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Schola

(1,536 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
derived from the Greek scholḗ (σχολή; scholḗ), earliest documented use in Lucil. 756; in general, it refers to leisure, time spent not working (definition of the term in Fest. 470 L.) and is thus used to describe a) a learned treatise, debate or lecture (e.g. Cic. Tusc. 1,8), b) the place where teachers and pupils meet, i.e. the school (Mart. 1,35,2) and c) the followers of a particular teacher or doctrine (as in Plin. HN 20,85). The aspect of leisure and relaxation is also to some extent retained in its use as a technical term in Roman architecture. [German version] [1] Architectural feature …

Palatium

(244 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[English Version] (aedes Apollinis et Matris Magnae; Palatin), einer der sieben Hügel Roms in zentraler Lage zw. Forum und Tiber, mehrfacher Schauplatz des Romulusmythos (Säugung der Zwillinge, Vogelschau, Stadtgründung). In die Reihe der ehrwürdigen Kultmale, die an Roms Frühgesch. erinnerten (lupercal, casa Romuli, Roma quadrata, scalae Caci), wurde 191 v.Chr. der Tempel der Mater Magna integriert, die Vergil (Aen. 6,784–787) zur Schutzgöttin des Aeneas stilisiert. Auf dem Areal vor dem Tempel u…

Schola

(1,249 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
entlehnt von griech. scholḗ (σχολή), erstmals belegt bei Lucil. 756, bezeichnet allg. die Muße, Ruhe von der Arbeit (Begriffsdefinition bei Fest. 470 L.) und daher a) eine gelehrte Abhandlung, Unterredung oder Vorlesung (etwa Cic. Tusc. 1,8), b) den Ort, wo Lehrer und Schüler zusammenkommen, die Schule (Mart. 1,35,2) und c) die Anhänger eines Lehrers oder Lehrsystems, eine Schulrichtung (Plin. nat. 20,85). Der Aspekt der Muße und Erholung hat sich teilweise auch in folgenden Bed. des t.t. s. der röm. Architektur erhalten: [English version] [1] Bauelement in Thermen Laut Vitr. 5,10…

Ara Pacis Augustae

(361 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] The Ara Pacis (Altar of Augustan Peace) was voted by the senate on Jul 4, 13 bce, on the occasion of Augustus's victorious return from the west; it was consecrated on Campus Martius in Rome on Jan 30, 9 bce, the same year as the giant sundial constructed in conjunction with it: on Augustus's birthday, the shadow of the gnomon pointed to the front of the altar. Fragments were first discovered in 1568 near the Via Flaminia; excavations to…

Apuleius von Madaura

(240 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] (c. 125 ce – c. 180 ce, Africa) was a Platonist and orator. He was reared in Carthage, studied in Athens, after which he traveled in the East where he was initiated in several mystery cults. He practiced law in Rome whence he returned to Africa. After he married the wealthy widow Aemilia Pudentilla, her relatives accused him of sorcery in 158 ce, but he was acquitted. Apuleius delivered prize declamations in various cities, including Carthage, where he was also imperial priest and was honored with a public statue. Works: (1) Metamorphoses, an (allegorical) novel …

Epidauros,

(402 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] a city in the Argolis on the southern coast of the Saronic Gulf with a sanctuary to Asclepius. The city is first mentioned in Homer's Iliad 2.561; it ¶ was a member of the amphictyony (cultic alliance) of the Poseidon sanctuary of Kalauria (Poros) and fought on the side of Sparta in the wars of the 5th/4th centuries bce. The city administered the sanctuary of Asclepius, located about nine kilometers to the southwest. Archaeological finds on Mount Kynortion attest to the cult of the hero Maleatas (7th cent. bce), who was later assimilated by Ap…

Delphi

(545 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] was a Phocian city, famed for its oracle sanctuary of Apollo. The ritual site on the southern slope of Mount Parnassus, approx. 500 m above the Pleistos Valley, towers above the vertical cliffs of Phaedriades with the Castalian Spring. There was a Mycenean settlement with three grave chambers and traces of a cult below the Apollo temple and in the Marmaria area. The veneration of Apollo, however, is only assured from the 8th century bce at the flourishing sanctuary and a continuity of the cult since Mycenean times is not demo…

