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Ibn Abī Zamanayn

(175 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĪsā al-Murrī , Andalusian poet and particularly jurist, born at Elvira in 324/936, died in the same town in 399/1009. The few verses of his which we have are of a somewhat religious nature and show a rather pessimistic attitude and a leaning to asceticism which is expressed in his Ḥayāt al-ḳulūb . However, he is principally known as an independent Mālikī jurist and author of several works, in particular a commentary on the Muwaṭṭaʾ of Mālik, a summary of Saḥnūn’s Mudawwana , a Kitāb Aḥwāl al-sunna and a formulary which has …

Yazīd b. Zurayʿ

(93 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, Abū Muʿāwiya al-Baṣrī, traditionist of Baṣra, b. 101/720 and d. in Baṣra S̲h̲awwāl 182/Nov.-Dec. 798. His father had been governor of al-Ubulla [ q.v.], presumably under the later Umayyads. He is described as the outstanding muḥaddit̲h̲ of Baṣra in his time, a t̲h̲iḳa and ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲a , and was the teacher of the historian and biographer K̲h̲alīfa b. K̲h̲ayyāṭ [see ibn k̲h̲ayyāṭ ]. Ibn Saʿd says that Yazīd was a supporter of the ʿUt̲h̲māniyya [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn Saʿd, vii/2, 44 Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahd̲h̲īb, xi, 325-8 Ziriklī, Aʿlām 2, ix, 235.

Ibn G̲h̲ānim

(222 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿIzz al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Salām b. Aḥmad b. G̲h̲ānim al-Maḳdisī al-Wāʿiẓ , author of works on mysticism or edification, of whose life little is known. He is said to have died in 678/1279. The best-known of his works is the Kas̲h̲f al-asrār , ʿan ( al-) ḥikam ( al-mūdaʿa fī ) al-ṭuyūr wa ’l-azhār , published and translated by Garcin de Tassy, Les oiseaux et les fleurs, Paris 1821 (tr. reprinted in 1876 in Allégories , récits poétiques , etc.; German tr. Peiper, Stimmen aus dem Morgenlande , Hirschberg 1850; lith. text, Cairo 1275, 1280; Būlāḳ ed. 1270, 1290; Cairo…


(192 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “chain”, a term used in the terminology of Ṣūfism and the Ṣūfī orders ( ṭuruḳ ) for a continuous chain of spiritual descent, a kind of mystical isnād [ q.v.]. This connected the head of an order, the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ or pīr , with a person regarded as the order’s founder and back to the Prophet. These ¶ persons might stem from early Islam, such as the Yemeni contemporary of the Prophet, Uways al-Ḳaranī (actually, not initiated directiy but after the Prophet’s death, in a dream), and the Patriarchal Caliphs, especially Abū Bakr, ʿUmar and ʿAlī…


(157 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Mahdī al-Iṣfahānī al-Ṭabarī , rāwī of the 3rd/9th century who was also a poet and man of letters. He was the teacher of Hārūn, the son of ʿAlī b. ʿAlī b. Yaḥyā al-Munad̲j̲d̲j̲im, and transmitted historical and literary traditions, and especially on the authority of al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ. He was in contact with Badr al-Muʿtaḍidī [ q.v. in Suppl.] and exchanged verses with Ibn al-Muʿtazz. His knowledge of adab led him to compose several works, amongst which are cited a Kitāb al-K̲h̲iṣāl , a collection of literary traditions, maxims, proverbs and poetry, a K. al-Aʿyād wa ’l-nawāriz

Meḥmed ʿAṭāʾ Bey

(121 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, (1856-1919), Ottoman scholar, journalist, and public official. After the revolution of 1908 he became a member of the Financial Reform Committee and was for one week Minister of Finance. He published many articles in journals and periodicals, under the names of Mefk̲h̲ari and ʿAtāʾ, and also produced a literary anthology called Iḳtiṭāf , which was extensively used as a school text-book. His most important undertaking was the Turkish translation of Hammer’s History of the Ottoman Empire. This version, based on the French tra…


(160 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Tilang , a region of the mediaeval Deccan, i.e. South India. The name comes from telingā , trilingā , referring to the three lingams of Śīva, the region being noted in ancient India for three famous temples there dedicated to the godhead. It lay in the northeastern part of what later became Ḥaydarābād State and the adjacent part of Madras, extending to the shores of the Bay of Bengal and bounded on the northeast by the Godivari river, beyond which lay the other Hindu kingdoms of Kalinga and Orissa. Telingāna figures frequently in accounts of the K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī and then Tug̲h̲luḳī Dih…


(953 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) or Farwa (pl. firāʾ ), ‘a fur; a garment made of, or trimmed with, fur.’ Although farwa can mean also a cloak of camel-hair, it is likely that when this term is encountered in ancient poetry it refers to sheepskins with the wool left on (what in Morocco are called haydūra ), used as carpets, to cover seats, or for protection against the cold; the farwa which Abū Bakr had with him and which he spread on the ground in the cave for the Prophet to rest on (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, v, 82) was presumably a sheepskin. The wearing of costly furs was introduced only after th…


(139 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t., from Persian pand̲j̲a “palm of the hand”), a term of Ottoman Turkish diplomatic. It was a mark, somewhat resembling an open hand and extended fingers, affixed (on either of the left- or right-hand margins or at the foot of the scroll) to documents, such as fermāns [see farmān ] and buyuruldus [ q.v.], issued from the Ottoman chancery by higher officials such as viziers, beglerbegs and sand̲j̲aḳ begs . (Ed.) Bibliography F. Kraelitz-Greifenhorst, Studien zur osmanische Urkundenlehre. 1. Die Handfeste ( Penče) der osmanischen Wesire, in MOG, ii (1923-6), 257 ff. İ.H. Uzunçarşili, Tuğr…


(256 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz , the preferred disciple of Ahmad b. Ḥanbal [ q.v.], who, it is said, appreciated al-Marwazī’s piety and virtues. His mother was originally from Marw al-Rūd̲h̲. whence his nisba , whilst his father was a K̲h̲wārazmian. Hardly any of the events of his life are known, in as much as he seems to have lived within his master’s shadow, although he is depicted as once setting out on an expedition in the midst of a crowd of admirers. The biographical notices devoted to him stress Abū Bakr al-Marwazī’s role in the transmission of ḥadīt̲h̲s…


(25 words)

Author(s): Ed.
[see d̲j̲ināḥ ]. The name, commonly believed to be from Arabic d̲j̲anāḥ , is in fact from jheeṇā , Gujerati for “thin”. (Ed.)

