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Metilius

(558 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Röm. Gentilname wohl latinischer Herkunft mit etr. Parallelen (erfunden ist die patrizische gens bei Dion Hal. ant. 3,29,7); historisch erst im 3. Jh. Chr. bezeugt. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] Zwischen 220-219 v.Chr. Urheber einer lex Metillia, Identität mit dem Volkstribunen von 217 v. Chr. fraglich 220-219 v.Chr. wurde auf Veranlassung der Censoren C. Flaminius [1] und L. Aemilius [I 27] Papus eine lex Metilia über den Berufsstand der Walker ( fullones) erlassen (Plin. nat. 35,197; MRR 1, 236). Ihr genauer Zweck, ih…

Manius

(207 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Seltenes röm. Praenomen, hauptsächlich von den patrizischen Familien der Aemilii, Sergii und Valerii und von der plebeischen der Acilii verwendet, dazu öfter in Oberitalien (selten Gentilname: ILS 6230 und unten M. [I 2]); Sigle: ein fünfstrichiges M (, , im Druck M'.). Für die Herkunft des Namens werden seit dem Alt. zwei Alternativen vertreten: Ableitung von mane “morgens” (Varro ling. 6,60; Fest. 135 L.; liber de praenominibus 5: “der morgens Geborene”) oder von manus “gut” bzw. von den di manes , euphemistisch die “guten Götter” (Zos. 2,3,2); keine der beiden ist bis…

Salvianus

(166 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
Röm. Cogn., Weiterbildung von Salvius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] S. von Massilia christl. Theologe in Massilia, gest. nach 465 (h. Marseille), wohl ca. 400 n. Chr. in Trier geboren, auf der Insel Lérins nachweisbar, verheiratet, dann asketisch lebend, verfaßte nach 435 die Schrift Ad Ecclesiam (‘An die Kirche; Pseudepigraphie [II.]) mit der Aufforderung an alle Christen, aus asketischen…

Caecilia

(562 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[German version] [1] C. Gaia Wife of Tarquinius Priscus Wife of  Tarquinius Priscus (Fest. p. 276); in Plin. HN 8,194 and Paul. Fest. s.v. G.C. p. 85 L., her name is  Tanaquil (refer [1]). Her name links her to the goddess Gaia and thus with wedding rites. For the connection with the ager Tarquiniorum cf. Liv. 2,5; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,13,2-4, with the river god Tiber [2. 378-83]. For the name C. [2. 382]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Thomsen, King Servius Tullius, 1980, Index s.v. Tanaquil 2 A. Momigliano, Roma Arcaica, 1989, 371-83 (with all sources). …

Flavus

(213 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
Roman cognomen (‘golden yellow’, ‘blond’, probably named after the hair colour), in the Republican period for C. Alfius [I 6] F., the family of the Decimii, Sp.  Larcius F. and L.  Lucretius Triticipinus F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy, father of Italicus, also after AD 9 on the side of Rome Brother of  Arminius, of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy. Son of  Segimerus, son-in-law of the Chatti princeps Actumerus (Tac. Ann. 11,16,1), father of  Ita…

Florus

(838 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman cognomen (‘blond’, ‘radiant’, with ablaut, related to flavus [1]), in the Republican period epithet of C. Aquilius [I 11] F. and L. Mestius F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] P. Annius F. Lat. poet and writer, 1st/2nd cent. AD Under the cognomen Florus (in conjunction with the family name Annius or Ann(a)eus and the first name P. or L.) four works or groups of works are known: 1. the introduction to a dialogue Vergilius orator an poeta (P. Annius F.), 2. and 3. fragment of a correspondence (Charisius, Gramm. 66,10f.; 157,21f. B.) and an exchange o…

Gellius

(1,322 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
Roman nomen gentile, which can almost certainly be traced back to the praenomen G. attested from the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC. There is evidence of the bearers of the name in the political life of Rome from the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus (Cos. 56 BC) Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus ( cos. 56 BC), otherwise unknown supporter of P. Clodius [I 4] from the equestrian class, defamed by Cicero as ‘the wet-nurse of all revolutionaries’ (Cic. Vatin. 4; Cic. Sest. 110-112). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Cn. Rom. historia…

Coelius

(856 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium, also Coilius, in surviving manuscripts often confused with Caelius (Schulze 155; ThlL, Onom. 2, 523-525). Bearers of this name are documented since the 2nd cent. BC, usually belonging to the Tribus Aemilia. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C. Antipater, L. Historiographer, late 2nd cent. BC Possibly the brother of the senator C. Coelius C.f. [1; 2. 16], a highly educated scholar of law and rhetoric (Cic. Brut. 102; Dig. 1,2,2,40), considered the teacher and friend of L. Licinius Crassu…

Metilius

(623 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name, probably of Latin origin with Etruscan parallels (the patrician gens in Dion Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7 is invented), historically attested no earlier than the 3rd century BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Between 220-219 BC Creator of a lex Metilia In 220-219 BC, at the instigation of the censors C. Flaminius [1] and L. Aemilius [I 27] Papus, a l ex Metilia was passed on the professional status of fullers ( fullones) (Plin. HN. 35,197; MRR 1, 236). Its exact purpose, its creator and his office remain as unclear as his identity with M.M., who in 217, as people's tribune, was instrument…

Musa

(99 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (‘Muse’) of the family of the Pomponii (Pomponius). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto…

Gabinius

(906 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Roman family name, probably related to Gabii (Schulze 532f.), widespread in Latium, and documented from the 3rd cent. BC; during the 2nd cent. BC, the family gained senatorial rank. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] G., A. People's tribune 139 BC Allegedly the grandson of a slave (Liv. Per. Oxyrhynch. 54; cf. Cic. Leg. 3,35), in 146 BC envoy to the Achaeans; as people's tribune he introduced the secret ballot with voting tablets ( tabellae) for the election of officials in 139 (1. lex tabellaria, Cic. loc. cit.; Lael. 41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography M. Jehne, Ge…

Lucanus

(1,709 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Vessey, David T. (Huntingdon)
Italic surname, Lucanius [1. 532]; better known as a Roman cognomen, probably originally an ethnicon from the place name Luca [1. 532; 2. 193]. In the fasti of the Imperial period in the family of the Claudii, Curvii, Domitii, Titii [3. 257]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] M. Annaeus L. Epic poet Lucan, 1st cent. AD The Roman epic poet Lucan. Vessey, David T. (Huntingdon) [German version] A. Life L. was born on 3 November AD 39 in Corduba as son of a family often described as Spanish, but more probabl…

Peducaeus

(502 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family which does not appear until the 1st century BC; in fact a nickname ('flat-footed'). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] People's tribune in 114 BC Elected people's tribune for the year 113 BC. Straight after assuming office in December 114, he carried through a law which led to new proceedings for 'fornication' against the Vestals Licinia [4] and Marcia [3] under the chairmanship of C. Cassius [I 17] Longinus Ravilla (Cic. Nat. D. 3,74; Ascon. 45f. C.). MRR 1, 536. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Salvianus

