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Picpus-Gesellschaft

(300 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Congregatio Sacrorum Cordium Jesu et Mariae necnon adorationis perpetuae SS. Sacramenti Altaris, SSCC). Die nach dem früheren Mutterhaus in der Pariser Rue de Picpus benannte Kongregation besteht aus einem männlichen (Picpus-Patres; in Deutschland ist auch die Bez. »Arnsteiner Patres« geläufig nach ihrer ersten dt. Niederlassung in Arnstein/Lahn) und einem weiblichen Zweig (Picpus-Schwestern, Ze´latrices) und wurde Ende des 18.Jh. unter dem Eindruck der Franz. Revolution von Hen…

Salesianerinnen

(218 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Visitantinnen, Schwestern von der Heimsuchung Mariä, Ordo de Visitatione Beatae Mariae Virginis, OVM, VSM), 1610 in Annecy (Frankreich) durch Franz von Sales und J.F. F. de Chantal als kontemplative Gemeinschaft mit einfachen Gelübden und milder Klausur zum Zweck der Hausarmen- und Krankenpflege gegründet. Auf Drängen des Erzbf. von Lyon 1618 Annahme der Augustinerregel, der feierlichen Gelübde sowie der päpstl. Klausur, weswegen man sich auf die Unterhaltung von Mädchenpensiona…

Paulisten

(144 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Paulist Fathers; Societas Sacerdotum Missionariorum a Sancto Paulo Apostolo, CSP), 1858 durch den Konvertiten I. Th. Hecker (1819–1888; 1848–1857 Redemptorist) in New York zur Gewinnung möglichst vieler Amerikaner für den kath. Glauben gegründet. Die Regel der P. ist an die Redemptoristen angelehnt, aber ohne feierliche Gelübde. Die P. vertraten eine kulturfreundliche Richtung innerhalb des Katholizismus und waren daher in die »Amerikanismus«-Kontroverse an der Wende vom 19. zum…

Somasker

(156 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Ordo Clericorum Regularium a Somasc[h]a, CRS), 1534 in Somasca (Lombardei, Italien) durch den venezianischen Adeligen Gerolamo Miani (Emiliani, hl., um 1486–1537) im Geiste der Kath. Reform als »Gesellschaft der Knechte der Armen« (Compagnia dei Servi dei poveri) gegründeter Regularklerikerorden für pastorale, sozial-karitative und päd. Aufgaben (bes. Waisenerziehung). Nach schwieriger Anfangsphase Konsolidierung, aber um 1800 fast untergegangen. Langsame, bis ins 20.Jh. andauer…

Silvestriner

(159 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Sylvestriner, Congregatio Silvestrina Ordinis Sancti Benedicti, CSilvOSB), 1231 durch den Eremiten Silvestro Guzzolini (um 1177–1267) in Montefano bei Fabriano (Italien) gegründete Benediktiner-Reformkongregation, die Innozenz IV. 1247 als »Ordo S. Benedicti de Montefano« anerkannte. Die Benediktsregel wurde durch eremitische und mendikantische Interpretation verschärft (kleine Konvente, Handarbeit und Bettel). Unter dem vierten Generalprior Andrea di Giacomo da Fabriano (1298–1…

Oratorianer

(377 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . I.Oratorianer des hl. Filippo Neri (Oratorium der göttl. Liebe, Nerianeroratorium, Filippini, Institutum Oratorii S. Philippi Nerii), Gemeinschaft von Weltpriestern, die im Geiste F. Neris ein gemeinsames Leben in Gebet und seelsorglicher Tätigkeit, nur geeint durch das Band gegenseitiger Liebe, aber ohne Gelübde und bindende Versprechen (allerdings mit 1612 approbierten Statuten), führt. Entstanden 1552 in Rom aus Zusammenkünften mit dem Gründer im Betsaal (lat. oratorium) von des…

Unbefleckte Empfängnis, Orden von der Unbefleckten Empfängnis

(357 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . Es existieren zahlreiche Kongregationen dieses Namens, die bes. nach der Dogmatisierung der U.E. Mariens 1854 gegründet wurden. – Die mitgliederstärksten (Stand: 2000) sind: Brüder der Unbefleckten Empfängnis von Maastricht (Congregatio Fratrum Immaculatae Conceptionis Beatae Mariae Virginis, FIC), 1840 in Maastricht (Holland) von Ludwig Hubert Rutten (1809–1891) und Jacob Adrian Hoecken (1810–1880) zu Jugend- und Lehrerausbildung sowie sozialpäd. Arbeit gegründet. Mit etwa 400 Mitgliedern in Holland, Belg…

Oblaten

(789 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] I. Pueri oblati O. (von lat. oblati, »Dargebrachte«) sind bereits in altkirchl. Zeit belegt. Eltern oder Vormünder brachten Kinder für den Mönchsstand dar und übergaben damit – nach atl. Vorbild (Simson, Samuel) – Gott ihr Kostbarstes. Juridische Grundlage war die väterliche Verfügungsgewalt der jüd. und röm. Rechtstradition. In den alten Mönchsregeln ist die Oblation ausdrücklich vorgesehen (Benediktsregel, Kap.59), wobei die II. Trullanische Synode 692 (c.40; Quinisextum) zehn Ja…

Retraite

(166 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] Retraite, Ordensschwestern. Im Frankreich des 17.Jh. zur Ermöglichung von Exerzitien für Frauen entstandene Gemeinschaften, die alsbald Exerzitienhäuser einrichteten. Vorbildgebende Gründung waren die »Filles de la Sainte-Vierge de la Retraite« (Töchter der allerseligsten Jungfrau von der Zurückgezogenheit) von Vannes (1674) mit ignatianischer Regel (Ignatius von Loyola) und einfachen Gelübden. Nach dem Untergang dieser Vereinigungen in der Franz. Revolution Restauration im 19.Jh.…

Sulpizianer

(169 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Prêtres du Clergé, Congregatio Sulpitiensis, Societas Presbyterorum a Sancto Sulpitio, PSS), 1641 durch Jean-Jacques Olier (1608–1657), Pfarrer von St.-Sulpice in Paris, zur Erziehung und spirituellen Formung von Theologiestudenten und Priestern gemäß dem Trienter Seminardekret gegründete Weltpriesterkongregation (ohne Gelübde), benannt nach Erzbf. Sulpicius II. von Bourges (615–647). Die S., deren Frömmigkeit christologisch, eucharistisch und marianisch geprägt und stark von Pi…

Regularkleriker

(244 words)

Author(s): Eder , Manfred
[English Version] (clerici regulares) sind im weiteren Sinne klerikale Mitglieder eines Ordens oder einer Kongregation im Gegensatz zu den Welt- bzw. Diözesanklerikern (clerici saeculares), wobei diese Bez. im MA und der frühen Neuzeit auch für Regularkanoniker (Chorherren/ Kanoniker) Verwendung fand. Im engeren Sinne sind die Mitglieder der im Zeichen der Kath. Reform neuentstandenen klerikalen Ordensgemeinschaften des 16./17.Jh. gemeint. Deren Kennzeichen sind das gemeinsame Leben nach den Evang…