Ibn ʿAzzūz, called Sīdī Ballā

(262 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳuras̲h̲i al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī al-Marrākus̲h̲ī , a cobbler of Marrakesh to whom thaumaturgic gifts were attributed and who died in an odour of sanctity in 1204/1789. His tomb, situated in his own residence at Bāb Aylān, has been continuously visited because of its reputation of curing the sick. Although he had not received a very advanced education, Ibn ʿAzzūz nevertheless succeeded in leaving behind an abundant body of works, dealing mainly with mysticism a…


(1,261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “knowledge”, the opposite of d̲j̲ahl “ignorance”, is connected, on the one hand, with ḥilm [ q.v.], and on the other hand with a number of terms a more precise definition of which will be found in the relevant articles: maʿrifa , fiḳh , ḥikma , s̲h̲uʿūr ; the most frequent correlative of ʿilm is however maʿrifa. The verb ʿalima is used in the Ḳurʾān both in the perfect and in the imperfect, and also in the imperative, with the meaning of “to know”, but in the imperative and in the perfect it seems often to mean basically “to learn” (without effort, the fifth form taʿallama

Raʾs (al-) Tannūra

(161 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a cape in eastern Saudi Arabia on the Persian Gulf, in lat. 26° 40ʹ N., 50° 13ʹ E., north of al-Ḳaṭīf [ q.v.]. The word tannūr occurs in Kurʾān, XI, 42, and XXIII, 27, in the story of Noah, meaning “oven”. It also indicates any place from which water pours forth (Lane, Lexicon , s.v.). In July 1933 King ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz gave the concession for drilling oil in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia to the Standard Oil Company of California. The first consignment of Saudi oil was sent away from Raʾs Tannūra in 1939. Its refinery is connected by a pipeline with the Dammām field, about 60 km/37 miles away. (Ed.) Bibl…


(348 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, (i) name of a Kurdish tiibe, who from ancient times have inhabited the practically inaccessible mountain districts south and east of Lake Van, a region called after them Hakkāriyya by Arab geographers and historians [see kurds ], and hence (2) the name of the extreme south-east vilâyet of the modern Turkish republic (modern name: Hakkâri), population (1960) 67,766 (the most sparsely populated area of Turkey, with a density of only 7 persons per sq. km.); the chief town is Čölemerik [ q.v.]. Named by Yāḳūt ( Muʿd̲j̲am , s.v.) as a town, district and some vill…

Ibn Zurʿa

(643 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAlī ʿĪsā b. Isḥāḳ b. Zurʿa , Jacobite Christian philosopher, apologist and translator, born at Bag̲h̲dād in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 331/August 943, d. on 6 S̲h̲aʿbān 398/16 April 1008 (the respective dates of 371/981 and 448/1056 given by Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa should not be accepted, since Ibn Zurʿa is mentioned by Ibn al-Nadīm (circa 377/987), and Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa himself speaks of his relations with Yaḥyā b. ʿAdī, d. 364/975). He studied literature, physics, mathematics and then philosophy under the direction of Yaḥyā b. ʿAdī [ q.v.]; he seems also to have studied medicine, since…

Iskandar Ag̲h̲a

(309 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Yaʿḳūb b. Abkār , an Armenian of Beirut, better known by the name abkaryus (d. 1885). Becoming devoted to the study of Arabic literature, he endeavoured to provide his readers with anthologies based upon works still unpublished and thereby rendered great service to orientalism in the 19th century. His best known work is the Nihāyat al-arab fī ak̲h̲bār al-ʿArab (Marseilies 1852; revised ed. under the title Tazyīn Nihāyat al-arab , Beirut 1867). In Beirut he also edited (1864, 1881) the Dīwān of ʿAntara ( Munyat al-nafs fī as̲h̲ʿār ʿAntar ʿAbs ), and published in the same town Rawḍat al-ada…

Ibn al-S̲h̲ad̲j̲arī al-Bag̲h̲dādī

(250 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Saʿādāt Hibat Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Ḥamza , a descendant of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (he is thus called al-S̲h̲arīf al-Ḥasanī al-ʿAlawī), was a grammarian and poet of Bag̲h̲dād, born in Ramaḍān 450/November 1058. After making the traditional studies under the direction of numerous teachers (see how, at the end of his Nuzha , Ibn al-Anbārī [ q.v.], who was his pupil, traced back his grammatical knowledge to ʿAlī through an unbroken line of teachers), he taught grammar for 70 years. At the same time he was nāʾib of the naḳīb [ q.v.] of the Ṭālibīs in al-Kark̲h̲, where he lived. He d…

Aḥmed Ḥilmī

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, known as S̲h̲ehbenderzāde, a Turkish journalist who first achieved prominence after the revolution of 1908, when he returned to ¶ Istanbul from exile in Fezzan, and started a periodical called Ittiḥād-i Islām . He also contributed to Iḳdām , Taṣwīr-i Efkār , and, later, the weekly Ḥikmet [see d̲j̲arīda , iii], and wrote a considerable number of books, some of which were published. These include a history of Islam and books on the Sanūsī order and on Ibrahim Güls̲h̲anī [ qq.v.]. He died in 1913. (Ed.) Bibliography Babinger, 397 ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ müʾellifleri, ii, 156-7.


(349 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name by which the Arab historians designated the town of Narbonne. Reached by the early Muslim expeditions, it was taken in 96/715 under ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr, was probably then lost or abandoned, and was retaken in 100/719 by al-Samḥ b. Mālik al-Ḵh̲awlānī. In 116/734, two years after the battle of Poitiers [see balāṭ al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ], the Duke of Provence concluded a treaty with the governor of Narbonne, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, whereby the latter was allowed to occupy a certain number of places in the valley of the Rhône, in order to pr…


(1,037 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or k̲h̲atmiyya , the dervish order or ṭarīḳa founded by Muḥammad ʿUt̲h̲mān al-Mīrg̲h̲anī, more commonly called the K̲h̲atmiyya from its founder’s claim that it is the seal ( k̲h̲atm ) of all ṭarīḳas . The nisba of the founder does not appear in such works as al-Samʿānī’s K. al-Ansāb or al-Suyūṭī’s Lubb al-albāb , but may be derived from the place-name Marg̲h̲an in Ghūr, for family traditions attest to a long residence in Central Asia. The prefixed A- is a Western form due to a supposed derivation from al-amīr al-g̲h̲anī . Towards the end of the 18th century, the family, after a short …

Ibn ʿĀmir

(217 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿUmar ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĀmir al-Yaḥṣubī , “reader” of the Ḳurʾān whose ḳirāʾa [ q.v.] is counted among the seven canonical “readings”. Of south Arabian origin, he belonged to the first class of the Tābiʿūn [ q.v.], his guarantors being ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān, Abu ’l-Dardāʾ [ q.v.] and other less famous Companions. He settled in Damascus, where he was appointed ḳāḍī , by al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik and chief of police by Yazīd b. al-Walīd and Ibrāhīm b. al-Walīd; his “reading” was adopted by the inhabitants of Damascus. He died in 118/736…


(455 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a), major, of full age; bulūg̲h̲ , puberty, majority; opp. ṣag̲h̲īr , minor, ṣabī , boy, ¶ ṣug̲h̲r , minority. Majority in Islamic law is, generally speaking, determined by physical maturity in either sex (the S̲h̲āfiʿīs explicitly lay down a minimum limit of nine years); should physical maturity not manifest itself, majority is presumed at a certain age: fifteen years according to the Ḥanafīs, S̲h̲āfiʿīs and Ḥanbalīs, eighteen years according to the Mālikīs (various other opinions are ascr…


(326 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), term employed in al-Andalus to denote a fortified enclosure, a bastion constructed on the coast to deter enemy attacks from the sea. This term sometimes served as a substitute for ribāṭ [ q.v.], a term which no longer extended to the concentration point occupied by combatants in a holy war, but was almost reduced to the sense of d̲j̲ihād [ q.v.] or even replaced g̲h̲āra “sudden attack, raid”. In a rābiṭa , “volunteers, who were periodically relieved, maintained a vigilant watch, while practising spiritual exercises and striving to lead an…

K̲h̲osrew Pas̲h̲a

(1,283 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Meḥmed (?-1271/1855), Ottoman Grand Vizier, educated in the Palace and raised to the post of head Čuk̲h̲adār on the accession of Ṣelīm III [ q.v.] in 1203/1789. He entered the service of Küčüḳ Ḥūseyn Pas̲h̲a, a protagonist of military and naval reform, who became Admiral ( Ḳapudan-i deryā ) in 1206/1792. In 1215/1801 K̲h̲osrew sailed with the fleet to Egypt, where he commanded a force of 6,000 and co-operated with the British in the recapture of Ras̲h̲īd and the defeat of French forces. In recognition of his services he was soon afterwards appointed wālī of Egypt. In Egypt he attempted to …


