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Centho

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen (vielleicht etr. Herkunft) in der Familie der Claudier [1. 149], wohl verbunden mit cento “der Lumpenanzug” [2. 200]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze 2 Walde/Hofmann I3.

Sacerdos

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Seltenes röm. Cogn. (“Priester”), in republikanischer Zeit in der Familie der Licinii (Licinius [I 41]), in der Kaiserzeit bei Marius Plotius [II 5] Claudius S. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 319.

Canuleia

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Nach Plutarch (Numa 10,1) eine der ersten von König Numa eingesetzten röm. Vestalinnen. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cocles

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] “Der Einäugige” (Enn. scaen. 67f. V.2 bei Varro ling. 7,71; Plin. nat. 11,150), als Spitzname vorkommend. Cognomen des Horatius C. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography A. Hug, s.v. Spitznamen, RE 3A, 1828.

Albanius

(35 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] C., Senator vor 60 v. Chr, Schwiegervater des P. Sestius (Cic. Sest. 6; MRR 2,487 [1]) Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Two studies in Roman nomenclature, 21991, 5.

Aquinus

(104 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Röm. Eigenname bzw. Cognomen [1; 2] [English version] [1] Dichter, 1. Jh. v. Chr. von Catull. 14,18 als schlechter zeitgenössischer Dichter genannt (bei Cic. Tusc. 5,63 Aquinius). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] L. Haruspex 389 v. Chr. haruspex 389 v. Chr. (Macr. Sat. 1,16,22; vgl. Liv. 6,1,11 u. a.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [3] M. Legat 46 v. Chr. Senator, Legat (?) des Pompeius 46 v. Chr. in Afrika, von Caesar begnadigt (Bell. Afr. 57; 89,5), wohl identisch mit dem Legaten des C. Cassius 43-42 (Goldmünzenprägung: RRC 498/9). MRR 3, 25. Elvers…

Numantinus

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen (“Sieger über Numantia”), inoffizieller Siegesbeiname des L. Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Aemilianus Africanus; sonst auch zur Bezeichnung der Herkunft. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 199.

Appianus

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Cognomen des M. Valerius Messalla ( cos. 12 v. Chr.), hergeleitet vom Praenomen seines natürlichen Vaters Ap. Claudius Pulcher. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 39, 172.

Cluentius

(254 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Italischer Familienname, bes. im 1.Jh. v.Chr. bezeugt (ThlL, Onom. 2, 505f.). [English version] [1] C., L. Italikerführer, gest. 89 v.Chr. Italikerführer im Bundesgenossenkrieg, wurde bei dem zweimaligem Versuch, die Belagerung von Pompeii aufzuheben, von Sulla geschlagen und fiel 89 v.Chr. (App. civ. 1,218-221). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] C. Habitus, A. Röm. Ritter aus Larinum (1.H. 1. Jh. v. Chr.) Röm. Ritter aus Larinum in Apulien, bekannt durch Ciceros Rede Pro Cluentio 66 v.Chr. Nach dem Tod seines gleichnamigen Vaters im J. 88 hatte sei…

Hypsaeus

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Cognomen (inschr. auch Ypsaeus) wohl griech. Herkunft in republikanischer Zeit in der Familie der Plautii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Arvina

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Cognomen (von a. “Speck”) in den Familien der Cornelier und Papirier. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 91, 340.

Bellienus

(116 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Röm. Eigenname (auch Billienus; Schulze 429; ThlL 2,1816; 1989). [English version] [1] s. Annius [I 10] Annius I 10 B. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] Billienus, C. Praetor um 107 v. Chr. praetor um 107 v.Chr. (MRR 1,551), dann Legat bzw. praetor pro consule (von Asia?, IDélos 1710; 1854; vgl. MRR 3,34f.). Nach Cic. Brut. 175 gelangte er Ende des 2.Jh. wegen der Vormachtstellung des C. Marius nicht zum Konsulat. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [3] B., L. Praetor 105 v. Chr. in Africa praetor 105 v.Chr. in Africa (Sall. Iug. 104,1). Vielleicht de…

Albius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Röm. Gentilname. [English version] [1] A. Sabinus (1. Jh. v. Chr.) Miterbe Ciceros 45 v. Chr. (Cic. Att. 13,13,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] Kunstsammler Kunstsammler (Hor. sat. 1,4,28; 109). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [3] A., C. (2. H. 3. Jh. v. Chr.) aus Cales, 206 v. Chr. als Meuterer hingerichtet (Liv. 28,24,13; 29,7). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [4] A., P. Praetorier vor 129 v. Chr. Praetorier vor 129 v. Chr. (?), Mitglied im consilium des Senatsbeschlusses de agro Pergameno (MRR 3,14). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Boc…

Braetius

(66 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Röm. Eigenname (ThlL 2,2163). [English version] [1] B. Sura, Q. Legat in Makedonien 87 v. Chr. war Legat ( pro quaestore) des C. Sentius Saturninus in Makedonien und kämpfte 87 v.Chr. erfolgreich gegen die Truppen Mithradates' VI. in Boiotien (H. Gaebler, Die ant. Münzen v. Makedonia und Paionia 1, 1906, Nr. 225; Name: IG IX 2,613; Plut. Sull. 11,6-8; App. Mithr. 113-115). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Lafrenius, T.