Terziaren/Terziarinnen

(360 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Tertiarier, -innen), Mitglieder eines Dritten Ordens (tertius ordo). I.Weltliche Terziaren/Terziarinnen. Vereinigungen von Männern oder Frauen, die sich seit dem 11./12.Jh. zur Erreichung rel. oder sozialer Ziele an den männlichen (Erster Orden) oder weiblichen (Zweiter Orden) Zweig bestehender Orden anschlossen, insbes. an die im 13.Jh. entstehenden Bettelorden. Der wichtigste war und ist bis heute der Franziskanische Dritte Orden (Tertius Ordo Franciscanus, TOF; Franziskaner/Franziska…

Olivetaner

(165 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Congregatio S. Mariae Montis Oliveti OSB; Ordo S. Benedicti Montis Oliveti, OSBOliv), streng zentralistisch organisierte benediktinische Reformkongregation mit zeitlich begrenzten Ämtern, häufiger Versetzung der Mönche sowie eremitisch und marianisch geprägter Spiritualität. Initiiert durch Bernardo Tolomei (selig, 1272–1348), der sich um 1313 mit einigen Gefährten auf dem Monte Oliveto bei Siena (Italien) niederließ. Rasche, aber auf Mittel- und Oberitalien beschränkte Ausbreit…

Trappisten, Reformierte Zisterzienser

(339 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Ordo Cisterciensium Reformatorum, OCR), Zisterzienser von der Streng(er)en Observanz (Ordo Cisterciensium Strictioris Observantiae, OCSO), gehen zurück auf das Zisterzienserkloster La Trappe (Normandie), in dem Abt A.-J.  Le Bouthillier de Rancé 1664 eine von rigoristischer Bußstrenge gekennzeichnete Reform durchführte. Da die 1794 im Exil zu Valsainte (Schweiz) gegründete Kongregation von La Trappe deutliche Distanz zum alten Orden zeigte und in sich zerstritten war, teilte sie…

Passionisten

(265 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Congregatio Passionis Jesu Christi, CP), 1720 als klerikale Kongregation durch den Einsiedler und Bußprediger Paul vom Kreuz (Paolo Francesco Danei [hl., 1694–1775]) unter dem Namen »Unbeschuhte Kleriker vom Heiligsten Kreuz und Leiden unseres Herrn Jesus Christus« auf dem Monte Argentario bei Orbetello (Italien) gegründet. Sondergelübde der Verehrung und Verkündigung des Leidens und Sterbens Jesu Christi; Betonung der kontemplativen Lebensform, daneben Wanderpredigt, Volksmissi…

Rosminianer

(95 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Istituto della Carità, Fathers of Charity, IC), 1828 auf dem Monte Calvario bei Domodossola (Norditalien) von A. Rosmini-Serbati gegründet. Die Kongregation, deren Mitglieder einfache ewige Gelübde ablegen und ihr Privatvermögen behalten, besteht aus Priestern, Klerikern sowie Laienbrüdern und betätigt sich in Unterricht, Intellektuellenapostolat, Auswandererbetreuung und Mission. Derzeit (2001) gibt es etwa 400 Religiosen in Italien, England, Irland, den USA, Indien und Afrika …

Petrus, katholische Ordensgenossenschaften vom heiligen Apostel

(246 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] Petrus, katholische Ordensgenossenschaften vom heiligen Apostel, bez. nur wenige, heute nicht mehr existierende oder mitgliederschwache Gemeinschaften. Erwähnung verdienen: 1.Congre´gation de St-Pierre. 1828 von den Brüdern Jean-Marie-Robert (1780–1860) und Hugo-Fe´licite´-Robert (1782–1854) de La Mennais in La Che^naie (Bretagne, Frankreich) als Ersatz für die unterdrückten Jesuiten mit dem Grundsatz unverbrüchlicher Treue zum Nachfolger Petri gegründet. Innerhalb weniger Jahre über 60 Mitglieder …

Schwestern vom armen Kinde Jesu

(149 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Zusters van het Arme Kind Jesus, PIJ), 1844 in Aachen von K. Fey zu Erziehung und Unterricht armer und verlassener Mädchen gegründete Kongregation päpstl. Rechts. 1872 fast 700 Schwestern in 25, meist im Rheinland gelegenen Filialen mit ca.13 500 Zöglingen. Infolge des Kulturkampfes 1878 Verlegung des Mutterhauses nach Simpelveld (Holland, »Haus Loreto«). Nach der Wiederzulassung in Deutschland 1887 im höheren Mädchenschulwesen und in der Pensionatserziehung tätig. Heute in Euro…

Rosminians

(112 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Istituto della Carità, Fathers of Charity, IC), founded by A. Rosmini-Serbati in 1828 on Monte Calvario near Domodosolla in northern Italy. The members of the congregation take simple life vows and retain their personal assets. The congregation includes priests and lay brothers, who engage in educational work, apostolate to intellectuals, care for emigrants, and mission. As of 2001, there were some 400 religious in Italy, England, Ireland, the United States, India, and Africa; th…

Little Brothers/Sisters of Jesus

(142 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Petits Frères de Jésus/Petites Soeurs de Jésus), established in 1933 by René Voillaume (1905–2003) and in 1939 by Elisabeth Hutin (1898–1989) in Algeria in the spirit of C.-E.V. de Foucauld (today congregations of papal right). These small communities (two to four brothers and four to five sisters) live a life of poverty, work, and worship in the midst of a socially difficult, dechristianized or non-Christian (esp. Muslim) environment (without any institutions of their own) and p…

Retraite, Sisters of La

(180 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] In 17th-century France, communities arose to facilitate spiritual exercises for women; soon afterward they began building retreat houses. An outstanding example was the house of the Filles de la Sainte-Vierge de la Retraite (Daughters of Our Lady of Retreat) in Vannes (1674); the sisters followed the Ignatian rule (Ignatius of Loyola) and took simple vows. These communities perished during the French Revolution, but the sisterhood was restored in the 19th century, transformed into…

Teutonic Order

(1,208 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Origins The origins of an Ordo fratrum hospitalis sanctae Mariae Theutonicorum Ierosolymitanorum are said to date back ¶ to a hospital of Mary in Jerusalem in the first half of the 12th century. The spiritual order of knights arose in 1198/1199 from a hospital brotherhood that was set up during the Third Crusade (1189/1190) near Acre by merchants from Lübeck and Bremen. Because they were supported both by German crusaders and the Hohen­staufen, most members came from the Empire, and their estates…

John of God, Saint

(135 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (João de Deo, Juan de Dios; actually: João Cuidad; 1495, Montemor-o-Novo, Portugal – Mar 8, 1550, Granada), canonized in 1690, founder of the Merciful Brothers and Sisters and innovator in the care for and assistance of those in need. Converted in 1539 by John of Avila, John devoted his life to the care of the sick (including the mentally ill) and the poor. In 1540, he established his own hospital in Granada, which became the prototype of the modern hospital because of the novel c…