(171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
Roman cognomen, extension of Salvius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S. of Massilia Christian theologian at Massilia, died after 465 (modern Marseille), probably born after AD 400 at Trier, evidence of his presence on the Lérins Islands, married, later ascetic, wrote the treatise Ad Ecclesiam (‘To the Church’; Pseudepigraphy [II]) after 435, exhortating…

Pompilius

(148 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman nomen gentile of Etruscan origin ( pumple). King Numa Pompilius was considered as the first ancestor of the family. The known bearers of the name are historically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] P. Andronicus, M. Grammarian, 1st cent. BC According to Suet. Gram. 8, a 1st century BC grammarian and freedman from Syria; because of his Epicurean philosophical focus, he failed to establish hims…

Faustinus

(309 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] see Faustulus See Faustulus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Wealthy friend of the poet Martial …

Fannius

(762 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian nomen (Schulze 266; 424), attested historically from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F.M. f., C. Rom. senator and historian, partaker in the storming of Carthage Roman senator and historian (in Cic. Brut. 99 falsely differentiated from a relative). F. distinguished himself in 146 BC with Ti. Gracchus at the storming of Carthage (Plut. Gracchi 4,6), fought in 141 as tribunus militum in Spain (App. Ib. 287), was the son-in-law of C.  Laelius and heard  Panaetius (Cic. Brut. 100f.). In…

Tremelius

(425 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile (in the MSS very frequently Tremellius), attested from the 2nd. cent. BC onwards. The six generations of praetorian ancestors on whom T. [3] prided himself (Varro, Rust. 2,4,2) are quite believable. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Cn. As tribune of the people, he successfully interceded in 168 BC against an extension of the term served by the censors (Liv. 45,15,9) who had passed him over in the lectio senatus . As praetor in 159 BC, he insulted the pontifex maximus who gave him a penalty ( multa ). A people's court confir…

Furnius

(230 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian family name, perhaps connected with Etruscan furnial (Schulze 217, with epigraphical evidence). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] F., C. People's tribune 50 BC, orator Like his son F. [2], a famous Roman orator ( Furnii ... clari oratores; Jer. Chron. ad annum 1980-81). People's tribune in 50 BC, legate in 44-43, praetor in 42 (?), envoy in 40 and 39, promagistrate in Asia in 36-35, c onsul designatus for 29 (MRR 2, 249, 331, 353, 359, 376, 389, 402, 408; 3, 97). At first, an admirer of the orator Cicero, he placed himself politically in …

Attius

(775 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium, verifiable since the 2nd cent. BC, in the older form Atius, in the MSS often confused with Accius (on the origin and spread, Schulze 68; 423; 551; ThlL 2,1169-71). The gens first achieved prominence with  Atia, the mother of the emperor Augustus. Early imperial pseudo-genealogy therefore invented an ancestor Atys (Verg. Aen. 5,568 Atys, genus unde Atii duxere Latini). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A. Balbus, M. Grandfather of Augustus Brother-in-law of Caesar ( I…

Balbinus

(357 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen (ThlL 2,1694f.; [1. 240]). Consuls with the epithet B.: L. Saenius B. (? 30 BC), P. Coelius B. Vibellius Pius (AD 137), L. Valerius Poblicola B. (AD 256). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] D.C. (Calvinus) B. = Imperator Caesar D.C. Calvinus B. Elected emperor by the Senate in 238 AD According to Zonaras, (12,17, not precise) 60 years old in the year AD 238, when he was elected emperor by the Senate, together with  Pupienus, who is always mentioned before him. Supposed descendant of the Gaditanian Cornelius Balbus (S…

Africanus

(177 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Originally the epithet of a victor, first assumed by P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Maior) after the victory over Carthage in 201 BC (Liv. 30,45,6), then assumed by his adoptive son P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Minor), cos. 147; later as surname also in other families [1]. In the imperial era surname of the emperors Gordian I and II, Justinian I and Flavius Mauricius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek doctor 2nd or 1st cent. BC Greek doctor of the 2nd or 1st cent. BC, who dedicated a few of his prescriptions to a king Antigonus [1]. Not to be confused with a…

Ap(p)uleius

(3,219 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmerman, Maaike (Groningen)
Plebeian gentile name (on form and distribution [1], ThLL 2, 291). The poet  Apuleius [III, of Madaura] I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A. Real-estate dealer (1st cent. BC) Late Republican real-estate dealer ( praediator) (Cic. Att. 5,11,16; 12,4,2; 12,17). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A. Proscribed in 43 BC Proscribed in 43 BC but escaped (App. B Civ. 4,166). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 427. [German version] [I 3] A., L. People's tribune in 391 BC People's tribune in 391 BC, whose complaint supposedly caused M.  Furius Camillus to be condemned because of the distribution of the booty after the conquest of Veji (Liv. 5,32,8 f.; probably a later invention) [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Livy, Books 1-5, 1965, 498-499. [German version] [I 4] L. Praetor in 59 BC Praetor in 59 BC, propra…

Scaevola

(303 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Probably originally a Roman family name, recorded as a cognomen ('left-handed'), in the Republican period in the Mucii family (Mucius [I 2; 4-10; II 2]); for the legend of origin see Mucius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Q. Cervidius S. Roman lawyer, 2nd cent. Roman lawyer, who under Marcus [2] Aurelius (AD 161-180) was a member of his consilium (SHA Aur. 11,10) and from AD 175 was praef. vigilum (CIL XIV 4502); he also remained active under Commodus and Septimius Severus (until c. AD 200) [5. 113 f.]. As a respondent with a practical bent he wrote Digesta (40 books), the last work of Roman jurisprudence with this title, and Responsa ('Legal opinions', 6 books). These works contain verbatim enqui…

Longus

(1,122 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Author of 'Daphnis and Chloe' (Λόγγος; Lóngos). We have no information about the person who wrote the most famous Greek novel, ‘Daphnis and Chloe’: the name L. in the MSS is typically Roman and frequently attested on Lesbos, the island where the action of the novel takes place, but Roman names were very common among Greeks in the Imperial period. Also as far as the dating of the work is concerned, we only have few indications which leave room for doubt. The refinement of the tale con…

Albinovanus

(212 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Plebeian gentilicium. [German version] [1] P. (1st cent BC) P. (?), one of the accusers of P. Sestius 56 BC de vi (Cic. Vatin. 3,41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P. Legate 82 BC P., legate (?) of C. Norbanus in 82 BC (App. B Civ. 1,91). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] P., pontifex minor (middle of 1st cent. BC) P., pontifex minor before 69 BC until after 57 (MRR 2,71; 135; 3,14) identical with [1] or [2] ? Elvers, Karl-…

Hortensius

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably derived not from hortus but from the place names Hortense, Hortenses [1. 660; 2. 175; 177; 534]. The first definitely attested bearer of the name is H. [4], the most prominent member the orator H. [7]. Family tree: [3. 75]. [German version] [1] H., L. Praetor 170 BC As praetor in 170 BC commanded the fleet in the third Macedonian War (honours in Athens: IG II2 907, and Delos: IDélos III 461 Aa 83). He conquered Abdera, sold its population into slavery, and oppressed Chalcis, but had to rescind his orders by instruction o…

