) proved to be a failure (only two vols.: John the Baptist, Mariology). As a writer, advisor, and correspondent, Canisius became one of the main protagonists of the renewal of the Catholic Church in the Empire. Although he did not consider it possible to come to an understanding with Protestants, he avoided polemics. Pius …

Klesl, Melchior

(213 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf


(202 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Ger. Görz) is an archdiocese, a city and province in Friaul, Italy; mentioned after 1001 as a duchy of the reeves of the patriarchate of Aquileia. Aroun…

Petavius, Dionysius

(168 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Petau; Aug 21, 1583, Orléans – Dec 11, 1652, Paris), French Jesuit (from 1605). Initially Petavius taught rhetoric in Reims, La Flèche, and Paris; from 1621 to 1644 he was professor of theology at the Collège de Clermont in Paris. He published significant editions of patristic texts (Synesius of Cyrene, Epiphanius of Salamis) and important studies on chronology. His major work, Theologica dogmatica, which bases the church’s teaching on Scripture and tradition, earned him a reputation as a pioneer of positive theology. He also wrote polemica…

Ringeisen, Dominikus

(113 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1835, Unterfinnigen – May 4, 1904, Ursberg), Catholic priest (1864), founder of the St. Joseph Congregation of Sisters (Joseph, Orders of Saint) for nursing, education, and teaching. In the secularized monastery of Ursberg, Ringeisen created in 1884 an institution for the care of the mentally handicapped, the so-called deaf and dumb, and the physically disabled. Further institutions were set up at Pfaffenhofen (1885), Bildhausen (1897), and Krönenbach (1901). Ringeisen is regarded as an initiator of support for the disabled in Bavaria. Rolf Decot Bibliogra…

Innocent XI, Pope

(374 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (papacy Sep 21, 1676 – Aug 12, 1689) (Benedetto Odescalchi, b. May 19, 1611, in Como). Odescalchi, made cardinal in 1645, served as legate in Ferrara from 1646 to 1650 and as bishop of Novara from 1650 to 1656. He was renowned for his exemplary lifestyle and concern for the poor. After a two-month conclave, he was unanimously elected pope in 1676, after the resistance of France, who had opposed him in 1670, was overcome. Within the church, he sought a middle way in the controversy over moral theology. In 1679 he condemned 65 laxist propositions in Jesuit writings; he rejected probabilism and had its opponent Tirso González de Santalla elected superior general of the Jesuits. He was sympathetic to Jansenism, but condemned the quietist M. de Molinos in 1687. Politically, Innocent found it necessary to oppose the absolutism of Louis XIV. On account of the Gallican Articles (Mar 19, 1682), he refused to confirm the episcopal candidates proposed by the king. Although unimpressed by the king's revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1684, he disapproved of the persecution of the Huguenots (I, 1), repudiated the right of foreign ambassadors to asylum in Rome, and, in the dispute over the see of Cologne, successfully backed Joseph Clemens of Bavaria against the French candidate Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg (1688). He was hardly a supporter of either King James II of England or, after the Glorious Revolution, his successor William III of Orange (1688). Innocent coordinated the defense of the European powers against the Turks (alliance between the Polish king John Sobieski and Emperor Leopold I, relief of Vienna in 1683). He promoted the Holy League of the Empire, Poland, Venice, and Russia (liberation of…

Colloredo, Hieronymus Graf von

(307 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (May 31, 1732, Vienna – May 20, 1812, ibid.) was the last prince-archbishop of Salzburg. His family (his father, and later his brother, were imperial vice-chancellors) secured his accession to ecclesiastical positions from early on: cathedral canon in Salzburg in 1747, auditor of the Rota in Rome in 1759, bishop of Gurk by appointment of Maria Theresia in 1761. In the latter function, his administration was marked by reform-Catholic tendencies. Elected a…

Gregory XIII, Pope

(318 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (May 14, 1572 – Apr 10, 1586; Ugo Buoncompagni, b. Jan 7, 1502, Bologna). Professor of canon law in Bologna (1531–1539), and member of the curia from 1539, which sent him to the Council of Trent (1546; 1561–1563). He became bishop of Viesti in 1558, and cardinal and legate in Spain in 1565. E…