Palatine Hill

(275 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] ( Palatium; aedes Apollinis et Matris Magnae), one of the seven hills of Rome, located centrally between the Forum and the Tiber; site of several elements of the Romulus myth (suckling of the twins, auspices, founding of the city). The series of venerable cultic sites commemorating the early history of Rome ( lupercal, casa Romuli, Roma quadrata, scalae Caci) was expanded in 191 bce to include the temple of the Mater Magna , whom Virgil ( Aen. 6.784–787) makes the tutelary deity of Aeneas. The ludi Megalenses were held in her honor in the area before the temple and…

Eleusis

(442 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] was a site and district in Attica with the mystery sanctuary of Demeter. On its acropolis traces of an Early Bronze Age settlement, a Mycenean domed grave, and a palace have been found. Originally ¶ an independent kingdom rivaling Athens, Eleusis was under its overlordship from the 7th century. The Great Mysteries in Eleusis were, alongside the Great Panathenea, the most important festivals of the Athenian state, although the priestly offices …

Olympia

(653 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[English Version] Olympia, Heiligtum des Zeus in der Landschaft Elis, am Fuß des Kronoshügels zw. den Flüssen Alpheios und Kladeos im Territorium von Pisa gelegen. Am Ort eines prähist. Tumulus (2300–2100 v.Chr.) wurde seit ca.1000 v.Chr. Pelops, der Namensgeber der Peloponnes, verehrt (Kyrieleis). 120 m östlich entstanden um 700 das älteste Stadion und Hippodrom. Das Heiligtum wurde durch Verlegung des Kladeos nach Westen ausgedehnt, der Zugang vom Kronosfuß nach Süden verlagert. Nahe dem Pelopio…

Olympia

(829 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] Olympia, sanctuary of Zeus in the region of Elis, at the foot of Mount Kronos, near where the Alpheus and Cladeus meet, in the territory controlled by Pisa. After c. 1000 bce, Pelops, the eponym of the Peloponnesus, was worshiped on the site of a prehistoric tumulus (2300–2100 bce; Kyrieleis). Around 700 bce, the earliest stadium and hippodrome were built 120 m to the east. The sanctuary was expanded by diverting the Cladeus westward, and access from the foot of Kronos was shifted southwards. Near the Pelopion stood ancient cultic …

Didyma,

(618 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] also known as Branchidai, was a sanctuary of Apollo with spring oracle in Asia Minor and was built on a plateau overlooking the Gulf of Iasos in the Carian-Ionian border region. Pausanias (7.2.6) relates that it was founded in pre-Greek times on the site of the hieros gamos of Leto and Zeus, where Apollo was conceived (SIG 590.8–10). Apollo granted the shepherd Branchos, the eponymous ancestor of the priestly family of the Branchides, the gift of divination. Around 700 bce, an enclosed cultic precinct arose with brick structures and a…

Delos,

(632 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] an island (3.5 km2) between Myconos and Rheneia, was considered by reason of its sanctuary of Apollo the center of the Cyclades and a holy island. On Mount Kynthos (113 m) there was an early Cycladic settlement in the 3rd millennium bce, in the center of the later ritual site a late Mycenean settlement (1400–1200), and the cult of a female deity, later Artemis. With the settlement of Ionic Greeks around 1000 bce, she became associated with Apollo and Leto in a triad of gods, in which Apollo soon assumed priority. According to Hom. Hym. 3.45ff., Delos was the birth place of…

Claros

(646 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] is a sanctuary of Apollo with an oracle in Ionia, approx. 15 km northwest of Ephesus and 2 km from the harbor Notion in the Hales river valley (for the location see Greece, map); it belonged to the municipality of Colophon (12 km to the north, the site of coins bearing Apollo's image from the 6th cent. bce). The cultic site first mentioned in the Homeric hymn to Apollo (v. 40) arose with the Greek settlement in the 10th/9th centuries bce; the oracle, supposedly founded in antiquity by Manto or his son Mopsos (Pausanias 7.3.1f.; Strab. 14.1.27), …

Sanctuaries

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[German version] I. General The word 'sanctuary' is derived, like the French sanctuaire, Italian santuario, etc., from the Latin sanctus ('set off'). On the other hand, the German collective term for a wide variety of types of cult places, Heiligtum, traces back to the Germanic adjective * heila-, * heilu- ('whole', 'complete') [1. 78]. In 20th-cent. German-language scholarship of religion, the German term eventually came to be used synonymously with the above-mentioned terms derived from sanctus. This is connected with, among other things, the archaeological and lite…