Arrius

(618 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin gentile name of Italian origin. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Made fun of by Catull (Carm. 84) due to affected pronunciation. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A., C. Neighbour of Cicero Neighbour of Cicero at his Formianum (Cic. Att. 2.14.2; 15.3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] A., L. City praetor of Cales City praetor of Cales (ILLRP 560). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 4] A., Q. Praetor in 73 BC Praetor in 73 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 422-423. …

Pythodorus

(519 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πυθόδωρος/ Pythódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian, paved the way (in 411BC) for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 Athenian who, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,1-2 (cf. Thuc. 8,67,1), in 411 BC made a motion in the public assembly to elect a further 20 'preliminary counselors' ( próbouloi) to draw up proposals for saving the state. He thus paved the way for the oli…

Annius

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin, in Rome a plebeian gentilicium, which also occurs in Etruscan and Oscan inscriptions [1]. The Etruscan king Anius, after whom the  Anio was supposedly named (Plut. Mor. 315E-F), is a scholarly invention. In Rome Annii were active from the 3rd cent. BC in public life, produced in the 2nd cent. from the family of the Lusci two consuls and were notorious in the 1st cent. because of T.  A. [14] Milo. In the imperial era the name is widespread, various families are present (e.g. cognomina: Bas…

Deductio

(345 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Legal term There are many different senses of deductio in specialized legal language: in civil case-law the expression in iudicium deducere usually indicates the transition of the dispute to the judgement stage, and so approximately corresponds to the modern concept of pendency. Deductio in domum is the ceremonial introduction of a wife into her husband's house (Dig. 23,2,5). A further frequent use of deductio is to denote the ‘deduction’ of specific components of a debt owed to a provider of services: f…

Lupus

(214 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[German version] [1] Roman proper name Rare Roman proper name (‘Wolf’) [3. 115], quite common as a cognomen, in the Republican period of L. Cornelius [I 51] Lentulus L. ( cos. in 16 BC) and more widespread among the Rutilii in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 257 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 327 3 Schulze. [German version] [2] Poet Is named by Ovid (Pont. 4,16,26) as the author of a poem about the return of Menelaus [1] and Helene [1] from Troy. It may be that L. is identical with the orator P. Rutilius Lupus or …

Aelia

(294 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Second wife of Sulla Second wife of Sulla (Plut. Sull. 6,20). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Galla Wife of one Postumus (Augustan period) Wife of one Postumus = ? C. Propertius Postumus, Prop. 3,12,38; related to members of the senatorial Aelii of the Augustan period [1; 2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Paetina, second wife of  Claudius Ae. Paetina. Probably daughter of Sex. Aelius Catus; second wife of  Claudius, who separated from her (Suet. Claud. 26,2). They had a daughter  Antonia [5].  Narcissus …

Trebius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan/Italian praenomen (usual abbreviation in Lat. inscriptions Tr.), later also a Roman gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Statius Supposed to have handed his home city of Compsa over to Hannibal [4] in 216 BC (Liv. 23,1,1-3; Zon. 9,2,7). Punic Wars (II) Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliograp…

Sacerdos

(465 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rives, James B. (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Name Rare Roman cognomen (‘priest’), in the Republican period attested for the Licinii (Licinius [I 41]), in the Imperial period for Marius Plotius [II 5] Claudius S. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 319. [German version] [2] Priest (plur. sacerdotes). The second part of the Latin word is derived from the Indo-European *dhe- (cf. Greek tithénai, Lat. facere, English do): a sacerdos was thus 'someone who performed sacra '. Sacerdotes became the umbrella term for all religious functionaries, but its meaning as a tech…

Afranius

(936 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Stärk, Ekkehard (Leipzig)
Plebeian tribe, from which senatorial representatives already emerged in the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] L., homo novus, consul 60 BC L., homo novus, supporter of Pompey, distinguished himself as his legate 77-73 (?) BC in the war against Sertorius (Plut. Sert. 19,3 ff.); 72 (?) praetor, 71-67 (?) as proconsul in Spain (conquest of Calagurris, triumph). 66-62 legate in the war against Mithridates. With the support of Pompey, he became consul together with Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer in 60 BC. In 55, sent by Pomp…

Anicius

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Name of a family that came from Praeneste, which is documented there already in the Republican era. An Anician achieved the consulate in 160 BC (see [I 4]), but otherwise the tribe does not distinguish itself again in the Republic. In the imperial era, however, the gens blossomed; from the post-Diocletian era until the 4th cent. AD as an urban Roman family, and then, continued by the members of the female line, emerged as Christian aristocracy of great significance in the 5th cent [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A., C. Senator (middle of the …

Optatus

(565 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (“child desired by parents”), very widespread in the Imperial period; equally commonly a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 75; 77; 296 2 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, vol. 1, 1994, 110-111. [German version] [2] Flavius O. Imperial grammar teacher, 4th cent. AD Grammar teacher of the son of the emperor Licinius [II 4]. Allegedly, because of his wife's beauty he had great influence under Constantine [1] the Great and was appointed consul b…

Gracchus

(182 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld)
Roman cognomen probably of Etruscan origin, as a praenomen passed down for the Aequian king G. Cloelius in 458 BC (Liv. 3,25,5). As cognomen prominent in the family of the Sempronii, especially with the people's tribunes Ti. and C.  Sempronius Gracchus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Writer of Lat. tragedies Writer of Latin tragedies ( Thyestes, Atalanta, Peliades), only a short fragment of each is extant (for Inc. inc. fab. 120-124 2R see [4]); Ov. Pont. 4,16,31 names him together with L.  Varius Rufus in a catalogue of contemporary writers. This…

Perperna

(589 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg)
Nomen gentile of an Etruscan family (or Perpenna on inscriptions ); the family must have received citizenship early: its rise to political power began with P. [2]. P. [3] was the first person with a non-Roman name to become consul, although he lost his citizenship in 126 BC. [German version] [1] P., C. Praetor no later than 91 BC, legate of consul P. Rutilius Lupus in 90 Probably brother of P. [4], praetor no later than 91 BC, was defeated in 90 as legate of consul P. Rutilius Lupus in the Civil War [3] (App. B Civ. 1,179; 183). MRR 2, 20; 29. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P., M. L…

Varus

(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Common Roman cognomen, initially an individual epithet ('bow-legged', cf. Plin. HN 11,254). Recorded for Alfenus [3; 5], Aternius, Licinius [I 46-47], Quinctilius [I 1-3; II 7-8], Vibius. The best known bearer was P. Quinctilius [II 7] V. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149 Id., FCIR, 271 Kajanto, Cognomina, 242. [German version] [2] Sophist from Perge, c. 150 (Οὔαρος/ Oúaros). Sophist from Perge, c. AD 150, from a noble family, presumably the Plancii (Plancius; cf. [1. 22; 2]). Son of one Callic…