(1,031 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Iranian dynasty, for the most part mythical, which owes its name to the title of kavi (see Gr. I. Ph., ii, index s.v.) > Pahlavi kay (pl. kayān , or in Arabic, akyān ) born by several persons cited, with some variants, in both the religious and the national tradition. A. Christensen has devoted to the dynasty a monograph, Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, to which reference should be made for all the problems raised in regard to ancient Iran. The main source for all the Islamic historians and writers concerned with the dynasty is the Kitāb Siyar mulūk al-ʿAd̲j̲am , the Ar…


(209 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl D̲j̲aʿfar b. Maḥmūd , official in the ʿAbbāsid administration and the first vizier of al-Muʿtazz (251/866); he held this post for only a short time, but the Caliph was obliged to give in to Turkish pressure and reinstate him in 255/869. He kept the post at the beginning of al-Muhtadī’s caliphate but real power was in the hands of Ṣāʿid b. Mak̲h̲lad [ q.v.]. Though al-Ḥuṣrī ( Zahr , 873) lets it be understood that al-Iskāfī was friendly with al-Muʿ-tazz before the latter acceded to the caliphate, G̲h̲ars al-Niʿma ( Hafawāt , 273) maintains that he was i…

Ibn al-Sikkīt

(621 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Yūsuf Yaʿḳūb b. Isḥāḳ , a celebrated Arabic philologian and lexicographer, came from a family who were natives of Dawraḳ, in K̲h̲ūzistān, but apparently he was born in Bag̲h̲dād in about 186/802. His father, nicknamed al-Sikkit (the Taciturn), is reputed to have been an expert in poetry and lexicography; it was he who started his son’s education, which was later continued under the direction of Abū ʿAmr al-S̲h̲aybānī, al-Farrāʾ, Ibn al-Aʿrābī and other famous teachers; like…

K̲h̲alīfa b. Abi ’l-Maḥāsin

(178 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-ḥalabī , Arab physician who came originally from Aleppo, and was possibly related to the family of Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa [ q.v.]. The biographical details concerning him are fairly sparse, but it is known that he wrote, probably between 654 and 674/1256-75, a work on ophthalmology called al-Kāfī fi ’l-kuḥl (or fi ’l-ṭibb ). In this he gives a concise sketch of the history of ophthalmology among the Arabs and deals with the anatomy, physiology and hygiene of the eyes, citing the medicaments used for treating eye disorders, and d…


(369 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( Nefza ), the name of a Berber tribe (ethnic: Nafzī) belonging to the group which the mediaeval genealogists and historians mention under the name of Butr [ q.v.]. It had spread out over a large part of Barbary, between Ifrīḳiya [ q.v.] and Fās, passing through the region of Constantine, Oran, Tlemcen and the Rīf. In contemporary Tunisia, to the east of the massif of Kroumirie [see k̲h̲umayr ], there extends the country of the Nafzas, a fertile region fringed with woodlands abounding in game. Near the D̲j̲abal al-Abyaḍ, at ca 150 km/96 miles to the west of Tunis by road and 140 km/90…

Abu ’l-Asad al-Ḥimmānī

(385 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nubāta b. ʿabd allāh , minor poet of the ʿAbbāsid period, originally from Dīnawar. His talent was only moderate, and it was ʿAllawayh/ʿAllūya who rescued him from oblivion, since this singer, the poet’s friend, introduced him to the great men of the age and, above all, set some of his verses to music, so that they enjoyed a great success. His career seems to have been quite a lengthy one. He is found, first of all, satirising as early as 153/770 two of al-Manṣūr’s mawālī , Ṣāʿid and Maṭar (al-D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī, Wuzarāʾ , 124), and then frequenting Abū Dulaf al-ʿId̲j̲lī [see al-ḳāsim b. ʿīsā …

Mūsā b. ʿUḳba

(168 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-Asadī (after 55-141/675-758), early Medinan scholar and historian, especially interested in the Prophet’s expeditions or mag̲h̲āzī [ q.v.]. A mawlā of al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām’s and a pupil of al-Zuhrī [ q.vv.], he taught in the Prophet’s mosque in Medina, showing in his work the characteristic, increasing emphasis of the Medinan school on isnāds and also displaying a concern in giving dates for the events which he describes. His Kitāb al-Mag̲h̲āzī , transmitted by his nephew Ismāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿUḳba, has not survived as a complete work, …

al-Niẓāmiyya, al-Madrasa

(38 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the designation given to the colleges of Sunnī instruction founded in ʿIrāḳ, al-D̲j̲azīra and Persia by the great Sald̲j̲ūḳ vizier Niẓām al-Mulk [ q-v.]. See for these, madrasa, I. 4, and niẓām al-mulk . (Ed.)


(69 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Manōhargárh , a fortress on a lofty rock, some 2,500 feet/770 m. high, in lat. 16° N. and long. 74° 1′ E., in the Western Ghats range of peninsular India. Formerly in the southernmost part of the British Indian province of Bombay, it is now just within the southwestern corner of the Maharashtra state of the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography Imperial gazetteer of India 2, xvii, 200.


(71 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ‘the Arab country’, a term much in use until recently to denote the Persian province of Ḵh̲ūzistān; the latter name was revived during the reign of Riḍā S̲h̲āh Pahlawī. Fur further particulars see k̲h̲ūzistān . Following Persian usage, ʿArabistān denotes occasionally the Arabian peninsula. In Ottoman administrative documents from the 16th century it is occasionally applied to the Arabic-speaking provinces of the Empire, more especially to Syria. (Ed.)


(208 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Meḥmed Ḏj̲elāl bey (1254-1300/1838-82), Turkish writer and poet, and elder brother of Red̲j̲āʾī-zāde Maḥmūd Ekrem Bey [see ekrem bey ]. He had a moderately successful administrative career, entering the Translation Office ( Terd̲j̲üme Odasi̊ ) of the Sublime Porte in 1270/1853-4, being appointed in 1279/1862-3 chief clerk to the embassy in St. Petersburg, becoming assistant secretary ( mektūbī muʿāwini ) under Aḥmed D̲j̲ewdet Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] in 1282-1865-6, when the latter became wālī of Aleppo, and finally chief secretary of the provinces of K…


(302 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(also kanbāniya , with kanfāniya once attested in the Calendrier de Cordoue ), from Spanish campaña , in general denotes in Spanish Arabic usage, the countryside, but in particular the Campiña, sc. the vast, gently-undulating plain which forms the southern part of the kūra of Cordova; al-Idrīsī, Description de lAfrique et de lEspagne , ed. and tr. Dozy-De Goeje, 174, 209, makes it an iḳlim whose capital was Cordova and its main towns al-Zahrāʾ, Ecija, Baena, Cabra and Lucena. After leaving the capital, the approach to it was first thr…


(429 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), noun of unity ḳaṣaba , any plant with a long and hollow stem like the reed ( Arundo donax ), to which the term is especially applied (see Muk̲h̲aṣṣaṣ , xi, 46). The bamboo is called k̲h̲ayzurān , but ḳaṣab is a component of certain expressions denoting in particular the sugar cane ( ḳaṣab al-sukkar, etc.) [see following article] and the sweet flag (or fragrant rush, ḳaṣab al-d̲h̲arīra ; see H. P. J. Renaud and G. S. Colin, Tuḥfat al-aḥbāb , Paris 1934, 152; M. Levey, The medical formulary . . . of al-Kindī , Madison-London 1966, 316), or even the papyrus reed ( ḳaṣab al-bardī or just al-bardī

