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Parker, Matthew

(290 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Aug 6, 1504, Norwich – May 17, 1575, Lambeth), son of a well-to-do weaver, studied at Corpus Christi College in Cambridge from 1522 to 1528; he remained close to the college throughout his life, being elected master in 1544. His collection of medieval manuscripts became the core of the college’s Parker Library. At Cambridge Parker was won to the Protestant cause (T. Bilney, H. Latimer…

Knox, John (I)

(604 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1514 [?], Haddington, East Lothian – Nov 24, 1572, Edinburgh). As a theologian and church politician, Knox shaped the introduction of Protestantism to Scotland. Little is known about his background, youth, and intellectual development. Knox himself said nothing about these matters. After his studies, probably in St. Andrews, and his ordination to the priesthood (c. 1536), he …

Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit

(312 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] is the term for a number of individuals and groups persecuted as heretical; they do not constitute a homogeneous organization, even if some connections exist between individual representatives – mostly laypersons, including a disproportionately large number of women. Nor …

Charles II of England

(189 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Stuart of England; May 29, 1630, London – Feb 2, 1685, London), king of England. The son of the executed Charles I of England, he was exiled in 1651, but answered the call of his country to assume the crown in 1660. Thus began the Restoration period, which was characterized by a balance of power with respect to the interests of the Crown and of Parlia…

England

(6,850 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. General – II. Non-Christian Religions – III. Christianity – IV. Religion, Society, and Culture in the Present …

Elizabeth of Schönau

(202 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1129 – Jun 18, 1164), of noble descent, entered the double monastery at Schönau (Nassau; OSB) as a twelve-year-old. Five years later, she took her vows there. Elizabeth became magistra of the congregation of nuns in 1157. Plagued by illnesses and anxieties, Elizabeth rece…

Wolsey, Thomas

(383 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1472 [?], Ipswich – Nov 29, 1530, Leicester). After studying at New College, Oxford, ordination to the priesthood (1501), and a term as court chaplain to the archbishop of Canterbury, Wolsey, the son of an innkeeper and butcher, became chaplain to Henry VII in 1507. Under Henry’s successor, Henry VII…

Magdalenes

(176 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] Since the 12th century, individual convents were founded under the patronage of Mary Magdalene to accommodate converted prostitutes and save women in jeopardy. The order of the Penitent Sisters of Blessed Mary Magdalene (Poenitentes Sorores Beatae Mariae Magdalenae) traces back to the initiative of the Hildesheim canon Rudolph of Worms, who fou…

Warham, William

(173 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1456, Church Oakley, Hampshire – Aug 22, 1532, Hackington, near Canterbury). After studying at New College, Oxford (fellow 1475; LL.D. 1488), Warham had a successful legal career in the civil and ecclesiastical administration and as a diplomat: principal of the School for Civil Law, Oxford (1490), Master of th…

Matthew of Paris

(183 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Matthaeus Parisiensis; c. 1200 – June 1259, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England). In 1217, he entered the Benedictine Abbey of St. Albans, had contacts with the court of Henry III, and in 1248/1249 reformed the Norwegian monastery of Holm (OSB) on papal commission. As a chronicler, he continued the world chronicle of Roger of Wendover (died 1236) in his main work entitled

Ebner, Christina

(268 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Good Friday, 1277, Nuremberg – Dec 27, 1356, Engelthal Convent). The patrician's daughter entered the Engelthal Convent (Dominican) at the age of twelve. Her uncompromising conceptualization of the imitatio Christi and cloistered lifestyle led to corporal suffering and isolation within the c…

Ebner, Margareta

(165 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1291, Donauwörth – Jun 20, 1351, Maria Medingen). This patrician's daughter entered the Convent of Maria Medingen at a very early age. Constantly ill and isolated within the convent from 1312 on, she understood her illness as her path to God. Prayer, contemplation, and asceticism under the banner of an intense devotion to Christ (reflection on the Passion, the childhood of Jesus, etc.) led her to mystical experiences (visions, auditions, glossolalia). ¶ Henry of Nördlingen was important for her spirituality beginning in 1332; he cared for her as her pastoral counselor (personally and through many letters), put her into contact with like-minded persons (J. Tauler), and inspired her to record her “revelations.”…

Cromwell, Thomas

(235 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1485?, Putney – Jul 28, 1540, London). Born into humble circumstances, after a turbulent youth Cromwell acquired enough legal knowledge (probably self-taught) to find employment as a solicitor. Around 1520 he came to work for Cardinal T. Wolsey; in 1523 he became a member of Parliament. After Wolsey's…

Cambridge University

(762 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] The founding of Cambridge University probably goes back to members of Oxford University who left Oxford in reaction to the closing of schools in 1209 that resulted from disputes between the city and the university. Although instruction resumed in Oxford in 1214, a few scholars remained in Cambridge. Proximity to the episcopal see of Ely favored the establishment of a permanent institution, and Cambridge and Oxford remained the only English univer…