Annia

(257 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna († 84), then of M. Pupius Piso Frugi, cos. 61 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,41,2). Perhaps sister of A. [I 12] and daughter of C.  Annius [I 15] Rufus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Aurelia Galeria Lucilla see Lucilla Aug. Spouse of L. Verus  Lucilla Aug. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2a] A. Fundania Faustina daughter of M. Annius [II 9] Libo, married to T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius [4] Pollio; executed under Commodus (AD 180-192, HA Comm. 7,7). PIR2 A 713. Eck, Werner…

Rubrius

(561 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Common nomen gentile in the late Republic and early Principate; its bearers are generally of little political importance (Schulze, 221; 462). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] R., C. (?) People's tribune, 122 BC As people's tribune in 122 BC, he laid down a law concerning the foundation of the colony of Carthage by C. Sempronius Gracchus (Plut. C. Gracchus 10,2; mentioned as lex Rubria CIL I2 585, ch. 59; perhaps also mentioned in Sherk 16, l. 12). MRR 1,517; 3,182. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] R. Propraetor of Macedonia i…

Piso

(128 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (derived in popular etymology from pisere, 'trample', Plin. HN 18,10), hereditary within the family of the Calpurnii (Calpurnius [I 8-23; II 12-24]) and transferred to the Pupii (Pupius); in many other families in the Imperial Period. Also the name of an Aquitanian prince who fell fighting for Caesar in 55 BC (Caes. B Gall. 4,12,3-6); his father or grandfather may have taken the name from L. Calpurnius [I 17] P. ( cos. 112 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 262. [German version] [2] Epigrammatist Otherwise…

Drusus

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Initially cognomen in the gens  Livia (ThlL, Onom. 3,256-260). According to Suet. Tib. 3,2, an otherwise unknown Livius (in the 3rd cent. BC) assumed the epithet, after he had won a duel with the Celtic leader Drausus, and passed it on to his family. Through  Livia's first marriage, with Ti. Claudius [I 19] Nero, the cognomen passed into the Claudian branch of the domus Augusta through her son Nero Claudius [II 24] (D. Maior), brother of the second Princeps  Tiberius; D. appears in the name of the son of D. Maior,  Germanicus, of the latter's son D. [II 2], …

Mamilius

(656 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Latin name of an ancient dynasty from Tusculum (in manuscripts frequently confused with Manilius and Manlius). Because the city was considered a foundation of Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, the Mamilii, from the early 2nd cent. BC at the latest, traced their lineage to Odysseus, via Mamilia, the daughter of Telegonus (coins: RRC 149; 362; in literature, from the Augustan period: Fest. 116f. L; Liv. 1,49,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,45,1). In the 5th cent. BC, with M. [I 1] the family was accepted in Ro…

Norbanus

(761 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from the Latin city of Norba [1] (‘man from Norba’). The family first attained Roman citizenship with N. [I 1], owing its advancement to Caesar and Augustus, and then disappeared. In the Imperial period N. was also a cognomen. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] N., C. Praetor 89 BC, homo novus Novus homo of non-Roman descent (the nomen gentile indicates origins from Norba [1]). As people's tribune in 103 BC and follower of L. Appuleius [I 11] Saturninus, he brought a case against C. Servilius Caepio ( cos. 106) over the defeat at Arausio in …

Cestius

(634 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
Plebeian family name, attested since the 1st cent. BC; also occurred in Praeneste (ThlL, Onom. 354f); the family is politically insignificant [2]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C. Architect in the late republican period Architect of the pons Cestius between the right bank of the Tiber and Tiber Island, probably during the late republican period; otherwise unknown. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C., C. Praetor (?) 44 BC Praetor (?) 44 BC; probably proscribed by Antonius in 43. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] C., L. Praetor and …

Coponius

(273 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name (Schulze, 168, 276, A.7; ThlL, Onom. 2, 587), related to copo ‘innkeeper’ in popular etymology (Mart. 3,59), attested since the 1st cent. BC. [German version] [1] C., C. Praetor under Pompey 49 BC Cicero praised him and his brother T.C. as adulescentes in 56 BC (Balb. 53; Cael. 24). In 53 BC, he was praefectus in Syria, in 49 BC, praetor and mint master under Pompey (RRC 444), and in 48, as propraetor, he lost his fleet in a storm at sea. He is probably identical to the C. who was proscribed in 43 and who owed his life to his wife's …

Nero

(1,990 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
Hereditary cognomen in the younger line of the Claudii family (Claudius; from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC); according to ancient etymology of Sabine origin, meaning ‘brave’ (Suet. Tib. 1.2; Gell. NA 13.23.7f., etc.). With Livia's children [2] from her first marriage with Ti. Claudius [I 19] Nero - the later princeps Tiberius and N. Claudius [II 24] Drusus (the Elder) - the name passed into the Julio-Claudian imperial house (stemma: Augustus). Whereas Tiberius retained N. as an epithet, his brother bore it as praenomen, as did their sons Drusus [II 1] (the Younger) and…

Atilius

(2,546 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Widespread plebeian gentilicium, verifiable since the 5th cent. BC, alternative form Ateilius, Greek Ἀτείλος, Ἀτίλλιος ( Ateílos, Atíllios; Schulze 151; 440; ThlL 2,1172f.). A M.A. under Tarquinius Priscus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,62,4) is fictional. The most important families are in the 3rd cent. BC the Atilii Reguli, in the 2nd and 1st cents. the Sarani (in the newer form Serrani). In the imperial era the significance of the bearers of this name declines in public life.   Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republic [German version] [I 1] Author of  palliata, 2nd cent. BC Author of  palli…

Manius

(225 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Rare Roman praenomen , principally used by the patrician families Aemilii, Sergii and Valerii and by the plebeian Acilii, most often in Upper Italy (rarely nomen gentile: ILS 6230 and M. [I 2] below), acronym: a five-stroked M (, , in print M'.). Two alternatives for the name's origin have been proposed since antiquity: derivation from mane ‘in the morning’ (Varro, Ling. 6,60; Fest. 135 L.; Liber de Praenominibus 5: ‘one born in the morning’) or from manus ‘good’ i.e. from the di manes , euphemistically the ‘good gods’ (Zos. 2,3,2). Neither of the two has yet been convincingly argued. Rix, H…

Numisius

(590 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Roman nomen gentile (epigraphically Numesius, ILS 9231). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] One of the praetors of the Latin league in 340 BC One of the two chief magistrates ( praetores) of the Latin League, who, with his colleague L. Annius [I 3], attempted to enforce perfect equality between the Latins and the Romans in 340 BC, firstly through negotiations and then by means of war; he also continued the war after the defeat of the Latins on Mt. Vesuvius (Liv. 8,3,9; 11,5-12). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] N. (?) Nucula Membe…

Turpilius

(289 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Comic poet, 2nd cent. BC Roman comic poet in the palliata genre, younger contemporary of Terentius [III 1], died according to Hier. Chron. p. 148 Helm 104 BC. Fragments survive of 13 plays with uniformly Greek titles; his main source was Menander [4]. With Caecilius [III 6] and Terence, who was dramaturgically close to him, T. represents the increasingly Hellenizing and Classicizing development of palliata, whereas multiplicity of metre and colour of language separate him from the stylistic purity of Terence and rather link him to Plaut…

