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Dercylus

(73 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Δερκύλος; Derkýlos). Son of Autocles of Hagnous, Athenian emissary to  Philippus II for the Peace of Philocrates in 346 BC (Aeschin. Leg. 47; 140; Dem. Or. 19,60,125. 175). D. was guarantor for Athenian ships in 341/40 (IG II2 1623, 179-180) and was strategos in 319/8 (Plut. Phocion 32,5; Nep. Phocion 2,4; IG II2 1187: honour conferred by the demos of the Eleusinians). (PA and APF 3249).  Athens Engels, Johannes (Cologne)

Xenophron

(90 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ξενόφρων/ Xenóphrōn). 4th cent. BC Athenian living as one of the hetaíroi of Philippus [I 4] II at his court in Pella [1], son of Phaedria (according to Xen. Hell. 2,3,2 one of the 'Thirty', Triákonta , of 404/3, but in Dem. Or. 19,196, it is his father Phaedimus that is mentioned). X. organized a symposium in Pella in 346 for the Athenian ambassadors to negotiate the Peace of Philocrates [2] (but Aeschin. Leg. 157 names the host as Xenodocus). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11295 Traill, PAA 733980.

Phano

(60 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Φανώ; Phanṓ). Daughter of the hetaera Neaera [6] and Stephanus, first married to the Athenian Phrastor, then divorced. Then her father married her to the árchōn basileús Theogenes ([Dem.] Or. 59,79ff.). After a scandal because of her doubtful citizenship she was divorced from him as well. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Ch. Carey, Apollodoros Against Neaira [Demosthenes 59], 1992.

Thrasylochus

(167 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Θρασύλοχος/Thrasýlochos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 4th cent. BC Son of Cephisodorus from the Anagyrus deme, Athenian, brother of Meidias [2] (Dem. Or. 21,78; 28,17); in 363 BC he forced Demosthenes [2] into a costly trierarchia with an antidosis action; he was himself a triḗrarchos, probably as early as 361 (Ps.-Dem. Or. 50,52) yet before 325/4 (IG II2 1629d,753 f.; 1631b,121 f.). A dedication to Amphiaraus 338-330 BC is preserved epigraphically (SEG 15,285); PA 7347; Davies 385 f. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Messene, politician, 4th cent. BC Mess…

Pythias

(115 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Πυθιάς; Pythiás). [German version] [1] Wife of Aristotle [6] Niece and probably adopted daughter of Hermias [1] of Atarneus, wife of the philosopher Aristotle [6], who married her, presumably after the death of Hermias, in  341. They had a daughter called P. [2] and a son called Nicomachus, the eponym of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Diog. Laert. 5,3-4; Str. 13,1,57). P. died before 322 BC. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Aristotle [6] and P. [1] Daughter of the philosopher Aristotle [6] and P. [1]; wife of Nicanor, a cousin of her fathe…

Chremonides

(135 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Χρεμωνίδης; Chremōnídēs). Son of Eteocles; Athenian politician of the 3rd cent. BC, from the Aethalidae deme. In the summer of 268 BC he proposed the resolution that the Athenian people ally themselves with Sparta and other Greek states; their decision led to the Chremonidean War (cf. IG II2 686-687 = StV 476), at the end of which C. fled to Ptolemy II in Alexandria with his brother Glaucon (cf. Teles, περὶ φυγῆς p. 23 Hense). There he became a counsellor and adviser (σύμβουλος; sýmboulos and πάρεδρος; páredros, Teles p. 23 H.). It was as a nauarch of Ptolemy that…

Thucritus

(46 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Θούκριτος; Thoúkritos). Son of Thucritides of the deme Halimus; Athenian, whose son Euxitheus had to attest to the citizenship of Th. in a trial c. 346 BC (Dem. Or. 57,28,67 f.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography LGPN 2, s. v. T., p. 227 No 7  PA 7259.

Aphobetus

(108 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀφόβητος; Aphóbētos). Son of Atrometus of the Attic deme of Cothocidae, younger brother of  Aeschines [2], the rhetor, born c. 395, died after 343 BC, from 377/76 to 353/2 hypogrammateus and   grammateus (Dem. Or. 19,237; 249) and from 350/49 to 347/46?) elected highest financial official of Athens, a friend of  Eubulus whom he helped to manage the   theorika . He enjoyed political influence before 343 (Aeschin. Leg. 149). Envoy from Athens to Philip II in 346 (Aeschin. Leg. 94-95; Dem. Or. 19,124) and in 343 to the Persian court (Aeschin. Leg. 149). Engels, Johannes (Col…

Xenopeithes

(142 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ξενοπείθης/ Xenopeíthēs). [German version] [1] From Athens, c. 400 BC Athenian of the late 5th and early 4th cent. BC, son of Nausimachus from the Paeania deme; won a victory with a boys' chorus at the Thargeliain c. 385-366 (IG II2 1138,20); possibly an uncle of X. [2] (cf. [1]). Traill, PAA 733255. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography 1 PA 11263 2 Davies, 415 f. [German version] [2] From Athens, mentioned in Demosthenes, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Nausicrates from the Paeania deme; in c. 350-346 BC, he and his brother Nausimachus again sued the sons of their guardia…

Cephisius

(58 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Κηφίσιος; Kēphísios). The Athenian C. was the main accuser of  Andocides [1] in the Trial of the Mysteries in 399 BC; C. levelled harsh reproaches against his political and religious violations, which must in part be ascribed to rhetorical slander (And. 1,92-93; Lys. 6,42). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography A. Missiou, The Subversive Oratory of Andokides, 1992, 50.