Somaschi

(178 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Ordo Clericorum Regularium a Somasc[h]a, CRS), an order of regular clergy founded in Somasca, Lombardy, in 1534 by the Venetian noble Gerolamo Miani (St. Emiliani, c. 1486–1537) in the spirit of Catholic reform as a Compagnia dei Servi deipoveri (“Society of servants of the poor”). It was to have a pastoral, charitable, and educational apostolate, focused especially on education of orphans. After a difficult beginning, the order consolidated but almost died out c. 1800. Later it experienced a slow revival, which las…

Claretians

(184 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] A missionary society founded in 1849 in Vic (Spain) by A.M. Claret. The men's branch (Mission Society of the Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, CMF; Immaculate Conception, Orders of the), whose constitutions were given papal approval in 1870 and renewed after Vatican II, has always devoted itself to missionary service of the word (popular missions, religious exercises, school teaching, press apostolate, pastoral care beyond the parish, mission…

Regular Clergy

(317 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( clerici regulares) in the broad sense are clerical members of an order or congregation, in contrast to secular or diocesan clergy ( clerici saeculares); in the Middle Ages and the early modern period, the term was extended to include canons regular. In the narrow sense, the term denotes the members of the new religious orders formed in the 16th and 17th centuries in the name of Catholic reform. They are characterized by life in community based on the counsels of perfection and solemn vows. Instead of r…

Stigmatines

(167 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Stigmatines (Stimmatini, Bertoniani, Congregatio Presbyterorum a Sacris Stigmatibus Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, CSS, CPS), founded in Verona (northern Italy) in 1816 by the popular missionary Gaspare Bertoni (1777–1853). Following the model of the previously suppressed Jesuits, the Stigmatines were intended as a missionary and educational ministry. As of 2009, there were 441 members, primarily in Italy, Brazil, the United States, and South Africa. The generalate is in Rome. II. Stigmatine Sisters (Stimmatine, Povere Figlie delle Sacre Stimmate di S…

Fey, Klara

(187 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Clara; Apr 11, 1815, Aachen – May 8, 1894, Simpelveld, The Netherlands) was the daughter of a factory owner. Heavily influenced by her teacher L. Hensel, she found her way to charitable work at an early age. With the help of two friends, she opened a school for abandoned and neglected girls in 1837, for whose care and education she founded the congregation of the Sisters of the Poor Child Jesus in 1844. The mother-house in Aachen as well as many subsidiary houses having been disbanded in the wake of the Kulturkampf , the founder of the order and lifel…

Peter, Catholic Orders of Saint

(269 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] There have been few orders of St. Peter; most no longer exist or have few members. Three deserve mention. 1. Congrégation de St-Pierre. The congregation was founded in La Chênaie (Brittany) in 1828 by Jean-Marie-Robert de La Mennais (1780–1860) and his brother Hugo-Félicité-Robert (1782–1854). Intended to replace the suppressed Jesuits, it had as its guiding principle absolute loyalty to the successor of St. Peter. Within a few years, it had over 60 members (including J.B.H. Lacordaire, P.L.P. Guéran…

Vincentians/Lazarists

(247 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregatio Missionis, CM; also Vincentian Fathers, Preti della Missione), founded in Paris in 1625 by Vincent de Paul to evangelize the rural French population through home missions (Mission to the People). Their apostolate soon expanded to include the training of priests, leading retreats (Exercises, Spiritual), spiritual guidance of the sisterhoods established by Vincent, pastoral care of prisoners and galley slaves, and foreign missions (after 1645; after 1697 in China, where…

Salvatorians

(250 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Society of the Divine Savior, Societas Divini Salvatoris), founded in Rome in 1881 by Johann Baptist Jordan (1848–1918) as the Apostolic Teaching Society, is a congregation of priests with a broad apostolic ministry, primarily in the area of the Catholic press and in mission (India, South America, China, Africa). “Healing” is the central theme of Salvatorian spirituality; their Marian focus is indicated by their veneration of Mary as the mother of the Savior ( Maria Mater Salvatoris). The congregation quickly spread throughout the world – in the 19th cen…

Orders, Catholic

(2,640 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Concept and Definition – II. History – III. Membership I. Concept and Definition Orders are organized associations of religious communities. The constituent element of belonging to an order ( status religiosus) is a longterm commitment to a particularly close discipleship to Christ (Discipleship, Christian) to the glory of God, the edification of the church, and the salvation of the world ( CIC/1983, c. 573). This way of life is usually set (c. 575) by the evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection (Perfection, Counsels of; poverty, c…

Sisters of the Poor Child Jesus

(178 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Zusters van het Arme Kind Jesus, PIJ), founded as a congregation under papal law in Aachen in 1844 by K. Fey for the education of poor and abandoned girls. In 1872 there were almost 700 sisters in 25 houses, mostly in the Rhineland, with some 13,500 alumnae. As a result of the Kulturkampf, the mother house was moved to Simpelveld in Holland in 1878 (“Loretto House”). After they were readmitted in Germany in 1887, the sisters worked in higher education for girls and boarding schoo…

Doctrinarians

(210 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Congregatio Patrum Doctrinae Christianae, DC). The Congregation of Doctrinarians (Pères Doctrinaires) that exists today was founded in 1592 in Avignon by César de Bus (1544–1607) and arose out of ¶ communities of priests and laity for providing religious instruction (Confraternities of Christian doctrine). Combined with the Somaschi from 1616 to 1647, it was able to develop independently from that time as a Catholic …

Loreto, Sisters of

(284 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] 1. Sisters of Loretto at the Foot of the Cross, founded in 1812 in Hardin's Creek near Louisville (KY, USA) by Charles Nerinckx (1761–1824) for the education of the youth. It was the first female congregation in the United States that originated without the assistance of a European community. The sisters were active in the China mission from 1923 to 1951. Today, there are about 600 sisters (as of 1995) in the United States and Latin America (motherhouse: Nerinx, KY). 2. Loreto Sisters (Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary), one of the five branches of the Ins…

Feuillants

(142 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Feuillants are a reform order of the Cistercians (separated 1592) named for the abbey at Feuillant (Lat. Fulium) near Toulouse and founded by abbot Jean-Baptiste de la Barrière O. Cist (1544–1600). It is characterized by rigorous intensification of the observance of the rule (going barefoot, sleeping on boards, kneeling to eat) and liturgical peculiarities. In 1630, it divided into a French congregation with 33 monasteries (abolished in the French Revolution) and an Italian congregation with 43…

Salesians

(404 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Missionaries of St. Francis of Sales (Missionnaires de St. François de Sales d’Annecy), a congregation founded in 1838 in Annecy (France) by Pierre-Marie Mermier (1790–1862) for pastoral and missionary ministry in the spirit of Francis of Sales. In 1845 the congregation was already working in India, where today more than 75% of its members live; as “Fransalians” they exercise a pastoral and educational ministry and engage in scientific research. Today there are over 1,200 members. Their generalate is in Annecy. II. Oblates of St. Francis of Sales (see Oblates: II…

