Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise" )' returned 30 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Elizabeth of Schönau

(202 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1129 – Jun 18, 1164), of noble descent, entered the double monastery at Schönau (Nassau; OSB) as a twelve-year-old. Five years later, she took her vows there. Elizabeth became magistra of the congregation of nuns in 1157. Plagued by illnesses …

Wolsey, Thomas

(383 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1472 [?], Ipswich – Nov 29, 1530, Leicester). After studying at New College, Oxford, ordination to the priesthood (1501), and a term as court chaplain to the archbishop of Canterbury, Wolsey, the son of an innkeeper and butcher, became chaplain to Henry VII in 1507. Under Henry’s successor, Henry VIII, his career in church and state began: appointed adviser to the king in 1511, in 1514 he was made bishop of Lincoln and later in the year archbishop of York. In 1515 he was made lor…

Magdalenes

(176 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] Since the 12th century, individual convents were founded under the patronage of Mary Magdalene to accommodate converted prostitutes and save women in jeopardy. The order of the Penitent Sisters of Blessed Mary Magdalene (Poenitentes Sorores Beatae Mariae Magdalenae) traces back to…

Edinburgh

(314 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Scots Gaelic: Dun Eideann), capital of Scotland. Situated near the Firth of Forth, Castle Rock had probably long served as a stronghold when King David I founded Holyrood Abbey there and granted Edinburgh market rights in 1130. Elevated to city status by Robert the Bruce in 1329, Edinburgh rose to become the political and economic center of Scotland and …

Charles II of England

(189 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Stuart of England; May 29, 1630, London – Feb 2, 1685, London), king of England. The son of the executed Charles I of England, he was exiled in 1651, but answered the call of his country to assume the crown in 1660. Thus began the Restoration period, which was characterized by a balance of power with respect to the interests of the Crown and of Parliament as well as by the reestablishment of the Anglican state church (Church of England, Anglic…

Netter, Thomas

(166 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Waldensis; c. 1372, Saffron Walden,Essex –Nov 2, 1430, Rouen), Carmelite monk. Ordained to the priesthood in 1396, he studied and taught theology in Oxford. He was court preacher to Henry IV and confessor to his successors. As a convinced conciliarist he took part in the reforming Councils of Basel (Basel, Council of) and Pisa (Pisa, Council of); he attended the Council of Constance (Constance, Council of) as his king’s representative and (from 1414) provincial of his order. He fought against the teachings of the Hussites (J. Hus) and J. Wyclif…

England

(6,850 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. General – II. Non-Christian Religions – III. Christianity – IV. Religion, Society, and Culture in the Present I. General England is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It has an area of 130,412 km2 and a population of 48,903,400. London, the capital, is also the largest city in the kingdom (7,074,300 inhabitants), followed by Birmingham (1,017,500). England comprises eight geograph…

Dorothea of Montau

(204 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1347, Montau/Matowy near Danzig/Gdánsk – Jun 25, 1394, Marienwerder/Kwidzyn). Driven quite early by the desire for discipleship to Christ, this farmer's daughter nevertheless married in 1363. She subsequently led a life of intensive penitence and devotion shaped by love of poverty and the Eucharist, devotion to the passion and Mary, and bridal mysticism. She rec…

Ebner, Margareta

(165 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1291, Donauwörth – Jun 20, 1351, Maria Medingen). This patrician's daughter entered the Convent of Maria Medingen at a very early age. Cons…

Cromwell, Thomas

(235 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1485?, Putney – Jul 28, 1540, London). Born into humble circumstances, after a turbulent youth Cromwell acquired enough legal knowledge (probably self-taught) to find employment as a solicitor. Around 1520 he came to work for Cardinal T. Wolsey; in 1523 he became a member of Parliament. After Wolsey's fall in 1529, he continued to pursue his own career. Made a member of the royal council by Henry VIII in 1531, he consolidated his position…