Lysitheides

(159 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λυσιθείδης; Lysitheídēs). [German version] [1] Persian-friendly Greek, 5th cent. BC A pro-Persian Greek of the 5th cent. BC, rendered great services to the army of Xerxes and is said to have introduced to it Themistocles who had fled from Greece (Diod. Sic. 11,56,4-8; however in Plut. Themistocles 26,4 Nicogenes is mentioned instead of L.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Rich Athenian, 4th cent. BC Rich Athenian (Dem. Or. 21,157) from the deme of Cicynna who owned land in the mining area of Attica; student of Isocrates and honoured with a go…

Melanopus

(136 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Μελάνωπος; Melánōpos), son of Laches of Aexone. Member of the Athenian legation to Sparta in 372/1 BC (Xen. Hell. 6,3,2). He proposed a decree of the Council in 364/3 (IG II2 145,11-14) and in 355 was legate (possibly as strategos IG II2 150,5) to Maussollus of Halicarnassus, and possibly also to Naucratis in Egypt (Demosth. Or. 24,12). M. was accused of corruption several times, primarily by Demosthenes [2] (Demosth. Or. 24,127; cf. Aristot. Rhet. 1,14,1, 1374b 25), and was a political opponent of Callistratus [2] of A…

Cleobule

(101 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Κλεοβούλη; Kleoboúlē). Born c. 408 BC, died after 363, the daughter of Gylon, wife of the elder Demosthenes from Paeania, mother of the famous orator  Demosthenes [2] and a daughter (Dem. Or. 27 hypoth. § 1; Dem. Or. 28,1-3; Aeschin. In Ctes. 171f.; Plut. Demosthenes 4,2; Plut. Mor. 844A). Her marriage to Demosthenes can probably be dated to 386/5 or slightly earlier, his death probably to 376/5 BC. C., who still lived in 363 (Dem. Or. 28,20), accused Aphobus and the other guardians of her children of mismanagement and embezzlement. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliograp…

Hegesileos

(86 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἡγησίλεως; Hēgēsíleōs). Relative of Eubulus of Probalinthus (Dem. Or. 19,290),   strategos of the Athenian troops in the battle of Mantinea in 362 BC (Xen. Vect. 3,7; Ephoros FGrH 70 F 85; Diod. Sic. 15,84,2) and probably in 349/8 again strategos of the Athenian reinforcements for the tyrant Plutarchus of Eretria. In agreement with the latter he was convicted of deceiving the people in an   eisangelia law-suit (Dem. Or. 19,290 with schol.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, no. 1358 PA 6339 Traill, PAA 481385.

Phocion

(769 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Φωκίων; Phōkíōn). Son of Phocus, Athenian, from the Potamon (?) deme, stratēgós and respected rhetor (Plut. Phocion 5,5), 402/1-318 BC. P. was elected strategos 45 times (ibid. 8,1-2) - more often, probably, than any other Athenian; in 322-318 he and Demades led the oligarchic regime in Athens, he was a pupil of Plato [1] and friend of Xenocrates (Plut. Phocion 4,2; Plut. Mor. 1126c). In 376/5 as a trierarch (?) under the strategos Chabrias P. (or Cedon [2]: Diod. Sic. 15,34,5) commanded the left wing at the naval victory over Spart…

Aphobus

(113 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἄφοβος; Áphobos). Son of Mnesiboulus of the Attic deme of Sphettus (?),  before 400 BC, died after 361. Cousin of the orator  Demosthenes, trierarch (Dem. Or. 27,14); from 376/75 to 366 one of the guardians of Demosthenes. Accused by the latter in 366 of embezzlement, he was sentenced in 364/63 to repay the sum of 10 talents (cf. Dem. Or. 27-29 Against A. and 30-31 Against  Onetor; see especially Dem. Or. 27,4; 29,60; 30,6-8; Plut. Mor. 844C-D; PA and Davies 2776, cf. also Davies 3597, V-VI). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography D. M. MacDowell, The Authenticity of…

Himeraeus

(111 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἱμεραῖος; Himeraîos). Son of Phanostratus of Phalerum, Athenian rhetor of the 4th cent. BC, brother of  Demetrius [4] of Phalerum, priest of Poseidon (Syll.3 289,18); opponent of the Macedonians and counsel for the prosecution against Demosthenes in the trial of  Harpalus in 323 BC (Plut. Mor. 846C). After the defeat of Athens in the Lamian War in 322 BC, H. fled to Aegina, was sentenced to death in his absence on the orders of Demades, seized and executed by command of  Antipater [1] (Arr. FGrH 156 F 9 (13); Lucian. Demosthenis Encomium 31; Plut. Demosthenes 28,4). Enge…