Minims

(338 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Ordo Minimorum: OM; also: Paulans). The order of the Minims was founded in 1454 by Francis of Paula in Calabria (Italy) as the “Hermits of St. Francis of Assisi” for the purpose of leading an even more austere life than that stipulated by St. Francis for the Friars Minor (Minorites). The order's distinguishing marks are humility and penitence (the superior is designated “corrector”), in addition to a special vow of lifelong fasting that only allows a diet of bread, water, oil, fru…

Relief Organizations, Catholic (Germany)

(301 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] These are predominantly internationally oriented organizations, which aim to offer aid through solidarity and partnership, to work for development and peace, mission and the proclamation of the gospel. In Germany, they include: Adveniat (Essen), diocesan action to support ministry among impoverished peoples in Latin America (est. 1961). Bonifatiuswerk (until 1967: Bonifatiusverein für das katholische Deutschland; Paderborn), for support of ministry amongst the Catholic diaspora in…

Love/Charity Orders, Religious

(641 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Many religious communities have the word love or caritas ( carità, charité, charity, etc.) in their name, referring to love of ¶ God and neighbor and usually further qualified as love of Christ, love of Mary, and so on (Merciful Brothers and Sisters of, Borromeans, Grey Brothers and Sisters, Good Shepherd Sisters, Rosminians, Vincentian Sisters). Frères de la Charité (Brothers of Charity; Congregatio Fratrum a Caritate, FC), founded as a lay congregation in 1807 in Ghent (Belgium) by the priest Pierre- Joseph Triest (1760–1836); today…

Good Shepherd Sisters

(381 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The image of Christ as the Good Shepherd has been an obvious model and name for religious orders devoted to social and charitable work. The most important women's order of this nature is the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd (Soeurs de Notre Dame de Charité du Bon-Pasteur), a sizeable offshoot of the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity (of the Refuge), founded at Caen in France by Jean Eudes (Eudist Fathers, Jesus and Mary, Congregation of) in 1644. The order was reco…

Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, Societies, Orders, and Congregations of

(943 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The rise of Catholic orders whose apostolate is connected to the veneration of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and is borne by the associated spirituality, is directly related to the spread of the public and liturgical cults of the Heart of Jesus and the Heart of Mary as they prevailed from the 18th century, especially in France. With reference to the Heart of Mary societies, the dedication of the world to the Heart of Mary – a goal envisaged since the 19th century and attained in 1…

Mercedarians

(365 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Ordo Beatae Mariae Virginis de Mercede redemptionis captivorum, OdeM; also: Nolascans). The Order of the Mercedarians was founded in Barcelona in 1218(?) by Pierre Nolasque (also known as Nolasco; c. 1189–1256) as a lay congregation of knights committed to the ransoming of Christian slaves from the Muslims of southern Spain and North Africa (today: deliverance from every form of social, political, and psychological enslavement). The ransom money was raised through the sale of real estat…

Immaculate Conception, Order of the

(438 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Numerous congregations of this name exist. Most of them were founded after 1854, the year in which the immaculate conception of Mary became a dogma. The largest congregations are (as of 2000): The Brothers of the Immaculate Conception of Maastricht ( Congregatio Fratrum Immaculatae Conceptionis Beatae Mariae Virginis, FIC), founded in Maastricht (the Netherlands) in 1840 by Ludwig Hubert Rutten (1809–1891) and Jacob Adrian Hoecken (1810–1880) for the training of young people and teachers as well as for social-educational work.…

Oblates

(958 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Pueri oblati – II. Adults – III. Oblate Institutes I. Pueri oblati Oblates (from Lat. oblati, “offered”) were already known in the Early Church. Parents or guardians dedicated children to a monastic vocation, thus – echoing the Old Testament example of Samson and Samuel – offering their most precious possession to God. The legal basis of this practice was the paternal right of disposal recognized by Jewish and Roman legal tradition. The early monastic rules make explicit provision for oblation…

Conceptionists

(186 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Nuns of the Immaculate Conception; see also Immaculate Conception, Order of the) was founded as a strictly contemplative order with the support of the Castilian court in 1484 in Galliana near Toledo by the Portuguese Beatriz de Silva y Meneses (Saint, c. 1426 – c. 1491), previously a lady at the court of Queen Isabella I of Castile, and confirmed by pope Innocent VIII in 1489. They originally lived by the rule and statutes of the Cisterc…

Sylvestrines

(216 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Sylvestrine order ( Congregatio Silvestrina Ordinis Sancti Benedicti, CSilvOSB) was founded in Montefano (near Fabriano, in Italy) in 1231 by the hermit Silvestro Guzzolini (c. 1177–1267) as a reformed Benedictine congregation; it was recognized in 1247 by Innocent IV as Ordo S. Benedicti de Montefano. The Benedictine Rule (Benedict, Rule of Saint) was made more strict by eremitic and mendicant provisions (small houses, manual labor, and begging). The order, limited to central Italy, was reoriented by its fourth prior ge…

Paulist Fathers

(183 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Societas Sacerdotum Missionariorum a Sancto Paulo Apostolo, CSP), founded in New York in 1858 by the convert I.T. Hecker (1819–1888; Redemptorist 1848–1857) for the purpose of winning ¶ as many Americans as possible to the Catholic faith. The rule of the Paulists is an adaptation of the rule of the Redemptorists, but without solemn vows. The Paulists represented a school of Catholicism open to modern culture and therefore became entangled in the “Americanism” controversy in the late 19th and early 20th cent…

Hospitallers

(398 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] is the collective name for the religious orders ( Ordines hospitaliarii) that emerged in the context of the medieval hospice movement (Hospice). In the wake of the crusades, chivalric groups assumed the responsibility for the care and services in the hospitals, thus leading to the chivalric hospital orders (Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem [Lazarites], established in the late 11th century for the care of lepers, focus on Western Europe from 1254, now present worldwide and activ…

Grey Brothers and Sisters

(298 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Graue Brüder und Schwestern (Grey Brothers and Sisters) was the popular German term in the Middle Ages for the Franciscans (Engl. Grey Friars), sometimes also for the Cistercians and Vallombrosans. The members of the Frati della Carità founded by Ludovio da Casoria OFM (beatified, 1814–1885) in 1859 in Naples and disbanded in 1971 were also called Frati bigi (Grey Brothers). Grey Sisters was the late medieval designation for Beguines/Beghards and sisterhoods living according to the Franciscan rule for the third order, especially in nort…

Sisters of the Holy Redeemer

(216 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Congregation of the Sisters of the Holy Redeemer was founded in 1849 by the mystically inclined Elisabeth (Maria Alfonsa) Eppinger (1814–1867) in Niederbronn (Alsace), with the assistance of the local pastor Johann David Reichard (1796–1867), for the care of the sick and the poor (fourth vow), and of children; it was ecumenically oriented from the outset. The congregation grew rapidly in Alsace, Germany (from 1852), Belgium, Switzerland, Holland, African countries (from 1931),…

Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ (PHJC)

(185 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Ger. Dernbacher Schwestern [Dernbach Sisters]), founded in 1851 by the maidservant Katharina (Maria) Kasper (1820–1898; beatified in 1978), in her hometown of Dernbach (Westerwald; today the general mother house), for the care of the sick and the poor, for the education of girls, and work in orphanages. They were recognized as a society by papal right in 1870; in 1890, the regulations based on the rule of St. Vincent de Paul were approved. The Dernbach Sisters, who at the founder…

Reclusive Orders

(82 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (eremitic orders, anchoritic orders). Most of these orders, of both men and women, were established in the 11th century; their traditions go back to the early Christian anchorites. Unlike monastics living a common life (Cenobites), their members largely lived in isolation, requiring a special monastery complex ( eremitorium), highly developed among the Camaldolese and Carthusians. Reclusive strains are also found among the Celestines, Carmelites, and Servites. Manfred Eder Bibliography K.S. Frank, “Einsiedler, Eremit,” LThK  3 III, 1995, 557–559 (bibl.).