Niẓām al-Mulk

(145 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Čīn Ḳilič K̲h̲ān , Ḳamar al-dīn , founder of the Indian Muslim state of Ḥaydarābād in the early 12th/18th century and a dominant figure in the military affairs of the decaying Mug̲h̲al empire from his appointment as governor of the Deccan by the Emperor Farruk̲h̲-siyar [ q.v.] till his death in 1161/1748. In the early years of his governorship he was the deadly foe of his rivals for influence in the empire, the Bārha Sayyids [ q.v. in Suppl.], and after his victory over them at S̲h̲akarkheldā in 1137/1724, virtually independent ruler in Ḥaydarābād with the additional ti…


(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sandān , a port on the western coast of peninsular India, mentioned by the early Islamic geographers (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, Ibn Ḥawḳal, the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam ) as a flourishing mercantile town with a mixed population of Hindus and Muslims. It has been identified with the Sanjam of Portuguese maps and the St. John of English ones and as lying south of Daman and north of Thāna, hence in the modern Bombay state of the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, tr. Minorsky, 57, comm. 244-5 S. Maqbul Ahmad, India and the neighbouring territories in the Kitāb Nuzḥat al-Mus̲h̲tāq ... of al-S̲…


(73 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. alp arslān , the Sald̲j̲ūḳ, was sent by Barkiyārūk against Arslan Arg̲h̲ūn, another son of Alp Arslan, who was trying to make himself independent in Ḵh̲urāsān. In the struggle between the two brothers, Būrī-Bars was at first successful, but in the second encounter, in 488/1095, his troops were scattered and he himself was taken prisoner and strangled by his brother’s orders. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 179 Houtsma, Recueil, ii, 257. ¶


(189 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mīrzā ʿAlī Akbar (b. 1862 in S̲h̲emākha, d. 1911 in Bākū), Azerbaijani satirical poet and journalist. After the First Russian Revolution of 1905, a humorous and satirical literature grew up in Russian Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān, seen especially in the weekly journal Mollā Naṣreddīn founded at Tiflis in 1906 by Ḏj̲elāl Meḥmed Ḳulī-zāde [see d̲j̲arīda. iv], which attacked the old literary forms, backwardness in education and religious fanaticism, achieving a circulation also in Turkey and Persian Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. One of the writers in it was Ṣābir (who als…


(221 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, pl. fityān , strictly “young man”, has assumed a certain number of meanings in Arabic [see futuwwa ]: here we confine ourselves to one exclusively Andalusian usage. In Muslim Spain the slaves, whether eunuchs or not, employed in the service of the prince and his household, and then of the ḥād̲j̲ib [ q.v.] at the time when the latter was in practice taking over the reins of power, were in fact called g̲h̲ilmān (sing, g̲h̲ulām [ q.v.]), whilst those who held an elevated rank in the palace hierarchy bore the title fatā , the entire management of the household being …


(483 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “five” still possesses, in several Muslim countries, as amongst peoples of ancient times, a magical value in connection with the use of the fingers of the hand as a defence against the evil eye [see ʿayn ]. An efficacious method of protection against the evil eye, especially in North Africa but also in certain parts of the Near East also, consists essentially in stretching out the right hand, with the fingers spread out, towards the person whose glance can harm, and in pronouncing a formula containing the word k̲h̲amsa , e.g. k̲h̲amsa fī ʿayni-k


(119 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mīr Muḥammad Taḳī , of Aḥmadābād in Gud̲j̲arāt (d. 1173/1759-60), author of a collection of tales in 15 volumes entitled Bustān-i K̲h̲ayāl , composed in Persian prose between 1155/1742 ¶ 1742 and 1169/1756, at the request of his patron Nawwāb Ras̲h̲īd K̲h̲ān, or, according to one manuscript, for the two brothers Nawwāb Ras̲h̲īd K̲h̲ān and Nawwāb Muḥammad Isḥāḳ K̲h̲ān, sons of D̲j̲aʿfar ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (Nawwāb of Bengal 1170-4/1757-61 and 1176-8/1763-5); an account of the contents of this work, which is made up partly of histor…


(216 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a., pl. ayyām ), “day” (a Common Semitic word, e.g. Akkad. ūmum , Hebr. yōm , Aram. yawmā , ESA ywm ), denoting the whole 24-hour cycle making up a day, whereas nahār means “the daylight period”, i.e. from sunrise to sunset. See further on this, al-layl wa ’l-nahār . Yawm occurs as an isolated term in various specialised uses, in particular, in pre- and early Islamic times in the meaning of “day of battle”; for this, see ayyām al-ʿarab . The pl. ayyām can also occur, especially in early Arabic poetry, in a similar sense to its apparent antonym layālī

Ibn ʿAbdūn

(583 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd Ibn ʿAbdūn al-Fihrī , was an Andalusian kātib and poet born in Evora. Early in life his talents attracted the attention of the governor of this city, ʿUmar Ibn al-Afṭas, and he became his secretary when the latter became ruler of Badajoz [see baṭalyaws ] assuming the laḳab al-Mutawakkil, in 471/1078 [see afṭasids ]. After the fall of the dynasty and the capture of Badajoz in 487/1095 by the Almoravid general Sīr b. Abī Bakr, Ibn ʿAbdūn entered the service of the Almoravids and became kātib to Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲fīn and to his son ʿAlī. He died in Evora in 529/1134. ʿIbn A…


(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the branch of the Umayyad dynasty of Arab caliphs in early Islam who formed the first and shorter-lasting line of the dynasty, being predecessors of the Marwānids [ q.v.]. The line took its name from Abū Sufyān b. Ḥarb [ q.v.], whose son Muʿāwiya I became caliph in 41/61, to be followed briefly by his son Yazīd I and the latter’s young son Muʿāwiya II, who died in 64/683. The succession was then taken up by the parallel branch of Marwān b. al-Ḥakam [ q.v.]. For the general history of the Sufyānids, see umayyads and the articles on the individual rulers, and for the post-132/750 eschato…

Ṣalāt-i Maʿkūsa

(106 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., p.), literally, “the act of Muslim worship performed upside-down”, one of the extreme ascetic practices found among extravagant members of the dervish orders, ¶ such as in mediaeval Muslim India among the Čis̲h̲tiyya [ q.v.], where it formed part of the forty days’ retreat or seclusion ( k̲h̲alwa , arbaʿīniyya , cǐlia ) undertaken to heighten spiritual awareness [see k̲h̲alwa ]. This practice was one of those done in tortured or difficult circumstances, in this case hanging on the end of a rope over the mouth of a well; see čis̲h̲tiyya, at Vol. II, 55b, and hind. v. Islam, at Vol. III,…


(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Persian officer who, at the battle of D̲h̲ū Ḳar [ q.v.], was in command of the Persian troops who were driven back by the Bakr b. Wāʾil [ q.v.] and who was killed in the battle. Al-Masʿūdī ( Murūd̲j̲, ii, 228 = ed. Pellat, i, 648) calls him, in error, al-Hurmuzān, but he should not be confused with the Persian general of this name [ q.v.] who was assassinated by ʿUbayd Allāh b. ʿUmar. (Ed.) Bibliography Ṭabarī, i, 1030, 1032, 1034 f. (tr. Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser, Leiden 1879, 335, 338, 340, 342) Ibn al-Wardī, Taʾrīk̲h̲, Cairo 1285, i, 117 see also the Bibl. of the article d̲h̲ū ḳār.