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Einer der zwölf Praetoren der aufständischen Italiker im Bundesgenossenkrieg [3]. L. fiel 90 v.Chr. gegen Ser. Sulpicius Galba (App. civ. 1,181; 204-206; ILLRP 1089). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Kynegios

(123 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] (Maternus Cynegius, ILS 1273). Wohl aus Spanien gebürtig, Christ. Unter Theodosius I. 381 n.Chr. vicarius (?), 383 comes sacrarum largitionum, 383/ 384 quaestor sacri palatii. Als praefectus praetorio Orientis 384-388 sollte K. im Auftrag des Kaisers die Lage der städt. Kurien verbessern (Lib. or. 39,3). Auf zwei Reisen durch den Osten des Reiches (384 und 388) bekämpfte er (wohl ohne ausdrückliche kaiserl. Erlaubnis) pagane Religionsausübung scharf (Zos. 4,37; Chron. min. 1,244f. Mommsen), wobei er auch T…

Cloelius

(343 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name eines röm. Patriziergeschlechts (auch Cloulius, RRC 260, 332 und Cluilius), das angeblich nach der Zerstörung von Alba Longa durch König Tullus Hostilius, wo ein C.C. die Herrschaft hatte (Liv. 1,22,3f.), nach Rom übersiedelte (Liv. 1,30,2). Spätere Tradition leitete die Gens von einem Gefährten des Aeneas ab (Fest. p. 48) und gab ihr in der ältesten Republik ein bes. Ansehen. Der Zusammhang dieser Familie mit den späteren republikanischen Namensträgern ist unklar. [English version] [1] Feldherr der Volsker 443 v.Chr Feldherr der Volsker 443 v.Chr., bei Ardea geschlag…

Calvinus

(32 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen, in republikanischer Zeit bes. in der Familie der Domitii verbreitet, sonst auch bei den Sextii und Veturii (ThlL, Onom. 108). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 235.

Paetus

(84 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Röm. Cognomen Röm. Cognomen mit der Bed. “leicht schielend”, etwa einen “Silberblick” kennzeichend (Cic. nat. deor. 1,80; Hor. sat. 1,3, 44f. u.a.). Erblich in den Familien der Aelii seit dem 4. Jh.v.Chr. (Aelius [I 7-11]) und den Autronii im 1. Jh. (Autronius [I 8]); auch Beiname von Ciceros Freund L. Papirius [I 22] P. In der Kaiserzeit weiterverbreitet. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 261 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 239. [English version] [2] P. Clodius [II 15] Thrasea Paetus s. P. Clodius [II 15] Thrasea Paetus

Capitolinus

(58 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen, wohl urspr. zur Bezeichnung des Wohnsitzes des Trägers bzw. seiner Familie. Für die frührepublikanische Zeit ist es überliefert für die Familien der Maelii, Quinctii und Tarpei, prominent bei den Manlii; in der Kaiserzeit weit verbreitet. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography ThlL, Onom. 166f.  Kajanto, Cognomina, 183  H. Gundel, s.v. Quinctii Capitolini, RE 24, 1010.

Gutta

(85 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Röm. Cognomen (Gentilname?) einer sonst unbekannten Familie. [English version] [1] G. Feldherr der Marianer 82 v. Chr. aus Capua, unterstützte als Feldherr 82 v.Chr. die Marianer im Bürgerkrieg gegen Sulla (App. civ. 1,416). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] G. Praetor 55 v. Chr., bewarb sich 52 v. Chr. um das Consulat (evtl. Spitzname?), um 55 v.Chr. Praetor und zusammen mit T. Annius [I 14] Milo Bewerber um das Consulat für 52 v.Chr. (Cic. ad Q. fr. 3,6,6; MRR 3,100). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Messalinus

(32 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Cognomen in der Familie der Valerii (Valerius), von dort übergegangen in die der Aurelii (Aurelius [II 13]); Beiname des C. Prastina Pacatus M. ( cos. 147 n.Chr.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Laterensis

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Cognomen in der Familie der Iuventii, Iuventius [I 3 und I 4]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 309.

Caesonius

(293 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, documented from the 1st cent. BC (Schulze 136f.; ThlL, Onom. 54f.). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., M. Official, 1st cent. AD In 74 BC, judge in the first trial of A. Cluentius Habitus, judge in the  Verres trial in 70 BC; in 69 BC, curule aedile together with Cicero (Cic. Verr. 1,29; MRR 2,132). Possibly praetor in 66 BC, because he was regarded as a candidate for the consulship of 63 BC (Cic. Att. 1,1,1); probably identical with the C. mentioned by Cicero (Att. 12,11). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial Age [German version] [II 1] L.C. Lucillus Macer R…

Iuncus

(83 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Widespread Roman cognomen and family name (‘rush’) [1. 729; 2. 334]. [German version] [1] I., M. Praetor 76 BC Praetor in 76 BC see  Iunius [I 22] I., M. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Walde/Hofmann 1 2 Kajanto, Cognomina. [German version] [2] I. Vergilianus Senator, one of the circle of Messalina and Silius Senator, who was one of the circle of Messalina and Silius and knew of their marriage; executed in AD 48. His name was perhaps Iunius I. Vergilianus, PIR2 J 712. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Numitorius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a Roman gens, documented only since the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] N., L. People's tribune in 471 BC Member of the first college of people's tribunes (that of 471 BC) whose members are all known (Calpurnius Piso fr. 23 HRR = Liv. 2,58,1; Diod. Sic. 11,68,8). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] N., P. People's tribune in 449 BC, grandfather or great-uncle of Verginia According to tradition, N. was the grandfather or (great) uncle of Verginia; together with her betrothed, L. Icilius [1], he sought to protect he…

Albinius

(163 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium. [German version] [1] see Albanius A. see  Albanius, C. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] L. (1st half 4th cent BC) A., L., at the invasion of the Gauls in 387 BC brought the Vestals safely to Caere (Liv. 5,40,9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] M. (L. ?) consular tribune 379 BC. A., M. (L. ?) consular tribune 379 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Paterculus, L., tribune of the people 494 and 493 BC A. Paterculus, L., one of the first tribunes of the people 494 and 493 BC. He is not named in all sou…

Appius

(457 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Latin family name (cf. [1]) and Latin praenomen (abbreviated Ap., in the Imperial period also App.), whose ancient derivation from Sabinian (Lib. praen. 6) is not undisputed; mainly documented for the patrician families of the Claudii Pulchri, rarer among the Claudii Nerones, etc. First documented name-bearer was Ap. Claudius Sabinus Inregillensis (Attus Clausus), the founder of the gens Claudia in Rome about 500 BC (Liv. 2,16,4). Because of its almost exclusive occurrence among the gens Cl…