Cambridge University

(762 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] The founding of Cambridge University probably goes back to members of Oxford University who left Oxford in reaction to the closing of schools in 1209 that resulted from disputes between the city and the university. Although instruction resumed in Oxford in 1214, a few scholars remained in Cambridge. Proximity to the episcopal see of Ely favored the establis…

Henry of Nördlingen

(180 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (d. after 1351), a diocesan priest from Danube-Ries, acquired significance as a pastor of pious women in convents and lay women and thus influenced the mysticism (III, 3) of women in the 14th century. Not an adept of mysticism himself, he introduced his protégés to …

Matthew of Paris

(183 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Matthaeus Parisiensis; c. 1200 – June 1259, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England). In 1217, he entered the Benedictine Abbey of St. Albans, had contacts with the court of Henry III, and in 1248/1249 reformed the Norwegian monastery of Holm (OSB) on papal commission. As a chronicler, he continued the world chronicle of Roger of Wendover (died 1236) in his main work entitled Chronica maiora. He wrote several works on English history, including Historia Anglorum, and on the history of his own monastery, Gesta Abbatum. He authored lives of saints, including of Steph…

Parker, Matthew

(290 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Aug 6, 1504, Norwich – May 17, 1575, Lambeth), son of a well-to-do weaver, studied at Corpus Christi College in Cambridge from 1522 to 1528; he remained close to the colle…

Knox, John (I)

(604 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1514 [?], Haddington, East Lothian – Nov 24, 1572, Edinburgh). As a theologian and church politician, Knox shaped the introduction of Protestantism to Scotland. Little is known about his background, youth, and intellectual development. Knox himself said nothing about these matters. After his studies, probably in St. Andrews, and his ordin…

Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit

(312 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] is the term for a number of individuals and groups persecuted as heretical; they do not constitute a homogeneous organization, even if some connections exist between individual representatives – mostly laypersons, including a disproportionately large number of women. Nor can a unified doctrinal system be identified. More instructive than the stereotypical lists of heresies, as were produced by the church in the context of persecution, are direct sources from the series of Brothers and Sisters, especially the Miroir des simples âmes of Marguerite …

More, Sir Thomas

(432 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Morus; Feb 6/7, 1477/1478, London – Jul 6, 1535, London), prominent English Humanist, politician, and controversial theologian (Controversial theology). The son of a jurist, he attended school in London and subsequently became a page in the household of Cardinal Archbishop John Morton (1420–1500), who sent him to Oxford to study. In spite of his academic interests, his father insisted on an additional legal training at the Inns of Court. Thomas More worked as a lawyer from 1501 o…

Latimer, Hugh

(177 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1485, Thurcaston, Leicestershire – Oct 16, 1555, Oxford). The son of a free peasant, Latimer studied theology from 1506 onward at Clare College, Cambridge (B.A. 1510, M.A. 1514). Having initially defended the old faith as a preacher and university lecturer, he joined the Reformation around 1524 under the influence of T. Bilney. Highly esteemed at the court of Henry VIII for a time (appointment as bishop of Worcester in 1535), he fell out of favor from ¶ 1539 during the turmoil surrounding Anne Boleyn; he delivered his most famous sermons under Edward VI. His theological views drew steadily closer to Reformed positions, especially with respect to the doctrine of the Eucharist. His Bible-oriented sermons were directed against the relics of the old faith in liturgy and against social injustice. The highly respected popular preacher (“Apostle to the English”) was burned at the stake under Mary …

Manton, Thomas

(173 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1620, Lydeard St. Lawrence – Oct 18, 1677, London). After studying at Wadham College, Oxford (BA 1639), Manton, the son of a clergyman, began…