Ḏj̲ayb-i Humāyūn

(138 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the privy purse of the Ottoman Sultans. Under the authority of the privy secretary ( Sirr kātibi ), it provided for the immediate needs and expenses of the sovereign. Its regular revenues consisted of the tribute from Egypt (see irsāliyye ), the income from the imperial domains (see k̲h̲āṣṣ ), and the proceeds from gardens, orchards, forests etc. belonging to or attached to the imperial palaces. Irregular revenues included the fees paid by newly appointed rulers of Moldavia, Wallachia, Transylvania and, for a while, Ragusa, the Sultan’s share…


(119 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), the verbal noun from hallala , form II verb, with two differing etymologies and meanings. (1) From hilāl , the new moon, meaning “jubilation or excitement at seeing the new moon” [see hilāl. i; talbiya ]. (2) From the formula la ilāha illā ’llāh , the first and main element of the Islamic profession of faith or s̲h̲ahāda [ q.v.]. The verbal form is here obtained by the so-called procedure of naḥt “cutting out, carving out”. The tahīl then denotes the pronouncing, in a high and intelligible voice, of the formula in question, which implies formal and basic recognition of the divine unity. (Ed.…


(230 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lit. “The act of praising”, a minor genre of mediaeval Arabic literature which consisted of statements praising the virtues of a particular work, some composed after the death of the author of the work in question but probably for the most part composed at the time of the work’s appearance with the aim of giving it a puff and thus advertising it; such statements must have been solicited by the author from obliging friends and colleagues, the more eminent the better. F. Rosenthal (see below) has felicitously compared them to modern ¶ “blurbs” of publishers to…

Isḥāḳ Sükūtī

(251 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a Young Turk leader, was born in 1868, probably of Kurdish extraction. As a student at the Military Médical School in Istanbul, he was in May 1889 one of the original group of founders of the Secret Committee, which eventually developed into the Committee of Union and Progress [see ittiḥād we-teraḳḳī d̲j̲emʿiyeti ]. Later, in 1895, he was exiled to Rhodes but managed to escape and went to Paris, where he associated with the Young Turk émigrés. In 1897, with others, he founded the anti-government journal Osmanli ( ʿUt̲h̲mānli̊ ), which was published in Geneva. …


(143 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a place in Algeria, founded in 296/908 at 8 km/5 miles to the south-west of Ward̲j̲ilān (Ouargla) in the territory of the confederation of ḳṣūr of the Isedrāten, by the last Rustamid Imām, after the destruction of the principality of Tāhart [ q.v.] by the Fāṭimids. Its fame is linked with the history of the Ibāḍī communities of the Mag̲h̲rib. An Ibādī scholar, Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Ward̲j̲ilānī (d. 570/1174-5) compiled there the musnad of al-Rabīʿ b. Ḥabīb, based essentially on the tradition of Abū ʿUbayda (ed. Masḳaṭ 1325/1908 under the title of al-D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ


(63 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “the act of bowing, bending”, a sequence of utterances and actions performed by the Muslim believer as part of the act of worship or ṣalāt , involving utterance of the takbīr and Fātiḥa , then the bending of the body from an upright position ( rukūʿ ) and then two prostrations ( sud̲j̲ūd ). See further ṣalāt . (Ed.)

Ṣadr al-Dīn ʿAynī

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Russian form Sadriddin Ayni , one of the leading figures in the 20th century cultural life of Central Asia and in Tad̲j̲ik literature (1878-1954). He began as a representative of the reform movement amongst the Muslims of Imperial Russia, that of the Ḏj̲adīdīds [see d̲j̲adīd ]. A formal education at the traditional madrasa s of Buk̲h̲ārā left him intellectually unsatisfied. In the early part of his career he was a talented poet in both Tad̲j̲ik and Uzbek, but after 1905 he became increasingly involved in the social and educa…


(244 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a branch of the Ṣūfī order of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya [q. v.], which originated in southern Morocco, at the zāwiya of Tāmgrūt [ q.v.], which had been founded in 983/1575 by a member of a family of marabouts. The order owes its name to the Ibn Nāṣir family [ q.v. in Suppl.], who headed the zāwiya from the time of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Maḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn b. Nāṣir b. ʿAmr b. ʿUt̲h̲mān (1015-85/1603-74), the founder (1070/1660), onwards. It was however his son Aḥmad b. Maḥammad (1057-1129/1647-1717) who was responsible for organising the order. (Ed.) Bibliography To the …


(220 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of the crags west of Medina, occasionally mentioned in connection with the mountain T̲h̲abīr ( Sīrat al-Ḥabas̲h̲a , 86). Lying behind Yanbuʿ, between the regions of Madyan [see madyan s̲h̲uʿayb ] and Mecca, they were known to Ptolemy (Sprenger, Die alte Geographie , nos. 28, 30) and are mentioned by Ibn Isḥāḳ ( The life of Muhammad , tr. 413, 542). Al-Hamad̲h̲ānī quotes a tradition, according to which the Prophet said: “May God be satisfied ( raḍiya ) with it (Raḍwā)!” Abū Karib, leader of the Kuraybiyya [ q.v.], a sub-sect of the Kaysāniyya, is said to have believed that M…

Fed̲j̲r-i Ātī

(48 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the coming dawn, a Turkish literary group active in the period following the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, and associated with the review T̲h̲erwet-i Fünūn [ q.v.], where its initial manifesto was published. See further turks, ¶ literature, and the articles on the individual authors. (Ed.)


(581 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Fāris (1875?-1962) a Syrian politician, a Christian, who played a very important role over a period of almost half a century. Born in a Lebanese village on the slopes of Mount Hermon, he studied at Ṣaydā then at the school in Beirut which was later to become the American University, while also working as a teacher. When family affairs took him to Damascus in 1899, he took up residence in the Syrian capital, learned Turkish and French and was employed as an interpreter in t…


(218 words)

Author(s): Ed.
“the two sūras of taking refuge [from evil]”, the name given to the two last sūras (CXIII and CXIV) of the Ḳurʾān, because they both begin with the words ḳul : aʿūd̲h̲u bi-rabbī . . . min . . . , “Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of. . . against . . . “, and are pronounced as prayers intended to dispel the evils engendered by the devil, evil spirits, the practice of magic, etc. The plural al-muʿawwid̲h̲āt is also found equally applied to these two sūras and to ¶ the preceding one, set forth in the form of a credo; this plural appears especially in al-Buk̲h̲ārī ( daʿawāt , bāb 12) in re…


(354 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a dish of meat cooked in sour milk, sometimes with fresh milk added, and with spices thrown in to enhance the flavour. This dish, which Abū Hurayra [ q.v.] is said to have particularly appreciated (see al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , viii, 403 = § 3562, where a piece of poetry in praise of maḍīra is cited), must have been quite well sought-after in mediaeval times (al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, however, does not cite it in his K. al-Buk̲h̲alā ’; see nevertheless al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, Laṭāʾif , 12, tr. C. E. Bosworth, 46). Its principal claim to fame comes from al-Hamad̲h̲ānī’s al-Maḳāma al-maḍīriyya