Redemptorists (Liguorians)

(434 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, Congregatio Sanctissimi Redemptoris; CSR). The order was founded in 1732 in Scala, near Naples, by A.M. Liguori together with the Carmelite nun and mystic M. Celeste Crostarosa (1696–1755) and Tommaso Falcoia (1663–1743), bishop of Castellammare di Stabia. It is a congregation of priests who take simple life vows; its aim is sanctification through faithful discipleship and apostolic work. The members are to engage in extraordinary pastoral …

Secular Institutes

(223 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] are institutes of consecrated life in which members of the faithful (clergy and laypeople, hardly distinguishable outwardly) remain in their secular (and often familial) environment while pursuing perfection in love and sanctification of the world from within. Secular institutes were recognized canonically by the pontifical constitution Provida Mater issued in 1947. They are rooted in efforts, observable since the 17th century, to live a life consecrated to God without the characteristic features of the traditional orders, as …

Loreto

(355 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] is a significant Marian pilgrimage site near Ancona (central Italy). According to legend, the sanctuary there (“Santa Casa”), a simple rectangular wall with no foundation surrounded by a magnificent hall church (1468–1587) and clad with marble (1513–1538), probably following plans by D. Bramante, is Mary's place of birth in Nazareth, the house in which the annunciation of the immaculate conception took place, and in which Jesus grew up. After the Muslim conquest of Akko in 1291, a…

Sisters of (Divine) Providence

(498 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] There are some 65 congregations of women whose names include Providence or Divine Providence; they regularly engage in charitable and educational activities and today also perform pastoral ministries and evangelistic work. The most important include: ¶ 1. Soeurs de la Providence, founded in Vigy (Lorraine) in1762 by Jean-Martin Moyë (Blessed, 1730–1793) to teach in rural schools. Because he did not organize his Pauvres Soeurs on the model of a conventual congregation, by 1838 six independent congregations had come into being, including the Soeurs de la Providen…

Family, Order of the Holy

(338 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Influenced by the veneration of the Holy Family (Family, Holy), especially as such manifested itself in Canada, 105 communities of the Holy Family emerged between 1650 and 1986 which had mostly female members and which were active in numerous areas of the apostolate and charity. Communities include: 1. Missionaries of the Holy Family (Missionnaires de la Sainte Famille; MSF), established in 1895 by the people's missionary Jean-Baptiste Berthier (1840–1908) in Grave (Holland) to support those receiving a late calling; during the 20th century, it ¶ also engaged in m…

Eucharistines

(156 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Societas Sanctissimi Sacramenti, SSS), founded in Paris in 1856 by the Marist Father Pierre-Julien Eymard (1811–1868; beatified 1962) to praise the Holy Eucharist in worship, proclamation and writing (the strictly contemplative female branch in 1858 in Angers: “Sisters of the Most Holy Sacrament”) and was recognized as a congregation with papal rights in 1863. I…

Sisters of Saint Dorothy

(95 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (cf. St. Dorothy). Two Italian congregations that arose from the Women’s Union of St. Dorothea (founded by Don Luca Passi, 1789–1866) with educational and social missions: (1) the teaching sisters ( maestre) with motherhouses in Brescia, Venice, Rome and Vicenza; and (2) sisters ( suore) dispersed around the world and numbering approx. 1,600 members with motherhouses in Rome and Cemmo near Brescia. Manfred Eder Bibliography ¶ G. Rocca & C. Vianelli, “Maestre di Santa Dorotea,” DIP V, 1978, 840–843 G. Rocca et al., eds., “Santa Dorotea, Suore di,” DIP  VIII, 1988, 677…

Servites

(338 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Servants of Mary, Fratres Servi S. Mariae, Ordo Servorum Mariae, OSM), a clerical order associated with the mendicants, founded in Florence in the first half of the 13th century as a group of hermits; documented in 1249 as Servi S. Mariae (“Servants of Mary”). After difficult initial years, they slowly expanded throughout Italy; in the 13th century they reached Germany (13 houses in 1404: first in Halle, 1257; then Germersheim, Halberstadt, and Himmelgarten). In the 15th century, they reached France, Spain, and Portuga…

Montfort Missionaries

(135 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Societas Mariae Montfortana, SMM), founded c. 1710 in Poitiers by Louis- Marie Grignion de Montfort (Saint; 1673–1716) as a ¶ congregation of priests, to strengthen the Catholic faith and promote the veneration of Mary (Mary, Veneration of). Under Gabriel Deshayes (superior: 1812–1841) the Montfort Missionaries expanded, and since 1871 they have carried out mission work abroad (in Haiti, Colombia, and elsewhere). Today they have 914 members in 30 countries (figures for the year 2008; headquarters in…

White Fathers

(251 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Missionaries of Africa; Missionarii Africae, MAfr; Patres Albi, PA), founded in 1868 in Algiers by its archbishop, C.M.A. Lavigerie, for missionary work in Africa; in 1869 he also founded the White Sisters (Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of Africa). The organization and spirituality of the White Fathers is modeled on the Jesuits; their central mission was to build a church with indigenous clergy; therefore they attached great importance to training catechists and priests in schoo…

Theatines

(179 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Ordo Theatinorum; Clerici Regulares, CR), the oldest order of clerics regular, founded in Rome in 1524 by Gaetano da Tiene (1480–1547) and other members of the Oratory of Divine Love, founded in 1517, including Gian Pietro Carafa, bishop of Chieti (Lat. Theate; hence the order’s name) and later Pope Paul IV. The order’s goal was renewal of the church through a reformed clergy; its primary activities were pastoral ministry, charitable work (caring for people with incurable diseases), training of priests, missionary work …

Vincentian Sisters

(454 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul – II. Strasbourg Congregation I. Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul (Filles de la Charité de Saint Vincent de Paul [FdC]; Puellae Caritatis), a congregation founded in Paris in 1633 by Vincent de Paul and L. de Marillac, initially to assist the Confrérie des Dames de Charité, a society of gentlewomen formed to care for poor and solitary invalids. They took only private vows, renewed annually, leaving them free for charitable work since they we…