Art

(1,936 words)

Author(s): Allen, James (Pittsburgh) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
(τέχνη, téchnē, Lat. ars). [German version] I. Greek No single term available to us today is able to express the concept of art as understood in antiquity; it extended from craft-related activities to the sciences, and included the activities described by us as ‘arts’, but without attaching to them any special significance. Etymologically, téchnē derives from the unattested *τέκτ-σνα ( *tékt-sna), the skill of the τέκτων ( téktōn, ‘carpenter’) [1]. In Homer, the concept of art already refers to the skill of craftsmen in general. The specialist activities relate…

Heiligtum

(994 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[English version] I. Generelles Dt. Sammelbegriff für unterschiedlichste Arten von Kultstätten; nicht sprachverwandt mit den aus dem lat. sanctus (“eingehegt”) hergeleiteten mitteleurop. Begriffen sanctuaire, santuario und sanctuary: der dt. Begriff H. geht auf das german. Adj. * heila-, * heilu- (“heil”, “ganz”) zurück [1. 78]. In der dt.-sprachigen religionswiss. Forsch. des 20. Jh. wird H. mittlerweile synonym zu den o. gen. von sanctus abgeleiteten Termini gebraucht. Dies steht u.a. in Zusammenhang mit den arch. und lit. Belegen für die tatsächliche …

Kunst

(1,793 words)

Author(s): Allen, James (Pittsburgh) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
(τέχνη, téchnē, lat. ars). [English version] I. Griechisch Kein heute verfügbarer Einzelbegriff vermag die ant. Konzeption von K. wiederzugeben, die sich von Betätigungen handwerklicher Art bis hin zu den Wiss. erstreckte; die von uns als “Künste” bezeichneten Tätigkeiten sind darin eingeschlossen, ihnen wird jedoch keine bes. Bed. zugemessen. Etym. leitet sich téchnē von dem nicht bezeugten *τέκτ-σνα ( *tékt-sna) ab, der Geschicklichkeit des τέκτων ( téktōn, “Zimmermann”) [1]. Schon bei Homer bezieht sich K. auf die Geschicklichkeit von Handwerkern ganz allg…

Ekphrasis

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Reitz, Christiane (Rostock) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
(ἔκφρασις; ékphrasis) I. Literature A. Greek [German version] 1. Definition In the rhetorical terminology of the Imperial period, ekphrasis is a description which aims at vividness (ἐνάργεια, enárgeia) (thus in Rhet. Her., Theon, Hermogenes, Aphthonius, etc.), that is, a description which tries to bring its object clearly in front of the readers' eyes: persons, things, situations, cities, seasons, celebrations, etc. (cf. [8; 17]). The object was not specified until Nicolaus Rhetor (5th cent. AD) as ‘primarily statues, visual works (εἰκόνες), and related things’. The ekphrasis

Orakel

(1,381 words)

Author(s): Vollmer, Ulrich | Hutter, Manfred | Wandrey, Irina | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der vom lat. Substantiv »oraculum« abgeleitete Begriff O. bez. zum einen in engem Anschluß an die urspr. Wortbedeutung die Orakelstätte, also den Ort, an dem ein Götterspruch (orare, »sprechen«) dem Menschen übermittelt wird (s. u. II., 3.), sodann, wie für den antiken Sprachgebrauch ebenfalls üblich, den Orakelspruch selber, ferner das Orakelwesen als Institution, in Einzelfällen schließlich auch eine konkrete, mit der Orakelerteilung befaßte Person (…

Ekphrasis

(3,155 words)

Author(s): Fantuzzi, Marco (Florenz) | Reitz, Christiane (Rostock) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
I. Literatur A. Griechisch [English version] 1. Definition In der rhet. Terminologie der Kaiserzeit ist die E. eine Beschreibung, die sich Anschaulichkeit (ἐνάργεια, enárgeia) zum Ziel setzt (so Rhet. Her., Theon, Hermogenes, Aphthonius usw.), d.h. dem Leser ihren Gegenstand klar vor Augen stellen will: Personen, Sachen, Situationen, Orte, Jahreszeiten, Feste usw. (vgl. [8; 17]); erst Nikolaos Rhetor (5. Jh.n. Chr.) spezifiziert als ihr Objekt “vor allem Statuen, Bildwerke (εἰκόνες) und Verwandtes”. Die E. verfolgt dieses Ziel vor allem durch Klarheit (σαφήνεια, saphḗneia…