(284 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, conventionally Taroudant, a town in the Sūs region of southern Morocco situated in lat. 30° 31′ N., long. 8° 55′ W. at an altitude of 250 m/820 feet. It lies 4 km/2½ miles from ¶ the right bank of the Wādr Sūs and some 83 km/51 miles from Āgādīr [ q.v.] and the Adantic coast. The old town is enclosed by a lengthy, high, early 18th-century crenellated wall with five gates. Tārūdānt was an important town in mediaeval Islamic times. It formed part of the Almoravid empire from 421/1030 onwards, but a century later was conquered by the Almohads. It was at Tārūdānt that…

Leo Africanus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name by which the author of the Descrittione dell’ Africa is generally known, who was in fact originally called al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad al-Wazzān al-Zayyātī (or al-Fāsī). He was born in Granada between 894 and 901/1489 and 1495 into a family which had to emigrate to Morocco after that city’s fall [see g̲h̲arnāṭa ], and was brought up in Fās, where he received a good education and very soon entered the service of the administration there. Whilst still a student, he was employed for two years in the mental hospital, which he describes in detail ( Description , tr. Epaulard, i, 188 [see bīmāristān…


(221 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a city of the Pegu district of Burma and the country’s capital, situated on the Rangoon (Hlaing) River (lat. 16° 47′ N., 96° 10′ E.). It was developed as a port in the mid-18th century by the founder of the last dynasty of Burmese kings, with a British trading factory soon established there and with flourishing groups of Parsee, Armenian and Muslim merchants. In 1852, during the Second Anglo-Burmese War, it passed definitively under British ¶ control, and Rangoon became a more modern city, and also, through immigration, largely Indian in composition. These last includ…


(555 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Bag̲h̲būr , title of the Emperor of China in the Muslim sources. The Sanskrit * bhagaputra and the Old Iranian * bag̲h̲aput̲h̲ra , with which attempts have been made to connect this compound, are not attested, but a form bg̲h̲pwhr (= * bag̲h̲puhr ), signifying etymologically “son of God”, is attested in Parthian Pahlavī to designate Jesus, whence Sogdian bag̲h̲pūr , Arabicized as bag̲h̲būr and fag̲h̲fūr ; these forms were felt by the Arab authors as the translation of the Chinese T’ien tzŭ “son of heaven” (cf. Relation de la Chine et de l’Inde , ed. and tr. J. Sau…


(270 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ḥas̲h̲awiyya, Ḥus̲h̲wiyya, or Ahl al-Ḥas̲h̲w), a contemptuous term derived from ḥas̲h̲w (“farce” and hence “prolix and useless discourse”) and with the general meaning of “scholars” of little worth, particularly traditionists; this term is sometimes associated with g̲h̲ut̲h̲āʾ and g̲h̲ut̲h̲ar , and even with raʿāʿ , “the scum of the populace” (Ibn Ḳutayba, Muk̲h̲talif , 96; tr. Lecomte, 90), and used by some Sunnis of extremist traditionists or those whose researches are of very little value. Fairly close to Nābita [ q.v.] and to Mud̲j̲bira [ q.v.], it is used, in a narrower se…

Raʾs al-ʿĀm

(113 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) means New Year’s Day, lit. “beginning of the year”, i.e. 1 al-Ṃuharram. For the difference with Raʾs al-sana, see Lane, Lexicon , s.v. ʿām . Sunnī Muslim law does not prescribe any particular celebration for the first month of the year, except that a voluntary fast-day is recommended on the tenth [see ʿās̲h̲ūrāʾ ]. However, the first ten days of the month are considered as particularly blessed (Lane, Manners and customs, chs. ix, xxiv). The S̲h̲īʿa know several celebrations during this month [see muḥarram ; taʿziya ]. In most Islamic countries, New Year’…


(62 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, said to mean “uplands”, a district of mediaeval northern K̲h̲urāsān, comprising the fertile plain, famed for its grain production, through whose western part the Atrek river [ q.v.] flows. The plain lies between the modern Kūh-i Hazār Masd̲j̲id and Kūh-i Bmālūd/Kūh-i S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān mountain chains. Its urban centre was K̲h̲abūs̲h̲ān, the later Kūčān [ q.v.]. See kūčān for further details. (Ed.)


(199 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(French form, saїda ), a town of Algeria, the chef-lieu of the department ( wilāya ) of the same name, situated 175 km/108 miles from Oran (Wahrān [ q.v.]) and 95 km/59 miles from Mascara (al-Muʿaskar [ q.v.]), at an altitude of 900 m/2,950 feet. It is on the wādī Saʿīda, in touch with the Causse of Oran (hills of Saïda) and the High Plains, limestone plateaux which form part of the Atlas of the Tells, to ¶ the east of the hills of Ouarsenis (Wans̲h̲arīs). The town had about 30,000 inhabitants and the department about 200,000 in 1987. The region is suitable for raising c…


(3,946 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), sodomy. There does exist in Arabic a verb lāṭa meaning “to attach oneself, to join oneself to”, but liwāṭ appears to be rather a maṣdar of lāṭa or lāwaṭa , denominative of Lūṭ [ q.v.], i.e. Lot; in modern Arabic there are also the terms liwāṭa , mulāwaṭa , talawwuṭ , etc., as well as a large number of euphemisms and of dialectical and slang terms. The homosexual is called lūṭī or lāʾiṭ (pl. lāṭa), or mulāwiṭ , when he is the active partner, although the distinction is often difficult to establish; the passive is maʾbūn , and his perversion, ubna ; among the synonyms, the most common is muk̲h̲annat…

al-Muddat̲h̲t̲h̲ir and al-Muzzammil

(204 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the titles respectively of the 74th and 73rd sūras of the Ḳurʾān, derived from the first verse of each one of them which may be translated “O you covered in a cloak!” The first term is the active participle of a form V, tadat̲h̲t̲h̲ara , denominative verb from dit̲h̲ār “over garment”, and the second, also an active participle, from form V, tazammala “to wrap oneself [in a garment]”, the infix t of mutadat̲h̲t̲h̲ir and mutazammil being simply assimilated to the first radical. The two sūras are Meccan, and the opening verses of the first sūra may …


(694 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the nickname given to a person who rebelled in Transoxania during the caliphate of al-Mahdī (158-69/775-85 [ q.v.]) and who hid his face beneath a ḳināʿ , i.e., a veil (of silk), or, as a plausible tradition holds, a mask of gold which he had made for himself. His real name is not known with certainty, and there is a choice between ʿAṭāʾ, Ḥakīm, His̲h̲ām b. Ḥakīm and Hās̲h̲im; it is moreover related that he assumed this latter name for himself and that his partisans’ war-cry was “O Hās̲h̲im, help u…

Kitāb Mafāk̲h̲ir al-Barbar

(599 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the title of an anonymous work written to the greater glory of the Berbers of Morocco and al-Andalus, existing in a ms. of the Bibliothèque Générale of Rabat (cote 1020 D). E. Lévi-Provençal published from this, as Fragments historiques sur les Berbères au moyen âgeNubad̲h̲ taʾrīk̲h̲iyya fī ak̲h̲bār al-Barbar fi ’l-ḳurūn al-wusṭā (Collection de textes arabes publiée par l’Institut des Hautes Études Marocaines, i, Rabat 1934), the following extracts: a chapter from Ibn Ḥayyān’s Muḳtabis on the relations of al-Manṣūr Ibn Abī ʿĀmir [ q.v.] with the Berbers of the Mag̲h̲rib (pp. …


(179 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), “my lord”, an honorific title borne by the Moroccan sultans of the S̲h̲arīfian dynasties (Saʿdids and ʿAlawids) who were descended from al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī [see ḥasanī ], with the exception of those who were called Muḥammad and whose title was therefore Sayyidī/Sīdī (but the form Maḥammad freely altered does not exclude the usage of Mawlāy in ¶ front of the monarch’s name). The articles devoted to the two dynasties considered [see ʿalawīs and saʿdids ] contain or will contain in general sufficient information on the constituent sultans, but som…


(106 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ital. posta ), borrowed into Ottoman Turkish and Arabic in the 19th century in the forms p/ bōsta , p/ bōsṭa to designate the new conception of European-style postal services in the Near East. In more recent times, it has been replaced at the formal level by barīd [ q.v.], a revival of the mediaeval Arabic term for the state courier and intelligence services, but būsta / busṭa and būstad̲j̲ī “postman” continue in use in the Arab Levant at the informal level, and posta remains the standard term in Modern Turkish. In modern Persian also post , from the French poste , is used. (Ed.)