Nausicles

(155 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ναυσικλῆς; Nausiklês). Son of Clearchus from the deme of Oe, c. 390-before 325/4 BC (IG II2 1629c,707), in 352 sent as an Athenian strategos (Diod. 16,37,3; Demosth. or. 18,115) to help the Phocaeans. Possibly commander of the Athenian troops that stopped Philip II at Thermopylae. Follower of Eubulus [1]. In 346 one of the negotiators of the peace of Philocrates (hypothesis 2,4 on Demosth. Or. 19). N. was given the distinction of two wreaths of honour (Demosth. Or. 18,114; IG II2 1496 col. 2,40; 3,49), was renewed as strategos in 334/3 (IG II2 1623b,329f), proposed impo…

Lycinus

(142 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λυκῖνος; Lykînos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 4th cent. BC Athenian, initiated a paranómōn action against a psḗphisma in 347 BC, which at the request of Aeschines [2] required Philip II to send envoys to Athens to negotiate the Peace of Philocrates (346 BC). L. petitioned for a fine of 100 talents against Aeschines but did not even receive a fifth of the judges' votes (Aeschin. Leg. 13f.; Aeschin. In Ctes. 62). PA 9198. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Commander of a Macedonian garrison in Megara, 3rd cent. BC Greek of the 3rd cent. BC, was exiled from his homela…

Chremonidean War

(478 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] The Chremonidean War is named after  Chremonides, son of Eteocles from the Aethalidae deme [1. 176-185; 2; 3]. It was at his behest that Athens entered an alliance with Sparta and other states during the archonship of Peithidemos [12]. The official purpose of this new alliance of the Hellenes supported by  Ptolemaeus II was to protect the freedom of the Hellenes, their  autonomy and the constitutions of the allies. Its political and soon military opponent was  Antigonus Gonatas. T…

Therippides

(70 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Θηριππίδης; Thērippídēs). Athenian of the first half of the 4th cent. BC from the Paeania deme, lessee of mines, friend of the father of the rhetor Demosthenes [2] and appointed his guardian. On reaching majority Demosthenes sued him for misappropriating his inheritance (Dem. Or. 27,4 and 12-49; 28,12-16; SEG 28,205; 29,155). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography LGPN II T. S. 225 No. 3  PA 7238  Schäfer vol. 1, 270 f.

Lamian War

(157 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] The Lamian (or ‘Hellenic’) War, named after the polis of Lamia, was waged by the Athenians and Aetolians and their allies against Antipater [1]. Its causes were, specifically, Alexander [4] the Great's decree on the exiles, and generally, the hope that the Macedonian hegemony over Hellas could be undone in the wake of Alexander's death (323 BC). After early successes under the leadership of Leosthenes [2], the land war became bogged down at Lamia, where Antipater was besieged i…

Leosthenes

(368 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λεωσθένης; Leōsthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian rhetor and strategos, 4th cent. BC Outstanding Athenian rhetor from the Cephale deme (Aeschin. Leg. 124), father of Leosthenes [2]. Sent as stratēgós against Alexander [15] of Pherae in 362/1 or 361/60 BC, L. was prosecuted in Athens for treason and condemned to death after Peparethus and Panormus had fallen to Alexander and the Piraeus was threatened (Polyaenus, Strat. 6,2,1f.). L. went into exile at the Macedonian court, where he was held in high standing by Philippus II (Diod. Sic. 15,95,2f.; Aeschin. Leg. 124; Hyp. 3,1 Jensen ).…

Hegesander

(324 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Athen. rhetor, middle of 4th cent. BC Athenian rhetor, son of Hegesias from the deme Sunium and brother of  Hegesippus [1], in 361/60 BC treasurer (Aeschin. In Tim. 55f.; 95) of the strategos Timomachus and despite the latter's sentence for bribery shortly afterwards   tamias of Athena (Aeschin. In Tim. 110f. and schol.), implying that he was a rich man. In the trial against Timocrates  Aeschines [2] most likely slanderously accused him of illegal enrichment. H. was considered an opponent of Aristop…

Callippus

(640 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Κάλλιππος; Kállippos). [German version] [1] Athenian student of Plato Athenian student of  Plato, who took Callistratus, who had been sentenced in an   eisangelía proceeding, to Thasos in 361 BC on the order of the stratēgós Timomachus (Dem. Or. 50,47-52). In 357 C. evaded charges in Athens by accompanying  Dion [I 1] during his enforced return to Sicily (Plut. Dion 22,5 and 54,1; Pl. Ep. 7, 333e). Though initially held in high esteem by Dion as a philosophical and political advisor and ‘condottiere’, C. turned against Dion in 3…

Demon

(247 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δήμων; Dḗmōn). [German version] [1] Uncle of Demosthenes Uncle of  Demosthenes, honoured for the way in which he conducted his office as priest in 386/5 BC (IG II2 1140); possibly trierarch in 373/2 (IG II2 1607, 26; again later IG II2 1609,13; [1. 115] see Demosthenes 3597 II). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Nephew of Demosthenes, Athenian priest Son of Demomeles of the Paeania deme, nephew of  Demosthenes, priest of the urban Asclepius cult (IG II2 4969), probably identical with the rhetor whose extradition was demanded by  Alexander [4] the Great i…