Lollards

(399 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Wyclif[f]ites), adherents of the teachings of J. Wycliffe, were persecuted as heretics in England by both the church and the state until 1559. Spread beyond Oxford, initially by Wycliffe himself and later by his students, Wycliffite ideas were evident from 1382 in London, Leicester, Bristol, and elsewhere. This led to a tightening of the heresy laws (esp. stricter controlling of teachers of theology and priests who preached out-¶ side their parishes; a penalty for possessing the English Bible and religious literature in the vernacular) and to initial persecutions. The revolt of the Lollard Sir John Oldcastle (1414/1415) intensified the pressure because his fellow believers were now forced to go underground. Supporters of the movement were mostly businessmen and artisans, initially also some nobility. At the end of the 15th …

Ebner, Christina

(268 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Good Friday, 1277, Nuremberg – Dec 27, 1356, Engelthal Convent). The patrician's daughter entered the Engelthal Convent (Dominican) at the age of twelve. Her uncompromising conceptualization of the imitatio Christi and cloistered lifestyle led to corporal suffering and isolation within the community. Beginning in 1291, Ebner had extraordinary spiritual experiences that brought her fame in subsequent decades even outside her convent (1350…

Pecock, Reginald

(208 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Peacock; Pavo; c. 1393, Wales – 1460/1461, Thorney Abbey, Cambridgeshire). After studying theology at Oxford (since 1409), Pecock served as a parish priest and later as a bishop (St. Asaph 1444, Chichester 1450). Despite several works against the …

Colet, John

(244 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1467 [?], London – Sep 16, 1519, London) was the son of an influential clothier, who studied at Cambridge (from 1481; M.A. 1488) and Oxford (from 1490; D.D. 1504). From 1492 to 1496, he travelled to Italy and France to pursue his studies; it is uncertain whether his preoccupation with Neoplatonism and Marsilio Ficino began during this period. In 1498, he was ordained to the priesthood, and he was made dean of St. Paul's Cathedral, London in 1505. From 1508 to 1512, he was involved in setting up St. Paul's School and in establishing guidelines for the curriculum, sometimes working with his friend Erasmus. His sermons were also well regarded by his contemporaries and, taking the same party line as T. Wolsey, Colet was made royal councillor in 1516. All of Colet's activities, as well as his studies and his criticism of the church and of theology, must be viewed against the backgro…

Cranmer, Thomas

(375 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Jul 2, 1489, Aslockton, Nottinghamshire – Mar 21, 1556, Oxford), an English reformer who made a significant contribution to the formation of the via media of the Anglican Church. Stemming from the lower landed gentry, Cranmer studied from 1503 in Cambridge. After his M.A., he was elected in 1515 as a fellow in the Jesus College (consecrated to the priesthood c. 1520); he concluded his studies in 1526 as a D.D. (Doctor of Divinity). In these years, Cranmer was concerned…

Jesuati

(159 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (later: Clerici apostolici S. Hieronymi), was a community founded around 1355 by Giovanni Colombini (died 1367) and his first associate, Francesco Vincenti. Initially, only laypersons lived together in poverty and penitence, with no fixed rule; they saw their vocation in praising God and in active love for their neighbor. The name derives from the exclamation in prayer, “O Gesù!” In 1367, the Jesuati obtained papal approbation and thereafter established monasteries in central and nort…

Thomas Becket, Saint

(320 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1120 [?], London – Dec 29, 1170, Canterbury). After studying in Paris, Thomas, the son of a merchant, was accepted into the household of Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury, who named him archdeacon of Canterbury in 1154. In 1155 Henry II appointed him as his chancellor. Thomas was ambitious and lived lavishly but was considered highly talented and incorruptible. As Henry’s confidant, he carried out the king’s policies even against the interests of the church. That changed …

Westminster

(469 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. Roman Catholic Archbishopric Following t…

Women

(11,554 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Bird, Phyllis A. | Wischmeyer, Oda | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise | Albrecht, Ruth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Traditionally research on religion has rarely dealt with women. Exceptions include Moriz Winternitz ( Die Frau in den indischen Religionen, 1915–1916) and F. Heiler ( Die Frau in den Religionen der Menschheit, 1977). In the 1970s, gender studies introduced a broad paradigm shift, which also affected religious studies. The principle that has…
▲   Back to top   ▲