Katholische Reform

(4,983 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf | Walther, Gerrit | Kanz, Roland
1. Begrifflichkeit Die Reaktion auf die Reformation seitens der kath. Kirche (in der Reformationszeit meist Alte Kirche genannt) setzte erst allmählich ein. Um sie zu charakterisieren, hat die Geschichtswissenschaft unterschiedliche Begriffe entwickelt. Es gibt gegenwärtig allerdings keinen Terminus, der sowohl die Reformbemühungen innerhalb der kath. Kirche während des 16. Jh.s als auch den Versuch, das verlorene politisch-gesellschaftliche Terrain zurückzugewinnen, umfassend kennzeichnet. Konkurrierende Begriffe sind K. R., Gegenreformation (= G.), kath. Kon…

Catholic Reformation

(5,118 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf | Walther, Gerrit | Kanz, Roland
1. Terminology The response of the Catholic Church (usually called the “Old Church” in the Reformation period) to the Reformation began gradually. Historians have coined various terms for it. Today there is still no term that covers both the efforts at reform within the Church during the 16th century and the attempt to win back the Church’s lost socio-political terrain. The competing terms include  Catholic Reformation,   Counter-Reformation, Catholic confessionalization, and recatholization.The reaction of the Old Church (and the states and territories that …
Date: 2019-10-14


(159 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Walenburch, Adrian (23.5.1609 Rotterdam – 12.9.1669 Wiesbaden) und Peter van (1610 Rotterdam – 21.12.1675 Köln). Kontroverstheologen, Weihbfe. Nach ihrem Rechtsstudium in Angers veranlaßte Nuntius Fabio Chigi sie 1541, ins konfessionell labile Herzogtum Jülich-Berg zu gehen. Ab 1645 in Köln, wurde Adrian Domkanoniker (1647), Offizial (1648) und Weihbf. (1661). Peter wurde Auditor an der Nuntiatur. 1658 holte ihn Johann Philipp von Schönborn als Weihbf. nach Mainz. Hier bemühte er sich u…


(162 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Stensen, Nils (11.1.1638 Kopenhagen – 5.12.1686 Schwerin), studierte Sprachen, Anatomie und Mathematik in Kopenhagen, Amsterdam und Leiden. Anatomische Entdeckungen verschafften ihm früh den Ruf eines Wissenschaftlers. Seit 1666 war er Arzt am Hof von Florenz, wo er zum Katholizismus konvertierte. Auf Forschungsreisen gewonnene Erkenntnisse ließen ihn zum Mitbegründer der wiss. Geologie, Paläontologie und…


(74 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] (Reinaldus), Oderich (1595 Treviso – 1671 Rom), Theologe, Historiker, seit 1680 Oratorianer, 1650–1656 Generalsuperior. Er führte die zwölfbändigen, bis 1198 reichenden »Annales ecclesiastici« des Oratorianers C. Baronius in 9 Bde. bis 1564 fort und übertraf qualitativ seine Vorgänger (Rom 1676f.; der 9. Bd.=21. Bd. der Annales erschien postum). Damit lag katholischerseits ein den Magdeburger Zenturien ebenbürtiges Werk vor. …


(163 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Scioppius, Gaspar (Kaspar Schoppe; 26.6.1576 Pappenberg – 18.10.1649 Padua), vielseitiger Späthumanist, Philologe, Kontroverstheologe, Jurist, Politiker. Aus prot. Pastorenfamilie stammend, konvertierte er 1598 in Prag zur kath. Kirche. 1598–1607 knüpfte er in Rom Beziehungen zu Papst und Kurie.…


(157 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Sirmond, Jacques (12.10.1559 Riom – 7.10.1651 Paris). Franz. Jesuit (1576), 1581–1590 Lehrer in Pont-à-Mousson und Paris (hier war u.a. Franz von Sales sein Schüler). 1590–1608 in Rom als Sekretär des Jesuitengenerals C. Aquaviva und Mitarbeiter des C. Baronius. Seit 1617 Rektor des Collèg…


(130 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] (Silvan), Johannes (geb. in Südtirol – 23.12.1572 Heidelberg), Theologe, Prediger, Konvertit zum Protestantismus. Um 1555 wirkt er als bfl. Kontroversprediger in Würzburg. Die Lektüre der Werke Melanchthons führte ihn zur reformatorischen Lehre. 1560 trat er in Tübingen zum Luthertum über und wurde Pfarrer in Calw. Kurfürst Friedrich III. von Kurpfalz übertrug ihm das Amt eines ref. Pfarrers und Superintendenten in Kaiserslautern und ab 1567 in Ladenburg. E…