(79 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a term denoting the dyeing of certain parts of the body (and especially, in regard to men, the beard and hair) by means of henna [see ḥinnāʾ ] or some similar substance. It is still used in this sense today, but is used moreover for the items of make-up and cosmetics employed by modern women; the reader may find under marʾa information about those items of cosmetics used by women attached to the traditional usages. (Ed.)

Aytāk̲h̲ al-Turkī

(229 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(d. 235/849), a K̲h̲azar military slave or g̲h̲ulām [ q.v.] who had been bought in 199/815 by the future caliph al-Muʿtaṣim, and who played an important role in the reigns of his master, of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ and of al-Mutawakkil. At the opening of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ’s caliphate, he was, with As̲h̲nās, the “mainstay of die caliphate”. After being commander of die guard in Sāmarrā, in 233/847 he was made governor of Egypt, but delegated his powers there to Hart̲h̲ama b. Naṣr (Ibn Tag̲h̲rībardī, Nud̲j̲ūm , ii, 265; al-Maḳrīzī, K̲h̲iṭaṭ , ed. Wiet, v, 136). It was he who, in…


(71 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mullā ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Tayd̲j̲awzī , a Kurdish poet who composed an ʿAḳīda-nāma and a celebrated dīwān in the Hawrāmī dialect of Gūrānī. He was born ca. 1222/1807 at Tāwagōz in D̲j̲awānrūd and died at Sars̲h̲āta, on the river Sīrwān near Ḥalabd̲j̲a, ca. 1300/1883. (Ed.) Bibliography V. Minorsky, The Gūrān, in BSOAS, xi (1943-5), 94 Pīramērd, Dīwān-i Mawlawī, 2 vols., Sulaymānīya, 1938-40 ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Sad̲j̲d̲j̲ādī, Mēz̲h̲ū-y adab-ī kurdī, Bag̲h̲dād 1952.


(127 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), lit. “writer, secretary” < Tkis̲h̲. yaz- “write”, hence the Turkish equivalent of kātib , dabīr and muns̲h̲ī . The term was used in Ottoman times for the clerks in the various government departments, such as the ¶ treasury, with a bas̲h̲ yazi̊d̲j̲i̊ at their head. It could also be used for the secretaries of high court and military officials, e.g. of the Ḳi̊zlar Ag̲h̲asi̊ “Chief Eunuch of the Women”, who was also, in the 10th/16th century, in charge of the ewḳāf for the Ḥaramayn, Mecca and Medina, and other great mosques of the empire [see Ḥaramayn , at Vol. III, 175b]. (Ed.) Bibliography Gi…


(845 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(modern spelling Debdou; usual pron.: Dǝbdu, ethn. dəbdūbī , pl. dbādba ), a small town in eastern Morocco, at an altitude of 1,100 m., “at the foot of the right flank of the valley” of the Oued Dubdū “which rises in a perpendicular cliff to a height of 80 m. above the valley”; on a plateau nearby stands the fortress ( ḳaṣba [ ḳaṣaba ]) protected by a fosse on the side facing the mountain; on the left side of the valley lies a suburb named Mṣəllā. A dependency of the ʿamāla (under the administration of the French Protectorate in the region) of Oujda, it is the ce…


(75 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), verbal noun of the verb kaffa in the sense of “to abstain, desist [from],” and “to repel [s.o. from]” (see WbKAS , i, Letter Kāf , 236-9), in a religio-political context refers to the quiescent attitude of some K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite [ q.v.] groups in early Islam, called ḳaʿada “those who sit down”, i.e. stay at home, in abstaining from overt rebellion and warfare against the ruling authority. See further ḳuʿūd . (Ed.)


(120 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the term used in Ottoman Turkish military terminology for cannon, with ṭopd̲j̲u denoting a member of the corps of artillerymen and Ṭopk̲h̲āne being the name for the central arsenal in Istanbul. The Ṭopk̲h̲āne Gate there has given its name, in popular parlance, to the adjacent imperial palace; see ṭopḳapi̊ sarāyi̊ . The word tob / top originally in Turkish denoted “ball”, hence cannon-ball; it appears in almost all the Turkic languages and passed into the usage of Persian, the Caucasian and the Balkan languages, etc. See Doerfer, Türkische Elemente im Neupersischen

Yūsuf K̲h̲ān Riḍwī

(131 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, Mīrzā, Mug̲h̲al commander and governor, d. 1010/1601-2. The son of Mīrzā Aḥmad Riḍwī, he was appointed by the Emperor Akbar ṣūbadār or governor of Kas̲h̲mīr in 995/1586-7. He imposed Mug̲h̲al authority in the Kas̲h̲mīr valley and secured the submission of the Čak [ q.v. in Suppl.] chiefs. Yūsuf K̲h̲ān himself rebelled against the Mug̲h̲als in 1001/1592-3, but came back into favour and in 1003/1594-5 was dārūg̲h̲a or superintendent of the Ṭop-k̲h̲āna or arsenal. (Ed.) Bibliography Mohibbul Hasan, Kashmir under the sultans, Calcutta 1959, index A.R. Khan, Chieftains of the Mughal …


(114 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., lit. “separated”, “hived off”), in Indo-Muslim pronunciation mufaṣṣil , whence the British Indian conventional form Mofussil , an informal term of British Indian administrative usage, attested in British usage from the later 18th century but probably going back to Mug̲h̲al official usage. It denoted the provinces, the rural districts and stations, as opposed to the administrative headquarters of a Presidency, District or region, the ṣadr (in the Anglo-Indian usage of the Bengal Presidency, the Sudder ); hence going into the Mofussil could mean something like going into …


(120 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the Ottoman Turkish form of the pl. of the Arabic verbal noun taklīf “the act of imposing something [on someone]”, in this case, taxation. In Ottoman Turkish usage, tekālīf was used in the general sense of taxes, more or less synonymously with other terms like resm [ q.v.]. Writings on fiscal topics distinguished tekālīf-i s̲h̲erʿiyye , canonical taxes in accordance with the S̲h̲arīʿa (e.g. the zakāt , ʿus̲h̲r , k̲h̲arād̲j̲ . and d̲j̲izya ) from tekālīf-i fewḳalʿāde “extraordinary ones”, which could include ʿörfī ones, those imposed by the sultan an…


(229 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(local Kurdish d̲j̲wānrō ), a district of Persian Kurdistān lying to the west of Mt. S̲h̲āhō, between Avroman (Hawermān [ q.v.]) in the north, S̲h̲ahrizūr in the west, and Zuhāb and Rawānsar in the south and east. The country is generally mountainous and thickly wooded. The valleys are well watered and very fertile, being in effect the granary of the Avroman area. There is no river now known by this name, but Minorsky derives it from * Ḏj̲āwān-rūd , influenced by Persian d̲j̲awān ‘young’. A Kurdish tribe D̲j̲āwānī, listed by Masʿūdī ( Murūd̲j̲ , iii, 253; Tanbīh , 88),…