Nepos

(785 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen, epithet of Q. Caecilius Metellus N. and his son Roman cognomen (‘grandson’) to distinguish a boy from his father and grandfather of the same name. Epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 28] Metellus N. and his homonymous son [I 29]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 79; 304. [German version] [2] Cornelius N. Biographer and historian, 1st cent. BC ( c. 100-24 BC) represents the dynamic of intellectual culture in Rome during the 1st cent. BC. He hailed from the Transpadana region and was an equestrian. N. …

Tarquitius

(422 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Haase, Mareile (Toronto) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile of Etruscan origin (in Antiquity probably seen as a variant of Tarquinius , cf. Fest. 496). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T. Priscus Technical author, 1st cent. BC? Latin writer perhaps of the 1st cent. BC (cf. Verg. Catal. 5,3); mentioned in Macrobius [1] (Sat. 3,20,3; 5. cent. BC) as the author of an ostentarium arborarium (Etrusci, Etruria III with ill. on Etrusca disciplina), probably an ordered and annotated list of trees and shrubs ( arbores) of significance in divination. T. may also be meant in Plin. HN 2; …

Sestius

(572 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile, sometimes confused with Sextius. The family surfaced as patrician with S. [1] and [5] in the mid 5th cent. BC. In the late Republic, it had only (politically insignificant) plebeian members. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S., L. In order to illustrate the just administration of the first collegium of decemviri , especially the justice of C. Iulius [I 13] Iullus, Livy (3,33,9 f.) and Cicero (Rep. 2,61) tell the anecdote that after a corpse was found buried in the house of S., Iulius - who,…

Trebatius

(265 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, probably derived from a place name (Treba, Trebula), very common in the Imperial Period. [German version] [1] Samnite leader in the Social Wars, c. 100 BC Leader ( praetor) of the Samnites in the Social Wars [3], he was defeated in 89 BC by C. Cosconius [I 1] on the Aufidus and escaped to Canusium (App. Civ. 1,228). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] T. Testa, C. Roman lawyer, 1st cent. BC Roman jurist ( c. 84 BC until after AD 4), pupil of Q. Cornelius Maximus (Dig. 1,2,2,45) and teacher of  Antistius [II 3] Labeo (Dig. 1,2,2,47). He wa…

Opimius

(381 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name (in inscriptions also Opeimius), possibly derived from the (undocumented) cognomen Opimus (cf. Quint. Decl. 302). The family gained notoriety through O. [1] in the 2nd cent. BC, but in the 1st cent. BC no longer played a role in politics. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] O., L. Consul in 121 BC, declared opponent of the Gracchi In 125 BC, he was praetor urbanus and destroyed the rebellious town of Fregellae, which had risen up against Rome after M. Fulvius [I 9] Flaccus's initiative to give Roman citizenship to the Italic all…

Faustinus

(274 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg)
[English version] [1] s. Faustulus s. Faustulus Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] Begüterter Freund des Dichters Martial Begüterter Freund des Dichters Martial, der ihm B. 3 (3,2) und 4 (4,10) widmete; er besaß Villen in Baiae (3,58), Tibur (4,57), Tarracina (10,51,8) und Trebula (5,71). PIR2 F 127. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [3] Wahrscheinlich 273 n.Chr. Statthalter der Provinz Belgica unter Esuvius [1] Tetricus Wahrscheinlich 273 n.Chr. Statthalter der Provinz Belgica unter Esuvius [1] Tetricus, gegen den er nach Polemiu…

Pythodoros

(455 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πυθόδωρος). [English version] [1] Athener, 411 v. Chr. Wegbereiter der oligarchischen Verfassung der 400 Athener, stellte nach [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 29,1-2 (vgl. Thuk. 8,67,1) im J. 411 v. Chr. in der Volksversammlung den Antrag, weitere 20 “Vorberater” ( próbuloi) zu wählen, die Vorschläge zur Rettung des Staates ausarbeiten sollten. Er bereitete damit den Weg für die oligarchische Verfassung der 400 ( tetrakósioi ). Diog. Laert. 9,54 (= Diels/Kranz 80 A 1) nennt ihn als Ankläger des Protagoras [1]. P. ist evtl. identisch mit dem Arc…

Opimius

(331 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
Röm. Familienname (inschr. auch Opeimius), vielleicht abgeleitet vom (nicht bezeugten) Beinamen Opimus (vgl. Quint. decl. 302). Die Familie gelangte im 2. Jh.v.Chr. mit O. [1] zu notorischer Berühmtheit, spielte aber im 1. Jh.v.Chr. polit. keine Rolle mehr. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] O., L. Consul 121 v. Chr., entschiedener Gegner der Gracchen Zerstörte als praetor urbanus 125 v.Chr. das aufständische Fregellae, das sich nach dem Scheitern der Initiative des M. Fulvius [I 9] Flaccus zur Verleihung des röm. Bürgerrechts an di…

Arrius

(533 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Lat. Gentilname ital. Herkunft [1]. I. Republik [English version] [I 1] A. (1. H. 1. Jh. v. Chr.) von Catull (carm. 84) wegen affektierter Aussprache verspottet. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] A., C. Nachbar Ciceros Nachbar Ciceros auf dessen Formianum (Cic. Att. 2,14,2; 15,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 3] A., L. Stadtpraetor von Cales Stadtpraetor von Cales (ILLRP 560). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 4] A., Q. Praetor 73 v.Chr. Praetor 73 v.Chr. [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 422-42…

Norbanus

(714 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Röm. Familienname, wohl abgeleitet von der Latinerstadt Norba [1] (“Mann aus Norba”). Die Familie gelangte erst mit N. [I 1] zum röm. Bürgerrecht und verdankte ihren Aufstieg Caesar und Augustus, um dann zu verschwinden. In der Kaiserzeit ist N. auch Cognomen. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] N., C. Praetor 89 v. Chr., homo novus Novus homo nichtröm. Herkunft (der Gentilname deutet auf Herkunft aus Norba [1]). Als Volkstribun 103 v.Chr. und Anhänger des L. Appuleius [I 11] Saturninus, klagte er den C. Servilius Caepio ( cos. 106) wegen der Niederlage bei Arausio …

Drusus

(979 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Cognomen zunächst in der gens Livia (ThlL, Onom. 3,256-260). Nach Suet. Tib. 3,2 nahm ein nicht näher bekannter Livius (im 3. Jh.v.Chr.) nach seinem Sieg im Zweikampf über den Keltenführer Drausus den Beinamen an und vererbte ihn. Durch die erste Ehe der Livia mit Ti. Claudius [I 19] Nero gelangte das Cognomen über ihren Sohn Nero Claudius [II 24] D. (D. Maior), den Bruder des zweiten Princeps Tiberius, in den claudischen Zweig der domus Augusta: D. erscheint im Namen des Sohnes des D. Maior, Germanicus, bei dessen Sohn D. [II 2], beim Sohn des Tiberius (D. Minor [II …