Murena

(128 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman third name or nickname (‘Moray’) in the Licinii family (Licinius [I 32-35]) which passed by adoption from there to A. Terentius Varro M. and his son of the same name ( cos. 23 BC). It was adopted by more families in the Imperial era. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] People's tribune in 97 AD The tribunus plebis, who in AD 97 made the right of speech possible for Fabricius [II 2] Veiento in a dispute in the Senate (Plin. Ep. 9,13,19); probably he and Q. Roscius Coelius Murena ... Pompeius Falco are one and the same person. PIR2 M 746. It is, however, surprising why Pli…

Albucius

(365 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] [1] Poisoner Roman family name. Name of a preparer of poison in Hor. Sat. 2,1,48, probably not identical with the one named in 2,2,67. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] T., follower of Epicurus (end of 2nd cent. BC) T., follower of Epicurus, became involved in a fight with the praetor Q.  Mucius Scaevola because of his Hellenophilia in 120 BC. A. charged him unsuccessfully in 119 and was mocked for this reason by  Lucilius in the 2nd book of his Satires. Praetor and propraetor in 105-104 (107-106?) in …

Papius

(506 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic family name, most common among the Samnites, also encountered as an Oscan praenomen. The author of the lex Papia Poppaea in AD 9 was P. [II 1]. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P. People's tribune c. 80 BC People's tribune, probably before 80 BC and therefore not identical with P. [I 2]; author of a lex Papia, stipulating the supplementation of the number of Vestal virgins by means of election by lot (Gell. NA 1,12,10-12). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] P., C. People's tribune in 65 BC, author of a lex Papia People's tribune in 65 BC, author of a lex Papia

Olybrius

(207 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
Late antique personal name in the Anicii family: Anicius [II 13] Hermogenianus O. ( cos. in AD 395), Q. Clodius Hermogenianus O. [1] ( cos. in 379), the emperor of the year 472, Anicius [II 15] O. and Flavius Anicius O. ( cos. in 526). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Q. Clodius Hermogenianus O. Official, 4th cent. AD Praefectus praetorio Orientis from AD 378 to 379. A Christian from a respected family, presumably from the city of Rome, O. had a brilliant career (CIL VI 1714). After he had been governor of Campania he probably became pr…

Opilio

(79 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen ('shepherd'), occurring only in late Antiquity. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 260 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 323. [German version] [2] Official under Odoacer Sometime between 476 and 490 AD, O. was comes sacrarum largitionum under Odoacer, perhaps from Liguria [2. 183]. He is mentioned in Cassiodorus's Variae. O.'s sons Cyprianus and O. held offices under Theoderic the Great. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 807f. 2 D. Henning, Periclitans res publica, 1999, 109, 183.

Ogulnius

(235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a Roman gens, first appearing with O. [1]. Later members of the family are politically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] O. Gallus, Q. Leader of a Roman embassy in 292 BC that transferred the cult of Asclepius to Rome During an epidemic in Rome in 292 BC, leader of a Roman embassy that transferred the cult of Asclepius from Epidaurus to Rome (MRR 1, 182); in 273, member of the first embassy to the Ptolemaic court in Alexandria [1] (MRR 1, 182; for the background to this embassy see [1. 141-145]). As cos. in 269 (MRR 1, 199), according to Pliny (HN 33…

Aurunculeius

(268 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian gentile name (extension of Aurunceius, ThlL 2,1532f. [1. 354]); there are records of the family in Rome from the 3rd cent. BC, but they ceased to have any significance during the imperial time. [German version] [1] A., C. Praetor in 209 BC in Sardinina and propraetor in 208 Praetor in 209 BC in Sardinina and propraetor in 208 (MRR 1,285; 291). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., L. Praetor urbanus in 190 BC Praetor urbanus in 190 BC; amongst those sent to reorganize the situation in Asia Minor in 189 (MRR 1, 356; 363). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Sch…

Lentulus

(175 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Benz, Lore (Kiel)
Roman cognomen, derived in folk etymology from lens, ‘lentil’ (Plin. HN 18,10), actually the diminutive form of lentus, ‘lethargic’ [1. 249] with a friendly-mocking meaning; non-Etruscan origin [as in 2. 313; 3. 783]; occurs only in the family of the Cornelii: Cornelius [I 31-56]; [II 24-33]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Mimographer in the early Imperial Period The mimographus L. should be dated to the early Imperial period; he was the author of the lost mime of Catinenses (Tert. De pallio 4,1). Tert. Apol. 15,1 puts L. and the mimographer Hostilius t…

Verrius

(729 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
Roman nomen gentile, perhaps of Etruscan origin (Schulze, 287), first recorded in the 1st cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [1] M. V. Flaccus Latin grammarian, Augustan era [German version] I. Life V. was the leading grammarian of the generation after Varro [2], born in Praeneste after 60 BC. Suetonius' biography (Gram. 17) reveals competition with Varro: the freedman ( libertinus) V. stands in opposition to the Roman equestrian ( eques Romanus), the grammarian to the philosopher and poet ( philosophus et poeta), the politician and soldier. V. became famous through h…

Cos(s)inius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic proper name, attested with and without doubling of the s (Schulze, 159; ThlL, Onom. 2.667f.). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., L. Praetor 73 BC, fell in battle against Spartacus Praetor (?) in 73 BC, fell in battle against Spartacus (Sall. Hist. 3,94; Plut. Crassus 9,4f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography F. Ryan, The Praetorship of Varinius, Cossinius and Glaber, in: Klio 78, 1996, 376. [German version] [I 2] C., L. Dialogue partner in Varro and Cicero Speaks as dialogue partner in Varro (Rust. 2) on cattle breeding, probably identical to a…

Nasica

(134 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (‘pointed nose’); from the 2nd cent. BC it was hereditary in the family of the Cornelii Scipiones (Cornelius [I 81-85]). The unsuccessful legacy hunter N. (around 30 BC) who was ridiculed by Horace (Hor. Sat. 2,5,57; 65) was not part of the Cornelii family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 105; 237. [German version] [2] Town in western India (Νασίκα; Nasíka).Town in western India to the east of the river Namades (Narmada) (Ptol. 7,1,6). Probably present-day Nāsik (old Indian Nāsikya…