Oracle

(1,534 words)

Author(s): Vollmer, Ulrich | Hutter, Manfred | Wandrey, Irina | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religion I. Religious Studies The term “oracle,” derived from the Latin noun oraculum, denotes, (1) in close connection with the original meaning of the word, the oracle site, i.e. the place at which a divine statement ( orare, “to speak”) was communicated to a person (see II, 3 below); (2) also common in ancient usage, the oracular statement itself; (3) the oracle as an institution; (4) in individual cases also a specific person involved in issuing the oracle (e.g. the medium of Nechun…

Fuficius

(325 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Q.F. Cornutus Senator, praetorian governor, beginning of his career under Trajan or Hadrian Senator originating from the region of Histonium. His career started under Trajan or Hadrian. After the praetorate iuridicus of Asturia et Callaecia in the north of Spain, legionary legate in Moesia, praetorian governor in Pannonia inferior from at least AD 145 to 147, cos. suff. in 147; consular governor of Moesia inferior between 148 and 155. In Histonium a large monument, possibly a quadriga, was erected in his honour with public funds on the order of the council of decurion…

Park

(20,703 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam) | Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) | Niedermeier, Michael | Trauzettel, Ludwig | Rößler, Detlef | Et al.
Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam) [German version] I. Gardens (CT) Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam) [German version] A. Concept (CT) The distinction between parks and gardens was first discussed in the 18th cent. by William Gilpin [33. 190-204] and Humphry Repton [33. 227-243] in their treatises on garden theory. For the garden, close to the house, they recommended stricter control and the use of architectural and geometric structuring (cf. also Stephen Switzer [33. 154-165]), while for the more distant park…

Gardens

(2,325 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Carroll-Spillecke, Maureen (Cologne) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Horticulture s.  Horticulture Renger, Johannes (Berlin) [2] Gardens [German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt In the immediate proximity of homes, gardens were important providers of shade for humans and livestock. Pleasure gardens as part of palace grounds enhanced prestige. As part of the temple grounds they symbolized the cosmos. The Garden of Eden is a mythological invention (Gen 2,8; 2,15). Gardens were depicted in reliefs (Assyria) and wall paintings (Egypt). Assyrian kings recorded …

Park

(15,858 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike | Kunst, Christiane | Niedermeier, Michael | Trauzettel, Ludwig | Rößler, Detlef | Et al.
Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike [English version] I. Garten/Gartenanlagen (RWG) Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike [English version] A. Begriff (RWG) Der Unterschied zw. Park (P.) und Garten (G.) wird erstmals im 18. Jh. von William Gilpin [33. 190-204] und Humphry Repton [33. 227-243] in ihren gartentheoretischen Schriften diskutiert: Sie empfehlen (ähnlich wie Stephen Switzer [33. 154-165]) für den hausnahen G. eine stärkere Regulierung und architektonisch-geometrische Gliederung, für den weiter entfernten P. dagegen eine k…

Garten

(2,228 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Carroll-Spillecke, Maureen (Köln) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[English version] [1] Gartenbau s. Hortikultur Renger, Johannes (Berlin) [2] Garten, Gartenanlagen [English version] I. Alter Orient und Ägypten In unmittelbarer Nähe der Wohnhäuser waren G. wichtig als Spender von Schatten für Mensch und Vieh. Lust-G. als Teil von Palastanlagen dienten zudem dem Prestige, als Teil von Tempelanlagen symbolisierten sie kosmisches Geschehen. Ein myth. Konstrukt ist der G. Eden (Gn 2,8; 2,15). G. werden auf Reliefs (Assyrien) und Wandgemälden (Ägypten) dargestellt. Assyr. Könige beri…

Fuficius

(292 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Köln) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[English version] [1] Q.F.Cornutus Senator, praetorischer Statthalter, Beginn seiner Laufbahn unter Trajan oder Hadrian Senator, der aus der Gegend von Histonium stammte. Beginn seiner Laufbahn unter Traian oder Hadrian. Nach der Praetur iuridicus von Asturia et Callaecia im Norden Spaniens, Legionslegat in Moesia, praetorischer Statthalter in Pannonia inferior mindestens von 145-147 n.Chr., cos. suff. 147; consularer Statthalter von Moesia inferior zwischen 148 und 155. In Histonium wurde ihm auf Beschluß des Dekurionenrates und mit öffentlichen …
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