Nero

(1,934 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Eder, Walter (Bochum)
Erbliches Cognomen in der jüngeren Linie der Familie der Claudii (Claudius; seit der 2. H. des 3. Jh. v.Chr.); nach ant. Etym. sabinischer Herkunft mit der Bed. “tapfer” (Suet. Tib. 1,2; Gell. 13,23,7f. u.a.). Mit den Kindern der Livia [2] aus ihrer ersten Ehe mit Ti. Claudius [I 19] Nero - dem späteren Princeps Tiberius und N. Claudius [II 24] Drusus (d.Ä.) - ging der Name in das iulisch-claudische Herrscherhaus über (Stammbaum: Augustus). Während Tiberius N. als Beinamen beibehielt, führte sei…

Rubrius

(519 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
In der späten Republik und frühen Kaiserzeit häufiges Gentilnomen; seine Träger sind in der Regel politisch unbedeutend (Schulze, 221; 462). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] R., C. (?) Volkstribun 122 v. Chr. Brachte 122 v. Chr. als tr. pl. ein Gesetz über die Gründung der Kolonie Karthago durch C. Sempronius Gracchus durch (Plut. C. Gracchus 10,2; erwähnt als lex Rubria CIL I2 585, cap. 59; vielleicht auch Sherk 16, Z. 12 genannt). MRR 1,517; 3,182. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] R. Propraetor von Macedonia 67 (…

Lupus

(186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[English version] [1] röm. Personenname Seltener röm. Eigenname (“Wolf”) [3. 115], häufiger als Cognomen, in republikan. Zeit des L. Cornelius [I 51] Lentulus L. ( cos. 16 v.Chr.) und bei den Rutilii, in der Kaiserzeit weiter verbreitet. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 257 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 327 3 Schulze. [English version] [2] Dichter Wird von Ovid (Pont. 4,16,26) als der Verf. eines Gedichtes über die Rückkehr des Menelaos [1] und der Helene [1] von Troia gen. Möglicherweise ist L. mit dem Redner P. Rutilius Lup…

Peducaeus

(464 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Name einer röm. plebeiischen Familie, die erst im 1. Jh.v.Chr. hervorgetreten ist; eigentlich Spitzname (“plattfüßig”). I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] 114 v. Chr. Volkstribun Für das J. 113 v.Chr. zum Volkstribun gewählt, brachte gleich nach seinem Amtsantritt im Dez. 114 ein Gesetz durch, das ein erneutes Verfahren gegen die Vestalinnen Licinia [4] und Marcia [3] wegen “Unzucht” unter Vorsitz des C. Cassius [I 17] Longinus Ravilla einleitete (Cic. nat. deor. 3,74; Ascon. 45f. C.). MRR 1, 536. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] P., Sex. Pra…

Afranius

(915 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Stärk, Ekkehard (Leipzig)
Plebeisches Geschlecht, aus dem schon im 2. Jh. v. Chr. senatorische Vertreter hervorgegangen sind. [English version] [1] L., homo novus, cos. 60 v. Chr. L., homo novus, Anhänger des Pompeius, zeichnete sich als dessen Legat 77-73 (?) v. Chr. im Krieg gegen Sertorius (Plut. Sert. 19,3 ff.) aus; 72 (?) Praetor, 71-67 (?) als Prokonsul in Spanien (Eroberung von Calagurris, Triumph). 66-62 Legat im Krieg gegen Mithradates. Mit Unterstützung des Pompeius wurde er zusammen mit Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer im J. 60 v. Chr. Kons…

Fufidius

(204 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name einer plebeischen Familie (Weiterbildung von Fufius [1]), prominent in Arpinum, der Heimat Ciceros. [English version] [1] Röm. Ritter, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Röm. Ritter, 57 v.Chr. Kreditgeber an Apollonia in Illyrien (Cic. Pis. 86). Vielleicht identisch mit dem F., von dem Cicero 54 für seinen Bruder in Arpinum ein Landgut kaufte (ad Q. fr. 3,1,3), der Cicero 47 zum Miterben einsetzte (Att. 11,13,3) und den Horaz als Wucherer anprangerte (sat. 1,2,12-22). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Nicolet 2, 882f. [English version] [2] F., L. Propraetor 80 v.Chr. angeblich Ex-Centur…

Attius

(712 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Plebeischer Gentilname, bezeugt seit dem 2.Jh. v.Chr., in der älteren Form Atius, in den Hss. häufig mit Accius verwechselt (zu Herkunft und Verbreitung Schulze 68; 423; 551; ThlL 2,1169-71). Prominenz erlangte die gens erst mit Atia, der Mutter des Kaisers Augustus. Frühkaiserzeitliche Pseudogenealogie erfand deshalb einen Ahnherrn Atys (Verg. Aen. 5,568 Atys, genus unde Atii duxere Latini). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] A. Balbus, M. Großvater des Augustus Schwager Caesars (Iulia) und Großvater des Augustus (Atia [1])…

Annius

(2,158 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Latinischer, in Rom plebeischer Gentilname, der auch in etr. und osk. Inschr. vorkommt [1]. Der Etruskerkönig Anius, nach dem der Anio benannt sein soll (Plut. mor. 315E-F), ist gelehrte Erfindung. In Rom traten Annii seit dem 3. Jh. v. Chr. im öffentlichen Leben auf, stellten im 2. Jh. aus der Familie der Lusci zwei Konsuln und wurden im 1. Jh. durch T. A. [14] Milo berüchtigt. In der Kaiserzeit ist der Name sehr verbreitet, verschiedene Familien sind faßbar (z. B. Cognomina: Bassus, Gallus, Li…

Fannius

(709 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Köln) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Plebeischer Gentilname (Schulze 266; 424), seit dem Beginn des 2. Jh. v.Chr. histor. bezeugt. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] F.M. f., C. röm. Senator und Historiker, 2. Jh. v. Chr. Röm. Senator und Historiker (in Cic. Brut. 99 falsch von einem Verwandten abgegrenzt). F. zeichnete sich 146 v.Chr. mit Ti. Gracchus bei der Erstürmung Karthagos aus (Plut. Gracchi 4,6), kämpfte 141 als tribunus militum in Spanien (App. Ib. 287), war Schwiegersohn des C. Laelius und hörte Panaitios (Cic. Brut. 100f.). 122 erreichte er, u…

Gabinius

(835 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Röm. Familienname, wohl mit Gabii zusammenhängend (Schulze 532f.), in Latium verbreitet und seit dem 3. Jh. v.Chr. bezeugt; im 2. Jh. gelangte die Familie in den Senat. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] G., A. Volkstribun 139 v.Chr. Angeblich Enkel eines Sklaven (Liv. per. Oxyrhynch. 54; vgl. Cic. leg. 3,35), 146 v.Chr. Gesandter zu den Achaiern, führte als Volkstribun 139 die geheime Abstimmung bei Beamtenwahlen durch Stimmtäfelchen ( tabellae) ein (1. lex tabellaria, Cic. a.a.O; Lael. 41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography M. Jehne, Geheime Abstimmun…