(91 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Thomassin, Louis (25.8.1619 Aix-en-Provence – 24.12.1695 Paris), kath. Theologe, Kanonist. Er wurde Oratorianer (1633) und Theologieprof. in Saumur (1648) und Paris (1653). Wegen theol. Differenzen von der Lehre entbunden, widmete er sich ab 1673 theologiegesch. Studien, v.a. untersuchte er das Kirchenrecht mit hist. Methodik.…


(92 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Sanchéz, Tomás (1550 Cordoba – 19.5.1610 Granada), Jesuit (seit 1567), Moraltheologe. Seine Ehelehre (3 Bde.) wurde zum Standardwerk, obwohl seine offene und detailreiche Darstellung gerügt wurde. Modern war seine Auffassung, nicht jeder Ehevollzug bedürfe der Zeugungsabsicht. Jansenisten warfen ihm Laxismus vor. Rolf Decot Bibliography Vf. u.a.: Disputationum de sancto matrimonii sacramento …libri 10, 3 Bde., 1602–1605 Opus morale in praecepta Decalogi, 2 Bde., 1613–1621 Über S.: BCJ 7, 1896, 5…


(264 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Oberthür, Franz (6.8.1745 Würzburg – 30.8.1831 ebd.), Priester 1769; Prof. für Dogmatik und Dogmengesch. in Würzburg 1773–1809 (im Zuge der Säkularisation 1803 vorübergehend amtsenthoben); Kanoniker am Stift Hauck 1774; Domkapitular 1821; Bayrischer Geheimer Rat 1829. O. vf. theol. Handbücher und Enzyklopädien, lokalhist. Schriften und war Hg. von Kirchenvätertexten. Weniger spekulativ veranlagt und vom Geist der Aufklärung be…


(377 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Saint-Martin, Louis-Claude de (18.1.1743 Amboise, Département Indre-et-Loire – 13.10.1803 Paris), franz. Theosoph (Theosophie). Nach juristischen Studien und einer militärischen Laufbahn lernte er um 1771 in Bordeaux Martinez de Pasqualis (1715–1779) kennen, der ihn ins myst. Freimaurertum (Freimaurer) einführte. In dieser Vereinigung der »Martinisten« mit Zentrum in Lyon pflegte man eine aus kab…


(287 words)

Author(s): Zschoch, Hellmut | Decot, Rolf
[English Version] 1.Johannes (1502/03 Nidda – 25.1.1583 ebd.), hessischer Reformator, seit 1526 Pfarrer von Nidda, 1541–1580 zugleich Superintendent von Alsfeld. P. widmete sich lebenslang der Einführung und der Konsolidierung des reformatorischen Kirchenwesens in Hessen. 1538/39 war er an der Ausarbeitung der Ziegenhainer Zuchtordnung und der Kasseler Kirchenordnung sowie eines …


(87 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Ringeisen, Dominikus (6.12.1835 Unterfinnigen – 4.5.1904 Ursberg), kath. Priester (1864), Gründer der Schwesternkongregation St. Joseph (Joseph, Orden vom Heiligen Joseph) für Pflege, Erziehung und Unterricht. Im säkularisierten Kloster Ursberg schuf er 1884 eine Pflegeanstalt für Geistesschwache, sog. Taubstumme und Körperbehinderte. Weitere Anstalten: Pfaffenhofen (1885), Bildhausen (1897), Krönenbach (1901). Er gilt als ein Initiator der Behindertenhilfe in Bayern.…


(158 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Ulenberg, Kaspar (2.1.1549 Lippstadt – 16.2.1615 Köln), kath. Theologe, Bibelübers. und Psalmendichter. Nach Studien in Wittenberg konvertierte er 1572 vom Luthertum zum Katholizismus. Pfarrer in Kaiserswerth (1576–1583), Köln (1583–1594), ebd. Regens am Laurentianum (1592–1611), Rektor der Universität (1610–1612). Durch viele katechetische Schriften wirkte er gegenreformatorisch. Seine Bibelübers. (Druck 1630) erlangte ü…


(156 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] (Petau), Dionysius (21.8.1583 Orle´ans – 11.12.1652 Paris). Franz. Jesuit (seit 1605). P. lehrte zunächst Rhetorik in Reims, La Fle´che und Paris; von 1621–1644 war er Prof. für Theol. am Colle`ge de Clermont in Paris. Bedeutend sind seine Editionen (Synesius von Cyrene, Epiphanius von Salamis) und seine Arbeiten zur Chronologie. Sein Hauptwerk »Theologica Dogmata« verweist die kirchl. Lehre auf Schrift und Tradition und trug ihm den Ruf eines Begründers der p…
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