Henry of Nördlingen

(180 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (d. after 1351), a diocesan priest from Danube-Ries, acquired significance as a pastor of pious women in convents and lay women and thus influenced the mysticism (III, 3) of women in the 14th century. Not an adept of mysticism himself, he introduced his protégés to mystical ideas, was the spiritual director and interpreter of their experiences, and brought them into contact with like-minded people (M. Ebner, C. Ebner, J. Tauler). From 1338 to 1349, his partisanship for the pope of…

Pecock, Reginald

(208 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Peacock; Pavo; c. 1393, Wales – 1460/1461, Thorney Abbey, Cambridgeshire). After studying theology at Oxford (since 1409), Pecock served as a parish priest and later as a bishop (St. Asaph 1444, Chichester 1450). Despite several works against the ¶ Lollards, in 1457 he was charged with heresy; he was forced to recant, and several of his works were burned. After resigning his bishopric in 1459, he lived under house arrest in Thorney and was forbidden to write. Attacking the biblicism of the Lollards,…

Women

(11,554 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Bird, Phyllis A. | Wischmeyer, Oda | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise | Albrecht, Ruth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Traditionally research on religion has rarely dealt with women. Exceptions include Moriz Winternitz ( Die Frau in den indischen Religionen, 1915–1916) and F. Heiler ( Die Frau in den Religionen der Menschheit, 1977). In the 1970s, gender studies introduced a broad paradigm shift, which also affected religious studies. The principle that has guided this change from the traditional approach is that homo religiosus is not coincident with vir religiosus but equally has to include femina religiosa. The various questions can be assigned to th…

Colet, John

(244 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1467 [?], London – Sep 16, 1519, London) was the son of an influential clothier, who studied at Cambridge (from 1481; M.A. 1488) and Oxford (from 1490; D.D. 1504). From 1492 to 1496, he travelled to Italy and France to pursue his studies; it is uncertain whether his preoccupation with Neoplatonism and Marsilio Ficino began during this period. In 1498, he was ordained to the priesthood, and he was made dean of St. Paul's Cathedral, London…

Cranmer, Thomas

(375 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Jul 2, 1489, Aslockton, Nottinghamshire – Mar 21, 1556, Oxford), an English reformer who made a significant contribution to the formation of the via media of the Anglican Church. Stemming from the lower landed gentry, Cranmer studied from 1503 in Cambridge. After his M.A., he was elected in 1515 as …

Westminster

(469 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. Roman Catholic Archbishopric Following the Reformation in England, Roman Catholics labored under numerous constitutional and social disadvantages. Emancipation finally took place in 1829, despite considerable lingering anti-Catholic sentiment. Since the 1680s, four bishops, serving as vicars apostolic (Vicar apostolic), sup…

Jesuati

(159 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (later: Clerici apostolici S. Hieronymi), was a community founded around 1355 by Giovanni Colombini (died 1367) and his first associate, Francesco Vincenti. Initially, only laypersons lived together in poverty and penitence, with no fixed rule; they saw their vocation in praising God and in active love for their neighbor. The name derives from the exclamation in prayer, …

Thomas Becket, Saint

(320 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1120 [?], London – Dec 29, 1170, Canterbury). After studying in Paris, Thomas, the son of a merchant, was accepted into the household of Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury, who named him archdeacon of Canterbury in 1154. In 1155 Henry II appointed him as his chancellor. Thomas was ambitious and lived lavishly but was considered highly talented and incorruptible. As Henry’s con…

Bilney, Thomas

(331 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1495, Norfolk – Aug 19, 1531, Norwich) studied both kinds of law in Cambridge. He was ordained as a priest in 1519 and became a fellow of Trinity Hall in 1520. Under the influence of the Latin translation of the New Testament by Erasmus, Bilney began to devote himself to bi…

More, Sir Thomas

(432 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Morus; Feb 6/7, 1477/1478, London – Jul 6, 1535, London), prominent English Humanist, politician, and controversial theologian (Controversial theology). The son of a jurist, he attended school in London and subsequently became a page in the household of Cardinal Archbishop John Morton (1420–1500), who sent him to Oxford to study. In spite of his academic in…

Latimer, Hugh

(177 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1485, Thurcaston, Leicestershire – Oct 16, 1555, Oxford). The son of a free peasant, Latimer studied theology from 1506 onward at Clare College, Cambridge (B.A. 1510, M.A. 1514). Having initially defended the old faith as a preacher and university lecturer, he joined the Reformation around 1524 under the influence of T. Bilney. Highly esteemed at the court of Henry VIII for a time (appointment as bishop of Worcester in 1535), he fell out of favor from …

Manton, Thomas

(173 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1620, Lydeard St. Lawrence – Oct 18, 1677, London). After studying at Wadham College, Oxford (BA 1639), Manton, the son of a clergyman, began to preach and rapidly became the undisputed leader of the Presbyterians in London. He rose ¶ to become a scribe for the Westminster Assembly and often preached before the Long Parliament. After the…

Lollards

(399 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Wyclif[f]ites), adherents of the teachings of J. Wycliffe, were persecuted as heretics in England by both the church and the state until 1559. Spread beyond Oxford, initially by Wycliffe himself and later by his students, Wycliffite ideas were evident from 1382 in London, Leicester, Bristol, and elsewhere. This led to a tightening of the heresy laws (esp. stricter controlling of teachers of theology and priests who preached out-…
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