Messalla

(200 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Cognomen in the family of the Valerii ( Valerius). The best-known bearers are Manius Valerius Maximus M. ( cos. 263 BC), a commander in the Second Punic War, Marcus Valerius M. Rufus ( cos. 53), a follower of Caesar and antiquarian, and Marcus Valerius M. Corvinus ( cos. suff. 31), a supporter of emperor Augustus, who promoted Tibullus and other contemporaneous poets. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Valerius M. Avienus Legatus senatus in c. AD 396/98, praef. praet. for Italia and Africa As a member of an old consular family (Rut. Nam. 1,271f.; Macr. Sat. 1,6,26), he became l…

Cato

(1,353 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne)
Roman cognomen perhaps of Etruscan origin [1. 310, 315, 418], in conjunction with catus (‘astute’, ‘crafty’ [2; 3. 250]. In Republican times widespread in the families of the Hostilii and Valerii, prominent among the Porcii, according to whose model C. is used now and again as a synonym for a conservative Roman; quite rarely also as gentilicium [1. 303].  Porcius Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Porcius C., M. Cato the Elder, 234-149 BC (234-149 BC), ‘Cato the Elder’, ‘Censorius’, energetic politician and founder of Roman prose literature, is the b…

Pullius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman gens, frequently recorded in the Republican Period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Cn. P. Pollio Senator from Forum Clodii, praetor ad aerarium under Augustus Senator from Forum Clodii in Etruria. Having been a people's tribune he became praetor ad aerarium, an office which was created in 23 BC. He later became proconsul in Gallia Narbonensis, legatus Augusti or comes Augusti in Gallia Comata and afterwards in Aquitania, probably between 16 and 13 BC, when Augustus set up the new provincial organisation there. He died during a trip as legatus to Athens…

Calvisius

(639 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, whose bearers appear in public life from 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 108f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] C. Brought charges against Agrippina, 1st cent. AD Client of Iunia Silana, exiled after bringing charges against Agrippina in AD 55. He was recalled after her death (Tac. Ann. 13,19,3; 21,2; 22,2; 14,12,4; PIR2 C 343). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Ruso, P. Consul suff. 53 AD Cos. suff. in AD 53 [1. 43; 72]; father of C. [3] and [4]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] C. Ruso, P. Consul suff. 79 AD Cos. suff. in AD 79, procos. A…

Bruttius

(492 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian family name, connected to Bruttium, Greek Βρύττιος ( Brýttios), varied also as Brittius, Brettius, and similar. Very common in southern Italy ([1]; ThlL 2,2214). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republic [German version] [I 1] B. Sura, Q.  Braetius Eck, Werner (Cologne) II. Imperial Age [German version] [II 1] B. Crispinus, L. Consul ord. 224 AD Son of B. [II 8], cos. ord. AD 224 [1. no. 969]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Barbieri, L'albo senatorio da Settimio Severo a Carino (193-285), 1952. [German version] [II 2] B. Maximus, L. Procos. Cypri in AD 80 procos. Cypri i…

Rupilius

(333 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Proper name of Italic origin. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R., P. Cos. 132 BC Praetor in 135 BC at the latest; as cos. of 132 BC together with P. Popillius [I 8] Laenas, oversaw the sentencing of Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracc(h)us' followers (Cic. Lael. 37). R. put an end to the major slave revolt in Sicily and imposed order to the province with the aid of a senatorial commission ( lex Rupilia, Cic. Verr. 2,2, passim; 2,3; 2,125; Val. Max. 6,9,8; Liv. Per. 59 et passim; MRR 1,497 f.). He died soon after, allegedly from grief, after his brother failed to be elected cons…

Cloelia

(143 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Young Roman woman, example of female bravery Young woman who was hostage of the Etruscan king  Porsenna (508 BC). She escaped, swam across the Tiber (or rode across it on horseback) and reached Rome safely with a group of young girls; she had to be returned to the king but, in recognition of her bravery, he released her and a number of the hostages. After the peace treaty the Romans honoured her with a statue on horseback at the Velia on the Sacra Via (Liv. 2,13,6-11; Flor. Epit. 1,4,7). She remained one of the most widespread examples of female bravery (Boccaccio, De claris m…

Quintilianus

(2,140 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg)
(or Quintillianus, rarely Quinctil[l]ianus). Roman cognomen, derived from the praenomen Quintus, widespread in the Imperial Period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Professor of and author on rhetoric, late 1st cent. Latin teacher of oratory of the last third of the 1st cent. AD; first professor of rhetoric to receive a public salary at Rome. Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) [German version] I. Biography M. Fabius Q. was from Calagurris [2] (modern Calahorra) in northern Spain. His father was at least conversant with rhetoric (Quint. Inst. 9,3,73…

Octavianus

(409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
Roman cognomen, indicating adoption by the gens Octavia (Octavius), in the Imperial period also a family name. [German version] [1] First Roman emperor (Augustus) In academic literature, the name O. is often used to denote the first Roman emperor, Augustus, in the period between his testamentary adoption by Caesar in 44 BC and his assuming the epithet Augustus in 27 BC. Born C. Octavius, in 44 he first took the name of his adoptive father C. Iulius Caesar, but never used his other epithet O., as it would only have draw…

Equitius

(272 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Relatively rare Roman family name (for derivation: Varro, Rust. 2,1,10). [German version] [1] E., L. Represented himself as son of Ti. Sempronius Gracchus Adventurer of uncertain origins, who in 102 BC represented himself as the son of the people's tribune Ti.  Sempronius Gracchus, killed in 133. He was acknowledged neither by the censor, Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus Numidicus, nor by the sister of Gracchus. As a follower of L. Ap(p)uleius [I 11] Saturninus, in 100 he stood for the post of people's tribune for 99, but was himself killed during the unrest that led to the death of Appuleius. E…

