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Vocation

(5,411 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias | Klöcker, Michael | Ulrich, Hans G. | Sprondel, Walter M. | Drehsen, Volker | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology No term equivalent to vocation is found in classical Greek and Latin. An officium was exercised by virtue of a preexisting status, usually by birth. Trades (including medicine) fulfilled the conditions of a regular vocation (τέχνη/ téchnē), but had no self-awareness reflected in terminology. In the New Testament, κλῆσις/ klḗsis mostly refers to the “calling” of a Christian (1 Cor 7:20); in the national church of Late Antiquity, it referred primarily to the call to the religious life ( vocatio) in contrast to lay status. In Middle High German mys…

Bezzel, Hermann Theodor Friedrich Ernst

(234 words)

Author(s): Drehsen, Volker
[German Version] (May 18, 1861, Wald, Altmühltal – Jun 8, 1917, Munich). From 1879 to 1883, he studied classical philology and Protestant theology in Erlangen; he first became an assistant, then a teacher of religion at the “Neues Gymnasium” in Regensburg, while also officiating as an inspector and transforming the Alumneum into a model educational institution…

Anniversaries

(310 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg | Drehsen, Volker
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies Annually recurring (anniversary is derived from annus and verto) feasts play a central role in the chronological organization of a society: they govern the social perception of the time unit “year”; weekly or monthly rhythms can influence the precise scheduling (Calendar; Roman birthday …

Achelis

(287 words)

Author(s): Drehsen, Volker | Bizer, Christoph
[German Version] 1. Ernst Christian (Jan 13, 1838, Bremen – Apr 10, 1912, Marburg). Studied theology in Heidelberg (1857–1859) and Halle (1860); served as a Reformed curate in Arsten and pastor in Hastedt (1862) and Wuppertal-Unterbarmen (1875); 1882–1911 as professor of practical theology at Marburg. Achelis first made his mark as a biblical homiletician and as an …

Working Class Culture

(566 words)

Author(s): Drehsen, Volker
[German Version] Working-class culture is a culture specific to a social class or stratum; its cultural objectifications have been handed down over generation and socialized supra-individually as a reflection of shared conditions of life and work. The emergence of workers’ associations in the revolutionary years 1848/1849 marked the beginnings of a working-class culture; by the 1890s, it was already presenting a varied and complex picture, both organizationally and programmatically. During the Wei…