Gracchus

(179 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld)
Röm. Cognomen wahrscheinlich etr. Herkunft, als Praenomen überliefert für den Aequerkönig G. Cloelius 458 v.Chr. (Liv. 3,25,5). Als Beiname prominent in der Familie der Sempronii, bes. bei den Volkstribunen Ti. und C. Sempronius Gracchus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] Verf. von Tragödien, verm. augusteische Zeit Als Verf. von lat. Trag. bezeugt ( Thyestes, Atalanta, Peliades), von denen nur jeweils ein kurzes Fr. erh. ist (zu Inc. inc.fab. 120-124 2R: [4]); Ov. Pont. 4,16,31 nennt ihn gemeinsam mit L. Varius Rufus in einem Katalog zeitgenössi…

Ap(p)uleius

(3,151 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmerman, Maaike (Groningen)
Plebeischer Gentilname (zu Form und Verbreitung [1], ThLL 2, 291). Der Dichter s. Apuleius [III, von Madaura] I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] A. Immobilienhändler (1. Jh. v. Chr.) spätrepublikanischer Immobilienhändler ( praediator) (Cic. Att. 5,11,16; 12,4,2; 12,17). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] A. 43 v. Chr. proskribiert 43 v. Chr. proskribiert, aber entkommen (App. civ. 4,166). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 427. [English version] [I 3] A., L. Volkstribun 391 v. Chr. Volkstribun 391 v. Chr., durch desse…

Pompilius

(140 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Konstanz)
Röm. Gentilname etr. Herkunft ( pumple). Als Ahnherr der Familie galt der König Numa Pompilius. Die bekannten Namensträger sind histor. unbedeutend. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] P. Andronicus, M. Grammatiker, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Nach Suet. gramm. 8 Grammatiker des 1. Jh. v. Chr., Freigelassener aus Syrien, der sich wegen seiner Konzentration auf die epikureische Philos. in Rom nicht durchsetzen konnte und deshalb nach Cumae (Kyme [2]) übersiedelte. Sein Hauptwerk, eine Auseinandersetzung mit den Annalen des Ennius [1] ( Annalium Enni elenchi in 16 B.), wur…

Munatius

(1,723 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Name einer röm. plebeischen Familie, die im 1. Jh.v.Chr. mit dem Zweig der Planci größere polit. Bedeutung erlangte; wichtigster Angehöriger ist M. [I 4], cos. 42 v.Chr. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] M. Flaccus, L. nahm am Attentat gegen den Caesarianer Cassius Longinus 48 v. Chr. teil Aus der Hispania Baetica stammend; entkam 48 v.Chr. in Corduba nach einem mißlungenen Attentat auf den Caesarianer Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus (Bell. Alex. 52,3f.). Als Anhänger des jüngeren Cn. Pompeius verteidigte …

Gellius

(1,156 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Köln) | Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
Röm. Gentilname, der auf das seit dem Anf. des 3. Jh. v.Chr. bezeugte Praenomen G. zurückzuführen sein wird. Die Namensträger sind seit dem 2. Jh. v.Chr. im polit. Lebens Roms nachweisbar. [English version] [1] Stiefbruder des L. Marcius Philippus (Cos. 56 v.Chr.) Stiefbruder des L. Marcius Philippus ( cos. 56 v.Chr.), sonst unbekannter Anhänger des P. Clodius [I 4] aus dem Ritterstand, von Cicero als “Nährmutter aller Revolutionäre” diffamiert (Cic. Vatin. 4; Cic. Sest. 110-112). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] G., Cn. röm. Historiker, 2. Jh. v. Chr. Röm. Hist…

Cestius

(579 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
Plebeischer Familienname, seit dem 1.Jh. v.Chr. bezeugt, auch in Praeneste vorkommend (ThlL, Onom. 354f); die Familie ist polit. unbedeutend [2]. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] C. Brückenbauer, spätrepublikanische Zeit Erbauer des pons Cestius zw. dem rechten Tiberufer und der Tiberinsel wohl in spätrepublikanischer Zeit; sonst unbekannt. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] C., C. Praetor (?) 44 v.Chr. Praetor (?) 44 v.Chr., wohl 43 von Antonius proskribiert. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 3] C., L. Praetor und Münzm…

Nepos

(672 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eigler, Ulrich (Trier) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] Röm. Cognomen, Beiname des Q. Caecilius Metellus N. und seines Sohnes Röm. Cognomen (“Enkel”) zur Unterscheidung eines Jungen von seinem gleichnamigen Vater und Großvater. Beiname des Q. Caecilius [I 28] Metellus N. und seines gleichnamigen Sohnes [I 29]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 79; 304. [English version] [2] Cornelius N. Biograph und Historiker, 1. Jh. v. Chr. (ca. 100-24 v.Chr.) repräsentiert die Dynamik der intellektuellen Kultur des 1. Jh.v.Chr. in Rom. Er entstammte der Transpadana und geh…

Florus

(753 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Konstanz)
Röm. Cognomen (“blond”, “blühend”, mit Ablaut zu flavus zu stellen [1]), in republikanischer Zeit Beiname von C. Aquilius [I 11] F. und L. Mestius F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] P. Annius F. Dichter und Schriftsteller, 1./2. Jh. Unter dem Cognomen Florus (in Verbindung mit den Familiennamen Annius bzw. Ann(a)eus und den Vornamen P. bzw. L.) sind vier Werke bzw. Werkgruppen bekannt: 1. die Einleitung eines Dialoges Vergilius orator an poeta (P. Annius F.), 2. und 3. Frg. einer Korrespondenz (Char. 66,10f.; 157,21f. B.) und ein Gedichtaustausc…

Fonteius

(1,117 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Name einer röm. plebeischen Familie aus Tusculum (die deshalb als Münzmeister gerne die dort besonders verehrten Dioskuren auf ihre Münzen setzten, RRC 290, 307, vgl. 353), deren Mitglieder mehrmals die Praetur bekleideten; zum Consulat gelangte die Familie erst in der frühen Kaiserzeit. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] F. Legat Legat des Proconsuls Q. Servilius Caepio in Asculum; ihre Ermordung durch die dortige Bevölkerung löste den Bundesgenossenkrieg [3] aus (Cic. Font. 41; 48; Vell. 2,15,1; App. civ. 1,173); vielleicht ident…

Cornificius

(403 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kugelmeier, Christoph (Berlin) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
Plebeischer Gentilname (auf Münzen auch Cornuficius, RRC 509); urspr. wohl Gewerbebezeichnung (Schulze, 417), seit dem 1. Jh.v.Chr. histor. bezeugt. [English version] [1] C., L. Volkstribun 43 v.Chr., Anhänger Octavians Sohn von C. [2], Anhänger Octavians (Augustus), klagte 43 v.Chr. als Volkstribun M. Iunius Brutus wegen der Ermordung Caesars an (Plut. Brut. 27,2), kämpfte 38 und 36 als Legat (?) gegen S. Pompeius in der Adria und auf Si…