Joseph, Orders of Saint

(848 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Men's Orders – II. Women's Orders Originating in Germany – III. Women's Orders Originating outside Germany Between 1517 and 1982, 172 orders (51 male and 121 female) named themselves after St. Joseph, the patron of workers and craftsmen, most of them in America (30), France (25), and Italy (24). I. Men's Orders 1. The Congregazione di S. Giuseppe (CSI; Giuseppini del Murialdo) was founded in 1873 in Turin by Leonardo Murialdo (St., 1828–1900) to educate and train the youth; today it is also active in Latin America and in 2005 had 621 members (generalate: Rome). 2. Obla…

Oratorians

(444 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Oratorians of Saint Philip Neri – II. French Oratory I. Oratorians of Saint Philip Neri (Oratory of Divine Love, Congregation of the Oratory, Philippians, Institutum Oratorii S. Philippi Nerii), congregation of secular priests who lead a common life of prayer and pastoral ministry in the spirit of P. Neri, united only by bonds of mutual love, without vows and binding commitments (albeit under statutes approved in 1612). The congregation was founded in 1552 in the oratory of its founder’s commu…

Pallottines

(343 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Society of the Catholic Apostolate, Societas Apostolatus Catholici), founded in 1835 by St. Vincent Pallotti (1795–1850) in Rome as a community of priests and brothers, in order to spread and deepen faith. Its members take no vows, but promise to live in ¶ community according to the counsels of perfection, for a limited time, or permanently. Clergy promise furthermore not to seek church honors, or to accept them without permission. From 1854 to 1947 the society was known as the Pia Societas Missionum. It has missions in the Cameroon (1890), southern Brazil, no…

Paul, Orders of Saint

(752 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] While the Minims trace their German name Paulaner (today best known as the name of a brewery with roots in the order’s history) to Francis of Paula, the hermit congregations of the Pauline Fathers are named for their founder, Paul of Thebes, and in Spanish-speaking areas the Lazarists are also called Paules after their founder, Vincent de Paul; several other important religious orders take their name from Paul, the prince of the apostles. I. Angelic Sisters of Saint Paul ( Sorores angelicae S. Pauli), an order founded in 1530 during the pre-Tridentine reform mov…

Confraternities of Christian Doctrine

(363 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Since the turn of the 14th to the 15th century, in the wake of Humanism and of J. de Gerson's pastoral work with children, youth fraternities and communities of Christian doctrine in northern Italy (e.g. in Florence and Bologna) had already begun to devote themselves to the main interests of the later Christian doctrine brotherhoods. The latter emerged in the second half of the 16th century as a reaction to the confessional conflicts of the time and aim…

Xaverian Brothers and Sisters

(252 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The missionary work of Francis Xavier, the apostle of India and Japan, and his great prestige, have made him the patron of various orders. I. Orders of Men Missionari Saveriani (Societas Xaveriana, SX), founded in Parma in 1895 by Guido Maria Conforti (1865–1935) for missionary work; they began in China in 1898. Today they work primarily in Africa, America, and East Asia. The Missionary Society of St. Francis Xavier (Pilar Fathers, SFX), founded in Goa (India) in 1887, reorganized in 1939 under diocesan law …

Sulpicians

(205 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Prêtres du Clergé, Congregatio Sulpitiensis, Societas Presbyterorum a Sancto Sulpitio, PSS), a congregation of secular priests (without vows) founded in 1641 by Jean-Jacques Olier (1608–1657), pastor of St.-Sulpice in Paris, for the education and spiritual formation of seminarians and priests in the spirit of the Tridentine decree on seminaries. It is named after Archbishop Sulpicius II of Bourges (615–647). Their spirituality is christological, eucharistic, and Marian and was st…

Trinitarians

(252 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Ordo Ss. Trinitatis et redemptionis captivorum, OSST; Fratres O.S.T.), a clerical order founded c. 1194 by St. John de Matha (1160–1213) in Cerfroid, near Metz, in honor of the Holy Trinity, to ransom or exchange captured Christians (16th–19th cent., involved in abolitionism), and for pastoral care and care of the sick in hospices and prisons. It received papal recognition in 1198. In the Middle Ages, it had 150 monasteries in 12 provinces throughout southern France, Spain, and I…

Camillians

(208 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Clerici regulares ministrantes infirmis, MI; Ordo Sancti Camilli, OSC). The Camillians are the only clerical order of the Catholic Church devoted entirely to charitable service. The order was founded in Rome in 1582 by Camillo de Lellis (1550–1614) to renew the ministry of service to the sick (fourth vow: to serve the sick, regardless of mortal danger – hence grave losses during epidemics of the plague and cholera). After the demise of the Order of Servants o…

Marian Congregations

(398 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Marian Congregations or sodalities are Catholic lay fellowships or associations ¶ that seek to help their members grow in the faith, live their religion in everyday life, and support the apostolic mission of the church. To make Jesuit spirituality (Jesuits) available to lay people, in 1563 the Belgian Jesuit Jan Leunis (1536–1584) brought together a group of students at the Jesuit College in Rome to form the first Marian Congregation. In 1584 Gregory XIII erected it canonically as the mother congregation ( Prima Primaria) of all Marian Congregations. As the Jesu…

Mother of God, Orders of the

(425 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] 1. “Regular Clerics of the Mother of God” (Ordo Clericorum Regularium Matris Dei [OMD, CRMD], Leonardini), founded in Lucca by Giovanni Leonardi (St., 1543–1609) for the sanctification of its members and for teaching poor children; originated from the association called “Preti reformati della Beata Vergine” established in 1574. The congregation, which was elevated to become an order in 1621, soon spread rapidly in Italy (general motherhouse in Rome), but it declined considerably i…

Johannesbund

(110 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Johannesbund at Leutesdorf (Rhine) was founded in 1919 by Johannes M. Haw (1871–1949) as an initiative on the part of lay people and priests to spread the kingdom of God after the example of John the Baptist. Its members work in cooperation with the Sisters of St. John the Baptist and the Missionaries of St. John the Baptist to support charitable and educational institutions in Germany, Portugal, Mozambique, and India; they also have a press apostolate and conduct retreats (Exercises, Spiritual). Manfred Eder Bibliography J. Fleckenstein, Über die Idee und die h…

Passionists

(358 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregatio Passionis Jesu Christi, CP) was founded in 1720 as a clerical congregation on Monte Argentario near Orbetello, in Italy, by the hermit and preacher of repentance Saint Paul of the Cross (Paolo Francesco Danei, 1694–1775); the original name of the congregation was Discalced Clerks of the Most Holy Cross and Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Members take a special vow to venerate and preach the passion and death of Jesus Christ; they engage in a contemplative life, alon…

Kolbe, Maximilian Maria

(366 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (baptized Rajmund; Jan 8, 1894, Zduńska Wola near Lodz, Poland – Aug 14, 1941, Auschwitz concentration camp), a Catholic martyr (IV). Kolbe joined the Order of Friars Minor Conventual (OFMConv, known as the Conventual ¶ Franciscans) in 1910, studied in Rome from 1912, earned his Dr.phil. in 1915, was ordained to the priesthood in 1918, and received his Dr.theol. in 1919. In 1917, together with six brothers from the order, he established the Marian prayer community Militia Immaculatae (M.I.) as a spiritual militia a…