Naw Bahār

(129 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a pre-Islamic sacred site and monastery at Balk̲h̲ [ q.v.] in what is now northern Afg̲h̲ānistān, destroyed by the Arab invaders, but famed in early Islamic history as the place of origin of the Barmakī family of officials and viziers in early ʿAbbāsid times, the eponym Barmak having been the head or abbot ( pramuk̲h̲a ) of Naw Bahār. See on the shrine, almost certainly a Buddhist one, al-barāmika . 1. Origins; to the Bibl . there should be added Le Strange, Lands , 421-2; Barthold, An historical geography of Iran , Princeton 1984, 14-15; R.W. Bulliet, Naw Bahār and the survival of Iranian Buddh…


(117 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name of two districts ( ṭassūd̲j̲ ) of ʿIrāḳ, Upper and Lower Fallūd̲j̲a, which occupied the angle formed by the two arms of the lower Euphrates which flow finally into the Baṭīḥa [ q.v.], the Euphrates proper to the west (this arm is given various names by the geographers and is now called S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Hindiyya) and the nahr Sūrā (now S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥilla) to the east. (Ed.) Bibliography Suhrāb, K. ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-aḳālīm al-sabʿa, ed. H. von Mžik, Leipzig 1930, 124-5 Ṭabarī, index Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ, 245, 254, 265, 457 Bakrī, index Yāḳūt, s.v. Yaʿḳūbī-Wiet, 140 Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, v, 337 A. Musil, T…

Ibn al-Ṣayrafī

(224 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Anṣārī , Andalusian poet, historian and traditionist, born at Granada in 467/1074. He had a profound knowledge of Arabic language and literature, and was a prolific poet, particularly of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥāt . He was kātib of the amīr Abu Muḥammad Tās̲h̲fīn at Granada; but his fame rests on a history of the Almoravid dynasty entitled Taʾrik̲h̲ al-dawla al-lamtūniyya or al-Anwār al-d̲j̲aliyya fī ak̲h̲bār al-dawla al-murābiṭiyya ; at first ending at the year 530/1135 6, then continued by the author until short…

Körfüz, Körfüs

(305 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(the first spelling in e.g. Pīrī Reʾīs and Rās̲h̲id, the second in Pečewī), the Turkish name for the island of Corfu off the coast of Epirus. Pīrī Reʾīs gives a full account of the island, together with a map, in his Baḥriyye (ed. Kahle, Berlin and Leipzig 1926-7, i, 113-16, No. 54). The Ottomans never succeeded in dislodging from Corfu the Venetians, who controlled it from the opening of the 15th century until 1797, but there were two major Turkish attempts to occupy the island. The first took place in Rabīʿ I 944/August 1537 in the reign of Süleymān the Magnificent. The fleet …


(997 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lice (the individual louse being ḳamla ; some authorities believe that ḳaml applies only to females and that for males the term is ṣuʾāb , pl. ṣiʾbān , although the latter designates rather the nits). The family to which This hemipterous insect belongs has numerous species, but Arabic does not seem to have distinguished between them, for not even the head-louse ( pediculus capitis) and the body-louse ( p. vestimenti) are treated separately. Although the existence of nits which clung to the skin was known of, the louse was thought to be engendered spontaneously i…


(63 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), also d̲j̲urm , a sin, fault, offence. In Ottoman usage, in the forms d̲j̲erīme and d̲j̲ereme , it denoted fines and penalties (see d̲j̲urm). In the modern laws enacted in Muslim countries it has become a technical term for crime ( d̲j̲urm in Pakistan). For the corresponding Islamic concepts, see ḥadd , and for penal law in general, ʿuḳūba . (Ed.)


(81 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), the verbal noun from the form II verb warraḳa , literally, “the act of putting forth leaves, branches”, used as a term of art and architecture in the sense of arabesque, pattern of vegetal adornment and decoration. Al-tawrīḳ was taken into mediaeval Spanish usage as ataurique , whence Pedro de Alcala’s definition pintura de lazos morisca, tavrîq (Dozy and Engelmann, Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l’Arabe 2 , Leiden 1869, 214). See further, arabesque. (Ed.)

Pas̲h̲a Ḳapusu, Wezīr Ḳapusu

(85 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a term of ¶ Ottoman administration denoting the building presented by Sultan Meḥemmed IV in 1064/1654 to the Grand Vizier Derwīs̲h̲ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a and intended to serve both as an official residence and as an office; after the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.] period it became known as the Bāb-i̊ ʿĀlī [ q.v.] or Sublime Porte, and soon came to house most of the administrative departments of the Dīwān-i̊ Hümāyūn [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography M.Z. Pakalin, Osmanli tarih deyimleri ve terimleri sözlügü, Istanbul 1946-54, ii, 757.


(243 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, “the night-blind”, is the surname of a number of early Arab poets (17 in all; see al-Āmidī, al-Muʾtalif , 12 ff.; Ag̲h̲āni , index; L.A., s.v.); each of them is connected with a tribe (Aʿs̲h̲ā Banī Fulān) and, apart from the most celebrated of their number, al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Bakr (or the Ḳays) [ q.v.] and al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Hamdān [ q.v.], the following are worthy of note: al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Bāhila (ʿĀmir b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Riyāḥ) who is included among the aṣḥāb al-marāt̲h̲ī by Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt , ed. S̲h̲ākir, 169, 175 (with refs.); see also al-Buḥturī, Ḥamāsa , index; Abu Zayd al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī, Ḏj̲a…


(91 words)

Author(s): Ed,
b. Dald̲j̲ab. Ḳunāfa al-Kalbī (full genealogy in al-Tabarī, ii, 204, 428, and see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, i, Table 286, ii, 572), tribal chief of the Kalb in Syria [see kalb b. wabara ], fl. in the early part of the 7th century. His son Baḥdal was the father of Maysūn [ q.v.], wife of the Umayyad caliph Muʿāwiya I and mother of Yazīd I, and a strenuous supporter of the Sufyānid cause. (Ed.) Bibliography See also H. Lammens, Etudes sur le règne du calife Moʿâwia Ier , in MFOB, iii (1908), 150.

Ḳardā and Bāzabdā

(161 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ancient districts of Upper Mesopotamia (al-D̲j̲azīra), often mentioned together. The first place derives its name from Bēth Ḳardū, the land of the Carduci, which became Bāḳardā; according to Yāḳūt, s.v., this form is found “in the books”, but the local people say Ḳardā. The district comprised ca. 200 villages, the most notable being al-D̲j̲ūdī and T̲h̲amānīn, and the district of Faysabūr; it produced mainly corn and barley. The original chef-lieu , Ḳardā, lost its importance and was replaced by Bāsūrīn. Bāzabdā, for its part, is the name of a district…


(160 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a family of derebey s [ q.v.] in Ottoman Anatolia, who controlled the districts ( nāḥiyes ) of Tiyek, Ekbez and Hacılar in the eastern parts of the Amanus Mountains or Gâvur Daği (in the hinterland of Iskenderun [see iskandarūn ] in modern Turkey). They claimed hereditary power in the area from the time of Sultan Murād IV (1032-49/1623-40), when the latter, in the course of his campaign against the Persians in ¶ Bag̲h̲dād, granted these districts to a local shepherd ( ćobān ). By the 19th century, the family was divided into two branches, one controlling…
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