Rusticus

(487 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Smolak, Kurt (Wien)
Röm. Cogn.; Antistius [II 4], Fabius [II 19], Iunius [II 27-28]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] stadtröm. Theologe, ab 547 in Konstantinopel und Ägypten Stadtröm. Diakon, war mit seinem Onkel, Papst Vigilius, ab 547 n. Chr. in Konstantinopel, wurde ein glühender Verteidiger der “Drei Kapitel” (Synodos), weshalb er von Vigilius 550 exkommuniziert wurde. Nach der 5. Ökumenischen Synode (553) zuerst in die äg. Thebais verbannt, schrieb er Contra Acephalos gegen die Monophysiten (Monophysitismus). Im späteren Exil im Akoimetenkloster bei Konstantinopel korrigierte er die älteren Übers. der Konzilsakten von Kalchedon und Ephesos und fertigte zw. 564-566 auch neue Übers. an…

Ateius

(542 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Ital. Eigenname [1. 347, 426], im öffentlichen Leben Roms seit dem 1.Jh. v.Chr. nachweisbar, nicht sehr häufig. [English version] [1] A. Legat des M. Antonius 41/40 v. Chr. in Gallien Legat (?) des M. Antonius 41/40 v.Chr. in Gallien (MRR 3,26). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Fuficius

(292 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Köln) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[English version] [1] Q.F.Cornutus Senator, praetorischer Statthalter, Beginn seiner Laufbahn unter Trajan oder Hadrian Senator, der aus der Gegend von Histonium stammte. Beginn seiner Laufbahn unter Traian oder Hadrian. Nach der Praetur iuridicus von Asturia et Callaecia im Norden Spaniens, Legionslegat in Moesia, praetorischer Statthalter in Pannonia inferior mindestens von 145-147 n.Chr., cos. suff. 147; consularer Statthalter von Moesia inferior zwischen 148 und 155. In Histonium wurde ihm auf Beschluß des Dekurionenrates und mit öffentlichen Mitteln ein …

Laelius

(1,266 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name einer vielleicht aus Campanien stammenden Familie. Die mil. Erfolge von L. [I 1] im 2. Pun. Krieg (218-201 v.Chr.) und die Verbindung zum Älteren Scipio verschafften ihr wohl das röm. Bürgerrecht und den Aufstieg in die Noblität. Eine jüngere Linie (Praenomen D.) gelangte erst unter Augustus zum Konsulat (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] L., C. Cos. 190 v. Chr., Altersgenosse des Scipio Africanus Geb um 235 v.Chr., gest. um 160; den polit. Aufstieg verdankte L. der engen (und sprichwörtlich gewordenen…

Aurelius

(2,668 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Verbreiteter plebeischer Gentilname (ThlL 2,1482-87), der in ant. Etym. aus dem Sabinischen hergeführt und über die ältere Form Auselius von sol (Sonne) abgeleitet wurde (Fest. p. 22; daraus die moderne Ableitung a…

Gaius

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen)
Weitverbreiteter röm. Vorname (wohl verbunden mit dem lat. Gentilnamem Gavius, nicht verwandt mit gaudere), abgekürzt C., seltener G.; in späten griech. Inschriften auch Γα.…

Publicius

(804 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
(auch Poblicius, Poplicius, Populicius). Name einer röm. plebeiischen Familie, seit dem 3. Jh. v. Chr. bekannt, aber polit. nicht bedeutend. In der späten Republik wurde der Name gerne von Staatssklaven ( servi publici) nach der Freilassung als Zeichen ihres früheren Standes angenommen. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit …

Curtius

(1,265 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Porod, Robert (Graz) | Gatti, Paolo (Trient)
Röm. Familienname (Schulze 78; ThlL, Onom. 2,765-770). Die erfundenen frührepublikanischen Angehörigen C. [I 1-3] sollen den Namen des lacus Curtius erklären [1. 75ff.]. I. Republikanische Zeit…

Herennius

(1,428 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Weitverbreiteter ital. Eigenname (verbunden mit dem Praenomen Herennus, das mit H. oft verwechselt wird), der aber in der röm. Oberschicht erst ab dem 1. Jh. v.Chr. als Familienname bezeugt ist. Zu ihm treten häufig Beinamen als Herkunftsbezeichnungen ( Etruscus, Gallus, Picens, Siculus). In der Kaiserzeit Name des Caesars Q.H. [II 3] Etruscus, Sohn des Kaisers Decius [II 1], des Historikers H. Dexippos [2], des Juristen H. Modestinus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] H. Centurio und Ciceromörder Centurio, der Ende 43 v.Chr. Cice…

Caesius

(513 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Leonhardt, Jürgen (Marburg/Lahn)
Röm. Gentilname, seit dem 3.Jh. v.Chr. belegt, seit dem 1.Jh. in Rom (Schulze, 135 ThlL, Onom. 49-51). I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] C., L. Münzmeister 112/111 v. Chr. Münzmeister 112 oder 111 v.Chr. (RRC 298), vielleicht identisch mit dem praetor oder propraetor von Hispania Ulterior 104 (AE 1984, 495). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography D. Nörr, Aspekte des röm. Völkerrechtes, 1989, 24-27. [English version] [I 2] C., M. Praetor 754 v. Chr. Praetor 75 v.Chr. (Cic. Verr. 2,1,130; MRR 3,44f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Kaiserzeit [English version] [II…

Pontius

(1,326 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Osk. Praenomen und osk./lat. Gentilname. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] Pontius, Gavius Samnitischer Feldherr, brachte den Römern 321 v. Chr. die Niederlage bei Caudium bei Samnitischer Feldherr, der 321 v. Chr. den Römern die berühmte Niederlage bei Caudium beibrachte und sie ‘unter das Joch schickte’ (Liv. 9,2,6-6,4). Daß der samnit. Anführer im Bundesgenossenkrieg [3] (P. [I 4]) ebenfalls diesen Namen trug, ist kein Indiz dafür, daß P.' Name erst später in die Überl. gelangte…

Cincius

(485 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Köln) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
Name einer plebischen Familie, die im 2. Punischen Krieg Bed. erlangte (Schulze, 266). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] C., L. röm. Antiquar, 1. Jh. v. Chr.? antiquarischer Schriftsteller wohl der spätrepublikanischen Zeit (1.Jh. v.Chr.; seit [6] von dem Historiker L.C.Alimentus unterschieden). Durch Zitate bei Festus, Gellius u.a. sind uns sieben Schriften gramm., antiquarischen und juristischen Inhalts bekannt (Fragmente: [1. 1,252ff.; 2. 71ff.]): de verbis priscis, de fastis, de comitiis, de consulum potestate, de officio iurisconsulti (mindesten…

Fronto

(818 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Konstanz)
Röm. Cognomen (“breitstirnig”), erst kaiserzeitlich bezeugt. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] reicher Gönner Martials Ein reicher Gönner Martials (1,55,2). Er könnte mit Ti. Catius Caesius F., cos. suff. 96 n.Chr., identisch sein. Eck, Werner (Köln) [English version] [2] Praetorischer Statthalter von Galatien unter Tiberius Praetorischer Statthalter von Galatien unter Tiberius, vielleicht 27-31 n.Chr. Eck, Werner (Köln) Bibliography S. Mitchell, in: Chiron 16, 1986, 23ff. PIR2 F 485). [English version] [3] [...]us F. Cos. suff. 165 n. Chr. Cos. suff. im J…
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