Eubulus

(967 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὔβουλος; Eúboulos). [German version] [1] Athenian about 400-330 BC E., son of Spintharus of the deme Probalinthus, c. 400 to before 330 BC, possibly identical with the Athenian who in 369 applied for permission for Xenophon to return (Ister FGrH 334 F 32) and a thesmothete attested in Athens about 370/69 (SEG 19,133,4). If that is the case, he was a member of the Areopagus. After 354/3 he achieved significant political influence in Athens as an administrator of the theorikon treasury, and because of his abilities as an orator, his membership in the Areopagus and good con…

Neaera

(250 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Νέαιρα; Néaira). [German version] [1] Helios' mistress Helios' mistress, mother of the cowherds tending their father's herd on Thrinacie (Hom. Od. 12,133). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Strymon's mistress Strymon's mistress and mother of Euadne, who was spouse of Argos [I 1] (Apollod. 2,3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Pereus Daughter of Pereus, spouse of Aleus [1], mother of Auge [2] (Apollod. 3,102). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Spouse of Aetas Spouse of Aetas (alsoIdyia; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,240). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Ctesiphon

(390 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hauser, Stefan R. (Berlin)
(Κτησιφῶν; Ktésiphôn). [German version] [1] Athenian, supporter of Demosthenes [2], 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Leosthenes from Anaphlystus, supporter of  Demosthenes [2], whom he had successfully, though technically pre-empting official endorsement ( Euthynae), proposed in 337/6 for a crowning.  Aeschines [2] lodged a protest against this that was unambiguously rejected in 330 at the ‘crown trial’ (Aeschin. In Ctes.; Dem. Or. 18; Plut. Mor. 840C and 846A). C. was also one of the emissaries to queen Cleopatra in Epirus (Aeschin. In Ctes. 242). Engels, Johannes (C…

Mnesicles

(642 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Μνησικλῆς; Mnēsiklês). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c. 430 BC Greek architect of the classical period. His chief work are the Propylaea on the Athenian Acropolis, begun in 437 BC and prematurely discontinued at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC (Plut. Pericles 13). The forms and proportions of the architecture of the Propylaea show that M. acquired his skills among the masons of the Parthenon. While the Propylaea remained unfinished and their original design had to be altered owing…

Mnesibulus

(227 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
(Μνησίβουλος/ Mnēsíboulos). [German version] [1] Athenian defendant, after 356 BC The Athenian M. was involved after 356 BC in a lawsuit for false testimony ( pseudomartyrías díkē ) on behalf of his brother-in-law Theophemus in an earlier aikeía suit ( aikeías díkē ) (cf. Dem. Or. 47,5 and 53 = Apollodoros; Din. fr. 97 Conomis). Apollodorus [1]; Demosthenes [2] Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 225-226  PA 10265  Traill, PAA 655710. [German version] [2] Condemned Athenian, before 324/3 BC Athenian from the deme of Acharnae, was condemned at first before 324/…

Milyas

(216 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Trustee of the legacy of Demosthenes Milyas (Μιλύας; Milýas), a confidant of Demosthenes [2], administered his inheritance. In a legal dispute between Demosthenes and his guardians, the latter accused M. of irregularities. Aphobus demanded that the presumed slave M. be handed over for interrogation under torture. Demosthenes refused, on the grounds that M. had already been freed by his father (cf. Dem. Or. 29). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Schäfer, Vol. 4, supplements, 1885, 82-85 Traill, PAA 653990. [German version] [2] Region in southern Asia…

Menyllos

(166 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μένυλλος; Ményllos). [German version] [1] Military officer in the Lamian War, 322 BC After the Athenian defeat in the Lamian War by Antipater [1] in 322 BC, M. was appointed commander of the Macedonian garrison at the Munychia fortress in Piraeus (Diod. 18,18,5; Plut. Phocion 28,1 and 7). He was on good terms with Phocion who was then in charge of Athenian policy. After the death of Antipater, Cassander replaced M. with Nicanor. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography W. S. Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens, 1911, 20. [German version] [2] Envoy of Ptolemy VI to Rome, 163/2 BC In 163/2 BC, M. …

Mantias

(261 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Μαντίας; Mantías). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 360/359 BC Son of Mantitheus of Thoricus In 377/76 BC tamias of the shipyards (IG II2 1622,435f). In 360/359 BC Athenian strategos of a naval division and auxiliary troops sent to assist the Macedonian claimant Argaeus against Philip II. By delaying in Methone, he was co-responsible for Argaeus's defeat (Diod. Sic. 16,2,6 and 16,3,5; in c. 358/7). Details about his family are distorted by diabolḗ (‘slander, calumny’) in Demosthenes (Or. 39 and 40). For his trierarchies cf. IG II2 1604,10 and 46 as well as 1609,61f. Engels, Joh…