Atticus

(504 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Platonic philosopher, c. AD 176 (Ἀττικος; Áttikos) Platonic philosopher, mentioned in the chronicle of Eusebios in AD 176 [1. 16, 148], teacher of  Harpocration of Argus, author of commentary on Plato's Timaeus [1. 50, 215f.], Phaedon (?) [1. 30, 190f.] and Phaedrus (?) [1. 42, 197]; the fragments 40-42 Des Places, fr. 40-42 Des Places, which could refer to a commentary on the ‘ Categories of Aristotle [1. 248, 258f.], come from the tract ‘against those who pretend to be able to explain the teachings of Plato through those of Aristotle …

Antius

(238 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebian gentile name. [German version] [1] (Ateius ?), C. Senator (middle of the 1st cent. BC) Senator 54 BC (Cic. Att. 4,17,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Sp. Roman envoy 438 BC Roman envoy, killed by Fidenates in 438 BC (statue on the rostra, Cic. Phil. 9,4 f.; Livy 4,17,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Briso, M. Tribunus plebis 137 BC Tribune in 137 BC, effective in opposing lex tabellaria of L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla (Cic. Brut. 67). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Restio (?), C. Tribunus plebis probably 68 BC Tribune …

Baebius

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentile name (Schulze 133; ThlL 2,1674f.). The family played an eminent role since the 2nd Punic War but did not achieve a lasting position in the top ranks of Roman nobility during the Republic. The most important family is that of the Tamp(h)ili. The Baebii produced several officials in imperial times. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] B. (Tamphilus), M. Tribunus plebis 103 BC (?), as tribune of the people, he offered resistance against the lex agraria of L.  Appuleius Saturninus in 103 BC (Vir. ill. 73,1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] B. Deleg…

Gallus

(122 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[II] Widespread Roman cognomen (‘Gaul’). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] see Cornelius [II 18] Gallus see  Cornelius [II 18] Gallus Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] P.G. Eques, exiled AD 65 Eques, who was friendly with the praef. praet.  Faenius Rufus and the consular  Antistius [II 12] Vetus and was therefore exiled in AD 65 (PIR2 G 66). In Tacitus the name is rendered as Publius Gallus, but that is out of the question. A nomen gentile is concealed behind Publius, perhaps Publilius? Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, in: Splendidissima civitas.…

Pius

(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen. In the Republican Period, confined to the Caecilii Metelli (Caecilius [I 31-32]); found among numerous other gentes in the Imperial Period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 251. [German version] [2] Greek grammarian, 2nd or 3rd cent. AD? Grammarian, tentatively dated to the late 2nd or late 3rd cent. AD, active in Memphis and Sparta (Schol. Hom. Od. δ 356; θ 372), i.a.; author of a commentary (EM 821,55) on Homer, the essentials of which (explanations of voca…

Caninius

(427 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (Schulze, 144; ThlL, Onom. 137f.). [German version] [1] C. Gallus, L. People's tribune 56 BC People's tribune 56 BC; he sought, without success, the reinstatement of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt (MRR 2,209). In 56 BC, he was defended by Cicero (Fam. 7,1,4), in 51 BC in Athens frequently in his company, and visited him in Rome in 46 BC. He died in 44 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. Gallus, L. Consul in 37 BC Son of C. [1], consul of 37 BC with M. Vipsanius  Agrippa (MRR 2,395; PIR 22 C 389). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Numonius

(173 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Roman family name. We know of a C.N. Vala, who as IIIvir monetalis in 41 BC minted aurei and denarii (RRC 514; see under N. [1]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] N. Vala Addressee of Hor. epist. 1, 15 Horace wrote to him around 20 BC (Hor. Epist. 1,15). Possibly identifiable with the C.N. Vala, who in 41 AD is documented as mint master (RRC 1, 522f. No. 514). PIR2 N 243; 244. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C.N.Vala Legate of Q. Varus in Germania Legate of Quinctilius Varus on the latter's last campaign through Germania; N. fled with the cavalry in…

Cluvius

(336 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic family name (Schulze, 483), attested in Campania from the 3rd cent., in Rome for plebeians from the 2nd cent. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., C. Praetor c. 104 BC Praetor and probably proconsul of Macedonia or Asia around 104 BC (MRR 1,560). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C. (Clovius), C. Mint master 45 BC Mint master in 45 BC (RRC 476) and at the same time Caesar's prefect, probably responsible for land allotments in Gallia Cisalpina (Cic. Fam. 13,7; MRR 2,313); further identification, especially with the C.C. mentioned in the so-called

Attica

(3,636 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Region in Greece (ἡ Ἀττική; hē Attikḗ). [German version] A. Landscape Easternmost landscape of central Greece, which, as a triangular peninsula, protrudes to the south-east between the Euboean Sea and the Saronic Gulf. A. borders Megara in the west,  Boeotia in the north. More than 40 per cent of the surface of A. (2530 km2) is composed of mountains: in the north Cithaeron (1407 m) is the border to Boeotia, where the Megalo Vuno and Mount Parnes (1413 m) continue eastward, also the Hymettus (1026 m) and Pentelicon (1108 m). Moun…

Calidius

(260 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested in Rome from the 1st cent. BC (Schulze, 138; ThlL, Onom. 81f.). [German version] [1] C., M. Mint master in 117 or 116 BC Mint master in 117 or 116 BC (RRC 284), perhaps later praetor or propraetor (IG VII 18, Z. 14). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., M. Praetor in 57 BC Praetor in 57 BC; as such he supported Cicero's return from exile (Cic. P. Red. Sen. 22), and on this occasion probably gave the speech De domo Ciceronis (Quint. Inst. 10,1,23). In 52 BC, he took up the cause of T. Annius [I 14] Milo, the murderer of  Clodius Pulc…

Praetextatus

(153 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Roman cognomen ('boy dressed in a toga praetexta'). Epithet of L. Papirius [I 23] P. and in the Sulpicii family (Sulpicius); widespread in the Imperial Period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Vettius Agorius P. Praefectus Urbi AD 265-267 c. AD 320-384. Having started his career as quaestor and praetor, he became corrector Tusciae et Umbriae before 362, as a favourite of Iulianus [11] proconsul Achaiae in 362/4, praefectus urbi in Rome in 365/7, then a praetorian prefect of Illyria, Italia, and Africa; designated a consul in 384; several times …