School Sisters

(488 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] in the broad sense are members of the many orders and congregations of women whose primary apostolate is in the field of education and teaching; in the narrower sense, the term denotes sisters of the communities whose names reflect their teaching ministry. I. Sisters of the Christian Schools of Mercy (Soeurs des Écoles chrétiennes de la Misericorde, Sisters of St. Mary Magdalene Postel, SMMP), founded in Cherbourg (Normandy) in 1807 by Julie Postel (St.; 1756–1846), a teacher, to educate the rural population. The first Ge…

Paulus, Orden vom heiligen Paulus

(620 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . Während sich die Paulaner (Minimen) von Franz von Paula und die Eremitenkongregationen der Pauliner von Paulus von Theben herleiten (im span. Sprachraum werden auch die Lazaristen wegen ihres Gründers Vincentius a Paulo Pauliner genannt), berufen sich folgende bedeutendere Ordensgemeinschaften auf den Apostelfürsten Paulus: I.Angeliken (Sorores angelicae S. Pauli), 1530 im Zuge der vortridentinischen Reformbewegung durch den Arzt und Priester Antonio Maria Zaccaria (hl., 1502–1539) und die Gräfin Ludovica Torelli (1499–…

Pallottiner

(266 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Gesellschaft des Kath. Apostolats, Societas Apostolatus Catholici, SAC), 1835 durch Vincenzo Pallotti (hl., 1795–1850) in Rom als Priester- und Brüdergemeinschaft zur Verbreitung und Vertiefung des Glaubens gegründet (ohne Gelübde, aber mit zeitlichem bzw. dauerndem Versprechen zu gemeinsamem Leben nach den Evangelischen Räten; für Kleriker außerdem: kirchl. Ehren weder anzustreben noch ohne Erlaubnis anzunehmen); 1854–1947 »Fromme Missionsgesellschaft« (Pia Societas Missionum, …

Niederbronner Schwestern

(188 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Kongregation der Schwestern vom Göttlichen Erlöser), 1849 durch die myst. veranlagte Elisabeth (Maria Alfonsa) Eppinger (1814–1867) in Niederbronn (Elsaß) mit Hilfe des Ortspfarrers Johann David Reichard (1796–1867) zur Kranken- und Armenpflege (viertes Gelübde) sowie zur Kinderfürsorge gegründet und von Anfang an ökum. ausgerichtet. Rasche Ausbreitung im Elsaß, in Deutschland (seit 1852), in Belgien, der Schweiz, Holland, in afrikanischen Ländern (seit 1931) und Indien (seit 19…

Stigmatiner/Stigmatinerinnen

(152 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] .  I.Stigmatiner (Stimmatini, Bertoniani, Congregatio Presbyterorum a Sacris Stigmatibus Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, CSS, CPS), 1816 durch den Volksmissionar Gaspare Bertoni (1777–1853) in Verona (Norditalien) gegründet. Nach dem Vorbild der zuvor unterdrückten Jesuiten sollten die S. missionarisch und erzieherisch tätig sein. Gegenwärtig (2002) mit etwa 400 Mitgliedern u.a. in Italien, Brasilien, den USA und Südafrika vertreten (Generalat: Rom). II.Stigmatinerinnen (Stimmatine, Povere Figlie delle Sacre Stimmate di S. Francesco d'As…

Vinzentinerinnen

(378 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . I.Filles de la Charité de Saint Vincent de Paul (FdC; Puellae caritatis), 1633 in Paris durch Vincentius a Paulo und L. de Marillac – zunächst als Helferinnen der »Confrérie des Dames de Charité«, einer Vereinigung von Bürgersfrauen zur Betreuung armer und alleinstehender Kranker – gegründet. Sie legten nur private Gelübde (mit jährlicher Erneuerung) ab, wodurch sie nicht dem Ordensrecht mit Klausurgebot unterstanden und für karitative Tätigkeit frei waren. Die »Töchter der Liebe« bild…

Schönstatt-Bewegung

(204 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . 1914 aus der päd. Arbeit Pater J. Kentenichs im Studienheim der Pallottiner zu Schönstatt (heute Stadtteil von Vallendar am Rhein) entstandene geistl. Bewegung, die 1964 ihre Autonomie erhielt. Mittels einer vom bibl. Bundesgedanken (Bund: V.), dem Streben nach »Werktagsheiligkeit« und apostolischer Einstellung geprägten Spiritualität und Päd. versucht die Sch., Hilfen für ein menschliches und christl. Leben in einer pluralistischen Gesellschaft zu geben. Ziel ist letztlich die…

Salesianer.

(334 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] I.Missionare d es hl. Franz von Sales (Missionnaires de St François de Sales d'Annecy, MSFS), 1838 von Pierre-Marie Mermier (1790–1862) in Annecy (Frankreich) für pastorale und missionarische Aufgaben im Geiste Franz' von Sales gegründete Kongregation. Bereits seit 1845 in Indien vertreten, wo heute mehr als 75% der Mitglieder leben und als »Fransalians« pastoral, erzieherisch und wiss. tätig sind. Derzeit etwa 700 Mitglieder (Generalat: Annecy, Frankreich). II.Oblaten des hl. Franz von Sales, s. Oblaten: III.,2. III.Salesianer Don Boscos (SDB; bis …

Ursulinen

(366 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Gesellschaft der hl. Ursula; Ordo Sanctae Ursulae, OSU), bedeutendster Frauenorden zur Erziehung (: V.,2.) und Unterweisung junger Mädchen. Gegründet 1535 in Brescia (Norditalien) durch Angela Merici (hl., um 1470–1540) als Frauenvereinigung mit Keuschheitsversprechen und Regel, aber ohne gemeinschaftliches Leben. Bedeutendster Förderer war K. Borromäus, der die Überarbeitung der urspr. Regel veranlaßte und 1576 die Ansiedlung der seit 1566 in Mailand wirkenden U. in allen Diöz…

Theatiner

(160 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Ordo Theatinorum; Clerici Regulares, CR), ältester Regularkleriker-Orden, gegründet 1524 in Rom durch Gaetano da Tiene (1480–1547) und weitere Mitglieder des 1517 ins Leben gerufenen »Oratoriums der göttlichen Liebe«, darunter Gian Pietro Carafa, Bf. von Chieti (lat. Theate; daher der Ordensname) und nachmals Papst Paul IV. Ordensziel war die Erneuerung der Kirche durch einen reformierten Klerus und seine Hauptaufgaben Seelsorge, karitatives Wirken (Sorge um unheilbar Kranke) un…