Dinarchus

(546 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δείναρχος; Deínarchos). [German version] A. Life Attic orator, born about 361 BC in Corinth, son of Sostratus, died after 292. The source of information on his life is the (incompletely transmitted) treatise De Dinarcho of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who relied in particular on a lost speech by D. (‘Against Proxenus’); the other lives (Ps.-Plut., Photius, Suda) depend on Dionysius. D. relocated in his younger years ( c. 340/38) to Athens, lived there as a metic and had links to the Peripatetic school. After about 336/5 he was active as a  logographer. Despite his successful activity …

Cephalus

(728 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Κέφαλος, Képhalos). [German version] [1] Athenian hero Athenian hero, eponym of the Attic deme  Cephale (north-west of Thoricus) and founding father of the Cephalid lineage (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 34; Hsch. s.v. Κεφαλίδαι). C. is regarded a) as the son of the Athenian king  Pandarus (Pandium) or of  Hermes and Herse, the daughter of Cecrops; or b) as the son of the Phocian king Deion(eus) and Diomede, the daughter of Xuthus, whereby he becomes the brother of Aenetus, Phylacus, Actor and Asteropeia. C. is an exceptional hunter with breathtaking beauty. When hunting on the slope…

Philippides

(307 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Φιλιππίδης/ Philippídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half of 4th cent. BC) Athenian, follower of Philip II (Philippus [4] II), mocked by the comic poets Alexis, Aristophon [4] and Menander [4] (Ath. 6,230c; 238c; 11,503a; 12,552d-f). After two convictions for proposing illegal measures, as charged by Hyperides in 336 BC or between 336 and 334, he was again prosecuted on such a charge ( paranómōn graphḗ ) for his proposal to grant honours to the próhedroi (Hyp. Or. 4), among whom Philip [4] II had been honoured. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography J. Engels, Stu…

Polycles

(443 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολυκλῆς/ Polyklês). [German version] [1] Athenian councillor 367/6 BC Son of Polycrates from the deme of Anagyrous; Athenian councillor in 367/6 BC (Agora XV,14) and several times trierarch and syntrierarch (IG II2 1609,105 f.; 1611,371; 1622b,238 and 1630,6: again 327/6-325/4 BC). P. did not take over his trierarchy until a long time after the appointed date, for which he was taken to court by Apollodorus [1] in 359 BC (Dem. Or. 50). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 465 f.  Develin, Nr. 2567  PA 11988. [German version] [2] Sculptor in bronze from Argos, 4th cent. BC Scul…

Lachares

(480 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Λαχάρης; Lacháres). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and confidant of Cassander Athenian, demagogue and confidant of Cassander. L. succeeded, with a mercenary force, in establishing a rulership in Athens, probably from early in 300 BC to early in 295 (Olympiad Chronicle FGrH 257a F 1-4; Plut. Demetrius 33; however, IG II2 646 indicates 294 BC), which is described in ancient sources as a tyrannis, although fundamental organs of democracy continued to operate. Following the death of Cassander (297), L. managed to hold out, but was forced …

Demophilus

(250 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Δημόφιλος; Dēmóphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian orator, mid-4th cent. BC Athenian orator who, in 346/45 BC, proposed the scrutiny of citizen lists which resulted in loss of citizenship for many (Aeschin. In Tim. 77,86; Androtion FGrH 324 F 52 = Philochorus FGrH 328 F 52; Sch. Aeschin. In Tim. 77) [1; 2]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian prosecutor of Aristotle 323 BC Athenian, accused  Aristotle in 323 BC (Diog. Laert. 5,5; Ath. 696a) of asébeia,impiety, because of the hymn and epigram to Hermias of Atarneus (cf. [3]). D. was successful in…

Thymochares

(148 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Θυμοχάρης/ Thymochárēs). [German version] [1] From Athens, naval commander, c. 400 BC Athenian, strategos of a fleet defeated by Agesandridas at Eretria [1] in 411/10 BC (Thuc. 8,95). T. was also defeated by Agesandridas in a second sea battle (Xen. Hell. 1,1,1). Traill, PAA 518930. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] From Athens, follower of Lycurgus [9], second half of the 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Phaedrus [2] from the Sphettus deme, c. 360-300 BC, follower of Lycurgus [9], in 329/8 epimelētḗs of the Amphiaraus Games of Oropus (IG VII 4254, 29 f. = [5. no. 50]), str…

Leodamas

(261 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Λεωδάμας; Leōdámas). [German version] [1] Athenian orator, c. 400 BC The Athenian L. of Acharnae, a skilful orator (Aristot. Rh. 2,23,25 1400a 31-35), was rejected at his dokimasia of 382 BC to assess his candidacy for the eponymous archonship ( Archontes) because of his political role prior to 403 (Lys. 26,13f.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 9076 Davies 13921, p. 523 LGPN 2, s.v. Leodamas (2) Traill, PAA 605085. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, 4th cent. BC Son of Erasistratus of Acharnae, outstanding Athenian rhetor, student of Isocrates (Plut. Mor…

Phormio

(259 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Φορμίων; Phormíōn). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos (middle of the 5th cent. BC) Athenian stratēgós , commanded a fleet against Samos in 440/439 BC (Thuc. 1,117,2). Against the Ambraciotes, who were holding Argos in Amphilochia, he led 30 ships in support of the Amphilochi and the Acarnanes, who settled the city from that time on. The Athenians and the Acarnanes concluded a symmachy (Thuc. 2,68,7f.). In 432, with an Athenian army, P. beseiged Potidaea from the landside (Thuc. 1,6…