Appianus

(970 words)

Author(s): Magnino, Domenico (Pavia) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[I] Historian (c. AD 90-160) [German version] A. Life [I] Alexandrian historian, who was born between AD 90 and 95 in Alexandria, lived there until 120 and then in Rome. The autobiography mentioned in the proemium of his work (pr. 15,62) is not preserved. Sparse biographical information can be found in his work, in a letter by Fronto (1,161-2 van Hout) and in Photius, which places his ἀκμή ( akmḗ; flowering) in the time of Trajan and Hadrian (cod. 57, p.17a,21). In Rome he was active as an attorney and held the rank of a procurator Augusti. Died in Rome in AD 160. Magnino, Domenico (Pavia) …

Lusius [II]

(481 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic personal name [1. 184, 359]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Nephew of C. Marius [I 1] Son of the sister of C. Marius [I 1], military tribune in the Cimbrian War in Gaul. When attempting to rape a young soldier, he was stabbed by the latter, but the perpetrator was acquitted by the military tribunal because he had been defending himself (Cic. Mil. 9 with Schol. Bobiensia 114 Stangl; Val. Max. 6,1,12; Plut. Marius 14,4-9). This acquittal was a popular theme in Roman rhetoric instruction (Cic. Inv. 2,124; Quint. Inst. 3,11,14 et passim). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imper…

Antistia

(126 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Mother-in-law to Ti. Sempronius Gracchus Wife of Ap. Claudius Pulcher ( cos. 143 BC) and mother-in-law to Ti. Sempronius Gracchus (Plut. Ti. Gracch. 4,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] First wife of Pompey First wife of Pompey, who separated from her at Sulla's behest in 82 BC (Plut. Pomp. 4,9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Politta Daughter of L.  Antistius [II 12] Vetus (middle of the 1st cent. AD) Daughter of L.  Antistius [II 12] Vetus, and wife of Rubellius Plautus, who was banished to Asia for associating with Agrippina the Younger. Returning to Rome on the death of her husband, she k…

Plaetorius

(163 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Name of a Roman plebeian family (occasionally confused with Laetorius); attained some distinction only in the 2nd cent. BC; insignificant in the Imperial Period. [German version] [1] P. Cestianus, L. Quaestor 43/2 BC Quaestor in 43/42 BC under M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus; issued denarii depicting a pilleus between two daggers, with the legend Eid(ibus) Mar(tiis), thus celebrating the assassination of Caesar on the Ides of March of 44 BC (RRC 508). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P. Cestianus, M. Probably governor of Macedonia in 63/2 Quaestor before 69 BC (Cic. Font…

Vibullius

(397 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Uncommon Roman gens name, possibly of Etruscan origin (Schulze, 405). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Rufus, L. Follower and close confidant of Cn. Pompeius [I 3] Magnus, from no later than 49 BC his praefectus [8] fabrum. In 56 BC he was sent to Cicero to stop him resisting Caesar's land distribution in Campania (Cic. Fam. 1,9,10); in 54 he was a courier for Caesar (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 3,1,18). At the outbreak of the civil war in 49 BC he was sent to Picenum to enlist troops for Pompey (Caes. B Civ. 1,15,4). He took over…

Apronius

(432 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin name with Etruscan parallels [1] (regarding distribution see ThLL 2,211). I.…

Cosconius

(328 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian family, attested since the 3rd cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 2,663f.). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., C. Commander in the Social War in Apulia 89 BC Fought successfully in 89 BC in the Social War in Apulia (as praetor or legate?, Liv. Per. 75), proconsul in Illyria from 78-76 (Cic. Clu. 97 etc.); perhaps identical with the C. mentioned in Valerius Maximus(8,1 para. 8). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C., C. Praetor 63 BC, record-keeper during the case against the Catilinarians As praetor he was in 63 BC the record-keeper during the Senate d…

Cilnius

(145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of an important family in Arretium (Schulze, 149); involved in a dispute with the town's citizens in 302 BC (Liv. 10,3,2 i.a.). Augustus called  Maecenas a Cilnian, which presumably only referred to his maternal ancestors (Macrob. Sat. 2,4,12). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] C. Proculus, C. Cos. suff. 87 AD From Arretium. Cos. suff. in AD 87 (AE 1949, 23). Father of C. [2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Proculus, C. Senator, governor, c. 100 AD Senator from Arretium (CIL XI 1833 and AE 1926, 123 belong together: [1. 239ff.] = AE 1985,…

Blossius

(172 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
Italian-Oscan gentilicium (Schulze 423 ThIL 2,2054f.). Cicero mentions a respected B. family from Campania (Leg. agr. 2,93), whose members in Capua are known to have been opponents of Rome in 216 and 210 BC (Liv. 23,7,8f.;27,3,4f.). [German version] [1] Latin poet and advocate, 5th cent. AD see Dracontius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] of Cumae Politician and philosopher, died 128 BC An Italian political figure (born 128 BC), whom Plutarch described as a philosopher because the Stoic Antipater [10] of Tarsus was his friend and while in …

Asiaticus

(148 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Honorary name that replaced the older form Asiagenus/-genes in the Augustan period, common among the Cornelii Scipiones, in the Imperial period also among the Valerians; first adopted as a victor's title by P.  Cornelius Scipio Asiagenus ( cos. 190), then continued by his descendants. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Aristocrat from Gaul (died 69 AD) Aristocrat from Gaul ( dux Galliarum), who fought for Julius Vindex in AD 68; executed by  Vitellius upon the soldiers' wish in 69 (Tac. Hist. 2,94,2; PIR2 A 1215). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Valerius Asi…

Erucius

(320 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian family name (possibly originating in Etruria, Schulze, 112, 170), attested from the 1st cent. BC but not of any significance until the 2nd cent. AD. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Sex. E. Clarus Partaker in the Parthian War of Trajan Son of the E. Clarus named in Pliny (Ep. 2,9,4), grandson of the later Praetorian prefect Septicius Clarus; father or grandfather of E. [2]. Pliny supported him in the early stages of his career. He took part in Trajan's Parthian War, in which he conquered Seleucia probably in AD …