Weiße Väter, Pères blancs

(225 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Afrikamissionare; Missionarii Africae, MAfr; Patres Albi, PA), gegründet in Algier 1868 für die Missionsarbeit in Afrika durch den dortigen Erzbf. C.M. A. Lavigerie, der 1869 auch die Weißen Schwestern (Missionsschwestern Unserer Lieben Frau von Afrika) ins Leben rief. Die Organisation und Spiritualität der W.V. ist jesuitisch (Jesuiten) geprägt, ihre zentrale Aufgabe stellt der Aufbau einer von einheimischen Kräften getragenen Kirche dar, weswegen auf die Ausbildung von Katechisten und Priestern in Schule…

Opus Dei

(430 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (»Werk Gottes«; offiziell: Praelatura personalis Sanctae Crucis et Operis Dei), eine der einflußreichsten und zugleich umstrittensten Einrichtungen innerhalb der kath. Kirche. 1928 in Madrid durch den span. Priester Josemari´a Escriva´ de Balaguer y Alba´s (hl., 1902–1975) als Verein für männliche Laien (1930: Gründung der streng getrennten weiblichen Abteilung) zur Heiligung der Arbeit und zur Verchristlichung der Gesellschaft ins Leben gerufen und 1941 als »Pia unio« approbiert…

Piaristen

(215 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Arme Regularkleriker der Gottesmutter der frommen Schulen, Scolopi, Escolapios, Ordo Clericorum Regularium Pauperum Matris Dei Scholarum Piarum, SP, SchP), 1602 in Rom durch den span. Priester Jose´ de Calasanz (hl., 1556/57–1648, 1642 als Generaloberer abgesetzt) gegründet und 1621 zum Orden erhoben. Gekennzeichnet durch eine marianisch (Marienverehrung: I.) und ignatianisch (Ignatius von Loyola) geprägte Spiritualität und zentralistische Verfassung; Sondergelübde der Jugenderz…

Serviten

(286 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Diener Mariä, Fratres Servi S. Mariae, Ordo Servorum Mariae, OSM), in der 1. Hälfte des 13.Jh. zu Florenz als Eremitensiedlung gegründeter klerikaler, den Mendikanten zugeordneter Orden, 1249 als »Servi S. Mariae« (Marienknechte) urkundlich belegt. Nach schwieriger Anfangsphase langsame Ausbreitung über Italien hinaus: im 13.Jh. in Deutschland (1404 13 Niederlassungen, als erste Halle [1257], Germersheim, Halberstadt, Himmelgarten), im 15.Jh. in Frankreich, Spanien und Portugal.…

Xaver, Franz, Brüder und Schwestern vom heiligen Franz Xaver

(222 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . Die missionarische Tätigkeit des Apostels Indiens und Japans und sein hohes Ansehen machten F. Xavier zum Patron diverser Ordensgemeinschaften, so z.B.:m I.Männlich: Missionari Saveriani (Societas Xaveriana, SX), 1895 in Parma von Guido Maria Conforti (1865–1935) für Missionsarbeit gegründet; ab 1898 in China. In der Gegenwart v.a. in Afrika, Amerika und Ostasien tätig. – Missionary Society of St. Francis Xavier (Pilar Fathers, SFX), 1887 in Goa (Indien) gegründet, 1939 als diözesanrechtliche Gesellschaft des Apostolischen Lebens reorganisiert. – Brüd…

Salvatorianer

(210 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Gesellschaft des Göttlichen Heilandes, Societas Divini Salvatoris, SDS), von Johann Baptist Jordan (1848–1918) 1881 in Rom als »Apostolische Lehrgesellschaft« gegründete klerikale Kongregation mit umfassender apostolischer Tätigkeit, v.a. auf dem Gebiet der kath. Presse und in der Mission (Indien, Südamerika, China, Afrika). »Heilung« ist der zentrale Gedanke der Spiritualität der S., auf deren marianische Ausrichtung die Verehrung Marias als »Mutter des Heilands« (Maria Mater S…

Schulbrüder

(381 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] Schulbrüder, Bez. für die Mitglieder diverser kath. Kongregationen mit Lehr- und Erziehungsapostolat. I.Brüder der christlichen Schulen (De La Salle Brothers, Fratres Scholarum Christianarum, FSC), 1681 von J.B. de  La Salle in Reims gegründet. Allmähliche Entwicklung zur 1725 päpstl. anerkannten Ordenskongregation, die sich die schulische Erziehung der Unter- und Mittelschicht (Elementarunterricht, Realschule, -gymnasium) und die Ausbildung von Lehrern zur Aufgabe machte. Bald breite Akzeptan…

Trinitarier

(216 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Ordo Ss. Trinitatis et redemptionis captivorum, OSST; Fratres O.S. T.), von Johannes v. Matha (hl., 1160–1213) um 1194 in Cerfroid bei Metz (Frankreich) zur Verehrung der Hl. Dreifaltigkeit, zum Loskauf bzw. Austausch gefangener Christen (16. – 19.Jh. Einsatz für Sklavenbefreiung) sowie zur Seelsorge und Krankenpflege in Hospizen und Gefängnissen gegründeter Priesterorden (1198 päpstl. anerkannt), der im Spät-MA 150 Klöster in zwölf Ordensprovinzen in ganz Südfrankreich, Spanien…

Orden, katholische

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] I. Begriff und Wesen O. sind organisierte Verbände geistl. Gemeinschaften. Konstitutives Element des Ordensstandes (status religiosus) ist die auf Dauer angelegte Lebensweise in bes. enger Nachfolge Christi zur Verherrlichung Gottes, zur Auferbauung der Kirche und zum Heil der Welt (c.573 @ 1 CIC/1983). Diese Lebensweise wird meist von den in Christi Lehre und Beispiel grundgelegten Evangelischen Räten (Armut, Ehelosigkeit und Gehorsam) bestimmt (c.575) und in den drei klassischen G…

Ward

(166 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] Ward, Mary (23.1.1585 Mulwith bei Ripon, England – 30.1.1645 Heworth bei York), Gründerin der Englischen Fräulein/Institutum Beatae Mariae Virginis (Congregatio Jesu). Nach Eintritt bei den wallonischen Klarissen 1606 in St-Omer (Flandern) rief W. ebd. 1609/10 zur Mädchenerziehung und Seelsorgsarbeit ein Institut nach dem Vorbild der Jesuiten ins Leben. Sie hatte bereits zehn Niederlassungen mit Schulen in mehreren Ländern Europas gegründet, als Urban VIII. ihr Werk 1631 u.a. wege…

Vorsehungsschwestern

(474 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . Es existieren etwa 65 weibliche Kongregationen, die »Vorsehung« bzw. »Göttliche Vorsehung« im Namen führen und regelmäßig sozialkaritative und erzieherische Tätigkeiten wahrnehmen, in der Gegenwart auch pastorale Dienste und Aufgaben der Evangelisation. Zu den wichtigsten zählen: 1.Soeurs de la Providence, gegründet 1762 in Vigy (Lothringen) für ländlichen Schulunterricht durch Jean-Martin Moyë (selig, 1730–1793), der seine »Pauvres Soeurs« jedoch nicht nach dem Kongregationsmodell organisierte. Daher kam es bis 18…
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