Pythocles

(168 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Πυθοκλῆς; Pythoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian rhetor, 4th cent. BC Athenian rhetor, son of Pythodorus from the deme Cedi ( c. 380-318 BC), (syn)trierarch multiple times (IG II2 1615,12; 1622,314), an opponent of Demosthenes [2] after 343; he spoke unsuccessfully in 338/7 against Demosthenes holding the epitáphios for those killed at Chaeronea (Dem. Or. 18,285); possibly executed in 318 as a follower of Phocion (Plut. Phocion 35,5). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 485  Develin, Nr. 2682  LGPN 2, s. v. P. (17). [German version] [2] Epicurean, c. 300 BC Student …

Democles

(138 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δημοκλῆς; Dēmoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, attempted to flee from erotic pursuit by Demetrius Poliorcetes At the baths the Athenian D. saved himself as an ‘immature boy’ (παῖς ἄνηβος; paîs ánēbos) from erotic pursuit by  Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes by jumping into a kettle of boiling water but was killed as a result (Plut. Demetrios 24,2-6). D. is not identical with the defender of the sons of Lycurgus against the suits of Moerocles and Menesaechmus (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 842E).  Athens Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic orator of the school of Theophrastus Attic o…

Cercidas

(694 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Κερκιδᾶς, Κερκίδας; Kerkidâs, Kerkídas). [German version] [1] Arcadian orator, supposedly acting in the political interest of Philippus II C., an Arcadian orator mentioned by  Demosthenes [2] (Dem. Or. 18,295) in his famous ‘list of traitors’ in the speech ‘On the Crown’ and supposedly acting in the political interest of  Philippus II (similar also Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 119; Pol. 18,14,1-2). The conclusiveness of the accusations by Demosthenes and Theopompus can no longer be verified. C. was descended from a rich…

Leocrates

(258 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λεωκράτης; Leōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Strategos in 479 and 459/8 BC Son of Stroebus, one of the Athenian stratēgoí in the battle of Plataea in 479 BC, is said to have prevented the conflict between the Athenians and Spartans over the erection of the tropaion (Plut. Aristides 20,1). Afterwards he dedicated a votive offering at Athens (epigram of Simonides [1. no. 312]; IG I3 983). Again elected stratēgós in 459/8, L. defeated the Aeginetes in a naval battle, establishing a blockade around the island (Thuc. 1,105,2-3; Diod. Sic. 11,78,3-4) [2]. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 P. …

Dromocleides

(88 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δρομοκλείδης; Dromokleides). [German version] [1] Athenian archon 475/4 BC Athenian archon 475/4 BC. (Diod. Sic. 11,50,1). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian demagogue c. 295 BC Influential and active Athenian demagogue, supporting  Demetrius [2] Poliorketes. In 295 BC he proposed that Piraeus and Munychia be handed over to Demetrius and, probably in 292/1, that the ‘saviour’ Demetrius be asked for an oracle (Plut. Demetrius 13,1-3; 34,1-7).  Athens;  Kolakes Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Habicht, 94; 98-100 Id., Unt. zur polit. Ge…

Autocles

(195 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Αὐτοκλῆς; Autoklês). [German version] [1] Strategos 425-3 BC, arranged a truce with Sparta together with Nicias in 423 BC Of Anaphlystus (IG I3 370,17), son of Tolmaeus. Strategos in 425/24 (with Nicias i.a., before Cythera, Thuc. 4,53,1), 424/23 and 418/17 BC (IG ibid.). Together with Nicias i.a., he arranged a truce with Sparta in 423 (Thuc. 4,119,2; Schol. Aristoph. Equ. 796). Traill, PAA 239060. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Davies, 2717. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and strategos, 472/1 BC; peace envoy in Sparta Son of Strombychides from the deme of E…

Aristogiton

(407 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ἀριστογείτων; Aristogeítōn). [German version] [1] Athenian 'Tyrant killer' (514 BC) A. and  Harmodius, both of the family of Gephyraei, plotted with others to kill the tyrant  Hippias and his brother  Hipparchus at the Panathenaic festival of 514 BC. The plot miscarried; only Hipparchus was assassinated, Hippias remained unharmed. His tyranny was only ended in 511/510 BC, with Sparta's military support. Harmodius was killed immediately after the assassination. A. was arrested, tortured and then executed …

Cephisodotus

(988 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κηφισόδωτος; Kēphisódōtos). [German version] [1] Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of Aigos Potami Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of  Aigos Potami or executed afterwards with other Athenian prisoners of war (Xen. Hell. 2,1,16-32; Diod. Sic. 13,105f.; Plut. Alcibiades 36,4; Plut. Lysander 13,1) [1]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian stratēgós, friend of  Charidemus, whom he unexpectedly faced as enemy in 360/59 BC Athenian stratēgós from the Acharnae deme; friend of  Charidemus [2], on whose request he …