Ovinius

(271 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin family name, derived from the Oscan praenomen Ovius. …

Fundanius

(320 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Widespread Roman plebeian gentes name (Schulze 357, 533, 542). [German version] [1] F., C. Plebeian tribu…

Aemilia

(261 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] …

Aristius

(95 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman family name (ThLL 2,646 f.) [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] M., military tribune 52 BC A., M., military tribune in Caesar's army during the Gallic uprising of 52 BC (Caes. B. Gall. 7,42,5; 43,1). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] Fuscus, poet and grammaticus (1st cent. BC) A., Fuscus, poet and grammaticus, close friend and critic of  Horatius, who dedicated Carm. 1,22 and Epist. 1,10 to him. Sat. 1,9,61-74 shows his sense of humour. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography R. G. M. Nisbet, M. Hubbard, A Commentary on Horace: Odes, Book 1…

Atidius

(147 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Attidius), seldom used proper name (cf. the municipium Attidium in Umbria, Schulze 558; ThlL 2,1174). [German version] [1] Senator, exile at the court of  Mithridates, killed 67 BC Senator, exile at the court of  Mithridates VI, killed by him in 67 BC (App. Mith. 410). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Geminus Governor in Greece under Augustus after 29 BC Governor in Greece ( praetor Achaiae, Tac. Ann. 4,43,3) under Augustus after 29 BC, whose decision the Messenians cited in AD 25. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] (Attidius). A. Cornelianus, L.…

Decimius

(225 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
Roman family name, whose older and inscriptional form is Decumus (Schulze, 159), derived from  Decimus. Historic bearers of the name are documented since the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] D., C. Legate in Egypt 168 BC Legate in Crete in 171 BC, praetor peregrinus in 169, legate in Egypt in 168. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] D., Num. Leader of allies in the war against Hannibal 217 BC from Bovianum in Samnium; in 217, he brought timely help with a contingent of allies to the magister equitum Q. Minucius who was under heavy pressure from Hannibal …

Arruntia

(60 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Vestalin (1st half 1st cent. BC) Vestal in 69 BC at the latest. (Macrob. Sat. 3.13.11). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Arria Camilla (2nd half 1st cent. AD) Probably the daughter of L. Arruntius [II 8] Camillus Scribonianus; must have lived into the Trajanic era (Raepsaet-Charlier, no. 103; PIR2 A 1152). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Apponius

(351 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Q., Roman officer (46 BC) Q., officer (military tribune ?) of Pompey in Spain in 46 BC. (Dio 43,29,3) [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Cn. (middle of the 1st cent. BC) Cn., accuser of M.  Saufeius 52 BC (Ascon. 55C). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Nicolet 2, 779-781. [German version] [3] Died 43 BC Proscribed and murdered in 43 BC (App. B Civ. 4,26). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [4] Died 68 AD Delator of unknown social rank, lynched by the people in Rome after Nero's death (Plut. Galba 8,7). Eck, Werner (Cologne) …

Vitellius

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile, in the form Vitellia also a place name, diminutive of Vitulus (thus [1]). The information on the early history of the family in Suet. Vit. 1,1-3 is fictitious.…

Considius

(531 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian proper name (Schulze, 158, 456; ThlL, Onom. 2, 566f.) attested from 1st cent. BC, so C. [I 1] below is probably unhistorical. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] C., Q. People's tribune 476 BC People's tribune 476 BC. A later tradition that he proposed an agrarian law with his colleague T. Genucius and initiated a process against the consul of 477, T. Menenius, for not helping the Fabii at the Cremera (Liv. 2,52; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 9,27,2) is of doubtful authenticity. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C., Q. Rich senator, 1st half of the 1st cent. BC In 74 BC was judg…

Catius

(369 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian surname (ThlL, Onom. 264f.). I. Republican period [German version] [I…

Cominius

(462 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] I. Republican period Italic family name (ThlL, Onom. 2, 543); from the 2nd cent. BC its bearers belonged to the Roman equestrian class, and during the imperial period occasionally acceded to the Senate.…

Epulo

(266 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Scheid, John (Paris)
[German version] [1] King of the Istri, defeated cos. A. Manlius Vulso in 178 AD Name (probably Roman nickname ‘the feaster’) of the king of the Istri ( rex E. Enn. Ann. 408 SK.; rex Aepulo Liv. 41,11,1, Apulo Flor. 1,26 [1]). In 178 he defeated consul A.  Manlius Vulso (MRR 1,395), but was ejected again from the captured Roman camp, where the victors were enjoying their supplies ( rex accubans epulari coepit, Liv. 41,2,12; 41,4,7). In 177 he was besieged in Nesactium, and killed himself after the capture of the city (41,11,6; a different account in Flor. 1,26). E. …

Fannia

(143 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] In 88 BC, F. hid the ostracized C. Marius in her house in Minturnae In 88 BC, F. hid the ostracized C. Marius in her house in Minturnae, after he had helped her to win back her dowry in a divorce case in 100 BC against C. Titinius (Val. Max. 8,2,3; Plut. Marius 38,3-9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Daughter of Clodius [II 15] Full name perhaps Clodia F. Daughter of the senator and Stoic Clodius [II 15] Thrasea Paetus and of Arria [2]. Wife of Helvidius Priscus, whom she accompanied into exile under Nero and Vespasian. He…

Strabo

(2,038 words)

Author(s): Radt, Stefan | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Greek geographer and historian, Augustan Period (Στράβων/ Strábōn). Greek geographer and historian, Augustan Period. [German version] I. Life Our only source is S.'s own work. The years of his birth and death are not established, but S. describes as 'my time' the period beginning with Pompeius' [I 3] re-organization of Asia Minor (62 BC) [1]; the latest event mentioned by S. is the death of Juba [2] II (probably AD 23/4; 17,3,7 = C 828,32 ff.; 17,3,9 = C 829,28 f.; 17,3,25 = C 840,15 f.; referen…