Menecles

(381 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Μενεκλῆς/ Meneklês). [German version] [1] Athenian lawyer, 350 and 347 BC Athenian. In 350 and 347 BC he was synegoros for Boeotus ( Mantitheus [3]) and his mother Plangon in two lawsuits (Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,9f.; 32). Allegedly a sycophant, Menecles was himself accused by Ninus's son. The prosecution speech (Din. fr. 33 Conomis) was attributed to Dinarchus. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Schäfer, Beilagen 1885, 211-226 PA 9908 Traill, PAA 643135. [German version] [2] Greek historian and antiquarian, 2nd cent. BC Menecles from Barca in northern Africa, a Greek histo…

Menestheus

(437 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μενεσθεύς; Menestheús). [German version] [1] Athenian leader at Troy Son of Peteus, great-grandson of Erechtheus. M. led the contingent of Athenians with fifty ships at Troy. Only Nestor was his equal in marshalling horses and warriors for battle (Hom. Il. 2,552ff.). While Theseus was detained in Hades, the Dioscuri conquered Aphidna and installed M. as king of Athens. Theseus's sons fled to Euboea. Because M. gained the favour of the Athenians, they ousted Theseus on his return (Paus. 1,17,5f.). Accord…

Polyeuctus

(609 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολύευκτος/ Polýeuktos). [German version] [1] Son of the Athenian Themistocles Third son of Themistocles and his first wife Archippe, daughter of Lysander of Alopece (who adopted the second son, Diocles); nothing is known of his life. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Davies, 6669  R. Frost, Plutarch's Themistocles. A Historical Commentary, 1980, ad 32,1  Traill, PAA, 778325. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, 2nd half of 4th cent. BC Son of Sostratus of the Sphettus deme, Athenian rhetor of the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC, in the circle of Demost…

Iatrocles

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς; Iatroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, oligarch, 4th cent. BC Athenian, fled in 411 BC after the pro-democratic uprising of the Athenian fleet off Samos with the trierarch  Eratosthenes [1] and others, when the fleet was operating in the Hellespont, to Athens, where he supported the oligarchy (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [German version] [2] Son of Pasiphon, approx. 350 BC Son of Pasiphon, in 348 BC captured by  Philippus II during the conquest of  Olynthus but then released (Aeschin. Leg. 15-16…

Euthycrates

(240 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὐθυκράτης; Euthykrátēs). [German version] [1] Olynthian, betrayed his home polis at the instigation of Philippus II E., an Olynthian, allegedly accepted bribes from  Philipus II in 348 BC to betray his home polis, thus bearing part of the guilt for its destruction. Because of this, E. was ostracized by Athens (Diod. Sic. 16,53,2; Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,56; 18,295; 19,265-267; Hyp. fr. 76 Jensen). In c. 345-343, he acted as syndikos for the Delians in their dispute with the Athenians regarding the prostasía of the Delphi sanctuary.  Demades' application to lift E.'s ostracism and…

Cineas

(356 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κινέας; Kinéas). [German version] [1] Of Konde, king of the Thessalians, offered military help to Hippias against the Spartans in 511 BC C. of Konde, king ( basileús) of the Thessalians, in 511 BC offered military help in the form of 1,000 Thessalian horsemen to the Athenian tyrant  Hippias [1] when he was threatened by the Spartans, and defeated them at Phalerum (Hdt. 5,63f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 19,5). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Thessalian (c. 350-277 BC), diplomat of king Pyrrhus, expert on Roman aristocracy The Thessalian C. (about 350-277 BC), diplomat…

Hermias

(778 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Ἑρμίας; Hermías). [German version] [1] Around 350 BC tyrant over Atarneus and Assos (or Hermeias) Around 350 BC successor of Eubulus as tyrant over  Atarneus and  Assos (Diog. Laert. 5,3), possibly pupil of Plato (Str. 13,1,57; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 250; by contrast Pl. Ep. 6,322e). Along with other philosophers he brought Aristotle to the court and married him to his niece  Pythias. After the Persians had reconquered Egypt in 343/342, H. considered his region to be under threat and contacted  Philippus II (…

Demochares

(472 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δημοχάρης; Dēmochárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian delegate to Philip II, mocked by Seneca Mentioned by Seneca as an Athenian delegate to Philip II and compared to the Homeric  Thersites because of his open and bold style of speech (cf. Il. 2,212ff.) (Sen. De ira 3,23,2f.). Possibly identical with D. [3] PA 3716. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Relative of Demosthenes the orator The son of Demon of the Paeania deme, a relative of  Demosthenes, possibly as commander of the cavalry, he was Athenian delegate and witness of the oath of symmachia with Amyntas (IG II2 102,19?…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Diopeithes

(409 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Διοπείθης; Diopeíthēs). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Author of Old Comedy, only known from inscriptions; probably won at the Dionysia for the first time in 451 BC [1. test.]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 43. [German version] [2] Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by Pericles Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by  Pericles. Following his petition it was decided in 437/6(?) BC to prosecute those who did not believe in the …