Rex

(661 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] King Rex (pl. reges; Indo-Germanic * rḗg̑-s, Old Indo-Aryan rā́j-, Celtic -rīx) in Latin denotes a king; in …

Ancharius

(125 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Q., praetor 56 BC Q., 73 BC legate in Greece (Syll.3 748), 65 (?) proquaestor in Macedonia (IvOl 328). As tribune of the people, 59 he opposed the politics of the consul  Caesar together with his colleague Bibulus (Cic. Sest. 113; Vatin. 16; Cass. Dio 38,6,1: schol. Bob. 135, 146St.). After the praetorship of 56 followed the proconsulate in Maedonia (Cic. Fam. 13,40) Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] C. Rufus (1st half of 1st cent. BC) C., Rufus from Fulginae, accuser (?) of L. Varenus c. 80 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Priscus (1st …

Lucius [II]

(235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Old Latin Loucios, Greek Λεύκιος/ Leúkios or Λούκιος/ Loúkios, abbreviation L., in the east of the empire also Lu.). Roman praenomen. Etymologically related to lux (‘light’) [4. 823], according to ancient derivation ‘the one born at first daylight’ (Varro, Ling. 5,…

Ampius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] C., praef. socium 201 BC C., praef. socium 201 BC (Liv. 31,2,5-9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Balbus, T., Praetor 59 BC, historian Balbus, T., tribunus plebis 63 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,40,4), praetor 59, finally procos. in Asia (MRR 2, 197). After his return he was an unsuccessful candidate for the consulate in 55 (schol. Bob. 156St.), in the Civil War he fought on the side of Pompey ( Pompeius), for whom he had already as tribunus plebis especially applied himself and who therefore had supported him when he ran for con…

Annaeus

(333 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a tribe probably of Sabine origin [1]. In public life of the Republican era, name-bearers appeared first in the 1st cent. BC. The name became known especially in the 1st cent. AD through the epic poet M. A.   Lucanus and through the rhetorician L. A.  Seneca and his son by the same name, the philosopher and politician; see also Cornutus I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] Brocchus, C., senator 73 BC Brocchus, C., senator 73 BC (probably aedilicius), under Verres in Sicily ([2] Cic. Verr. 2,3,93 and passim; MRR 2, 115). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Syme, RP 2, 587-…

Fadius

(140 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile, attested to from the 1st cent. BC (Schulze, 132; 516). I. Republican period [German version] [1] F., T. Quaestor in 63 BC; in 57 as plebeian tribune he supported the recall of Cicero (Cic. P. Red. Sen. 21; Ad Q. Fr. 1,4,3; Att. 3,23,4). In 52 he was exiled for unknown reasons (Cic. Fam. 5,18). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Syme, RP 2, 594 (Name). [German version] [2] F. Gallus, M. Epicurean the Epicurean, M.  Fabius [I 18] Gallus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1] L. F. Rufinus Cos. suff. AD 113 ; belonged to P…

Nerva

(717 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (probably from nervus) meaning ‘strength’. Attested in the families of the Aebutii, Cocceii, Licinii and Silii. Its most famous bearer is emperor M. Cocceius N. [2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognominia 105; 247  Walde/Hofmann 2, 165. [German version] [2] Roman emperor AD 96-98 Roman emperor AD 96-98. Born on AD 8 November 30 in Narnia with the name M. Cocceius Nerva; his father was the jurist of same name (Cocceius [5]), his mother Sergia Plautilla. Presumably his fat…

Curiatius

(297 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Italian surname (Schulze, 355); according to Roman legend, Rome's war against Alba Longa under King Tullus Hostilius was decided through the fight between the triplet Curiatii brothers of Alba and the triplet Horatii brothers ( Horatius) of Rome, with the former being killed (Liv. 1,24f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,16-20). After the destruction of Alba, the family is said to have moved to Rome and to have been included among the Patricians (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7). The consul recorded in the fasti for 453 BC, member of the 1st collegium of the decemvirs for the d…

Didius

(1,095 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian gentile name (also spelled Deidius on coins and inscriptions, Schulze, 438). The name is attested from the 2nd cent. BC. I Republic [German version] [I 1] D., T.(?) People's tribune 143 BC Probably instituted as people's tribune in 143 BC (MRR 1,472) a law to regulate expenditure on banquets, so extending the lex sumptuaria of C.  Fannius Strabo (Macrob. Sat. 3,17,6). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography E. Baltrusch, Regimen morum, 1989, 85f. [German version] [I 2] D., C. Fleet commander for Caesar In 46/5 BC fleet commander for Caesar (Flor. 2,13,75), i…

Fabricius

(716 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian nomen gentile, probably not from faber (‘smith’), but from Etruscan hapre like Faberius and others. [1; 2]. Perhaps the family immigrated to Rome [3], in the 3rd cent. BC it became part of the nobility with F. [I 3] but was unable to maintain this status in the 2nd cent. In Rome there was a compitum Fabricium (Fest. 180L) or a vicus Fabrici (ILS 6073) between Caelius and Palatine, perhaps named after the place of residence of F. [I 3] [4], and the pons Fabricius,  F. [I 1]. I. Republican period [German version] [1] F., L. People's tribune 62 BC In 62 BC probably people's trib…

Geminius

(201 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from, and in manuscripts often confused with, Geminus (Schulze 108). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] G. Friend of Pompey Friend of Pompey, on whose orders he murdered M. Iunius Brutus in 77 BC (Plut. Pompeius 2,6; 16,6). …

Favonius

(377 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Flamant, Jaques (Venelles)
Rare Roman family name, occurring in Latium (Schulze 563). [German version] [1] F., M. Opponent of P. Clodius Pulcher He came from the municipal elite and was a follower of M.  Porcius Cato (Uticensis), whose political and personal intransigence he attempted to imitate, leading to envy and numerous electoral defeats. In 61 BC he attacked P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, in 60 he unsuccessfully charged Q. Caecilius [I 32] Metellus Pius Scipio. In the 50s he opposed Caesar, Pompey and Crassus in vain. He became aedile in 5…
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