Antiphilus

(465 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἀντίφιλος; Antíphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos of hoplites (323/22 BC) The Athenian A. was elected Athenian strategos of hoplites ( Hoplites) after the death of Leosthenes 323/322 BC, whose successor he became. He took over the command of the land forces of the Hellenic League in the Lamian or Hellenic War and distinguished himself through military skills and courage (Plut. Phoc. 24,1-2; Diod. Sic. 18,13,6). He lifted the siege of  Antipater at  Lamia, in 322 defeated a Macedonian army under Le…

Meno

(805 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μένων; Ménōn). [German version] [1] Recipient of Athenian citizenship according to Demosthenes For his support for the Athenians in their attack on Eion [1] on the Strymon, M. of Pharsalus was, according to Demosthenes (Or. 13,23), awarded atéleia or (Or. 23,199) Athenian citizenship [1. 20-23]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Military official under Cyrus the younger, ca. 400 BC M. of Pharsalus, was, like his ancestors, closely connected to the Thessalian dynasty of the Aleuadai (M. was the erṓmenos, ‘beloved’, of Aristippus) and bound by paternal hosp…

Phaedrus

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] I. Greek (Φαῖδρος; Phaîdros). [German version] [I 1] 5th cent. BC Son of Pythocles, from the Attic deme of Myrrhinus, born probably c. 450 BC. Accused of participation in the profanation of the Eleusinian Mysteria and the mutilatation of the herms, P. went into exile in 415 BC. His property was confiscated (And. 1,15; ML 79,112-115). By 404 BC at the latest, he had returned to Athens; he subsequently married a cousin (Lys. 19,15). Died before 393. Participant in the meeting in Plato's Protagoras (315c), interlocutor of Socrates in Plato's Phaedrus and first speaker in his Sy…

Philocrates

(338 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλοκράτης; Philokrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian who advised the Athenians at the negotiations in 392/1 BC to reject a peace treaty with Sparta (Dem. Or. 23,116f.). As stratēgós, P. in the summer of 390 BC commanded ten ships that were sent to Cyprus to help Evagoras [1] but were captured by the Spartan Nauarch Teleutias (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography P. Funke, Homónoia und Arché, 1980, 95; 144f.; 150. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Pythodorus from the de…

Hegesippus

(950 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἡγήσιππος; Hēgḗsippos). [German version] [1] Athen. rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Hegesias from Sunium, Athenian rhetor and envoy from a wealthy family. In 357/6 BC he spoke in the ekklesia as a champion of aid for Eretria (IG II2 125 = Tod, 154), in 356/5 of the Athenian symmachy with Phocis (Aeschin. In Ctes. 118; Dem. Or. 19,72-74 with schol.) and between 346 and 340 of further decrees for foreign policy (Dem. Or. 18,75). In the year 345 he defended Timarchus against  Aeschines [2] (Aeschin. In Tim. 71) together with his br…

Demosthenes

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δημοσθένης; Dēmosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Prominent Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. Appointed strategos for the first time in 427/6 BC, he entered Aetolia with Western Greek allies so as to be able to attack Boeotia from the west. Through tactical errors D. suffered a severe defeat and fear prevented him from returning to Athens (Thuc. 3,94-98). However, in the Aetolian and Spartan assault on the Athenian stronghold of Naupactus in 426, D., wit…

Ephialtes

(540 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ἐφιάλτης; Ephiáltēs). Mythology  Aloads. [German version] [1] Son of Eurydemus of Malis Son of Eurydemus of Malis, he is supposed to have shown  Xerxes the path over the mountains at  Thermopylae, in the hope of a large reward. This enabled the Persians to circumvent the Greek army under Leonidas and attack it from the rear. E. himself is said to have led the elite corps of Hydarnes along this path, and so contributed to the defeat of the Spartans. Herodotus was already aware of another version, thought by…

Pytheas

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πυθέας; Pythéas). [German version] [1] P. from Aegina 5th cent. BC, his son proposed revenge measures after the battle of Plataeae After the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) his son Lampon [1] proposed desecrating the corpse of  Mardonius [1] in revenge for Leonidas [1]  (Hdt. 9,78). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. from Aegina Persian POW after a battle at Sciathos, freed after Salamis Fought so bravely in a skirmish at Sciathos that he inspired wonder in the victorious Persians, who consequently treated him with the greatest respect a…

Cleobulus

(335 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος; Kleóboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Lindus, fl. 7th-6th cent. BC, poet Tyrant of Lindus (Rhodes), flourished in the 7th-6th cent. BC, considered to be one of the  seven wise men [1]. He composed ‘songs and riddles in about 3,000 verses’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Apart from 20 sayings (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK), a short letter to Solon (Epist. p. 207 Hercher), a fragment of a scolion in a moralizing tone (SH 526). Preserved is only a funerary epigram in hexameter for king  Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a), quoted by Plato (Phaedr. …

Polycrates

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πολυκράτης; Polycrátēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Samos, 540-522 BC Son of Aeaces [1], tyrant of Samos c. 540-522 BC, initially together with his brothers Pantagnostus and Syloson; he killed the former and expelled the latter (Hdt. 3,39). Aristotle calls major constructions comparable to the pyramids [6] 'the works of P.' (Aristot. Pol. 1313b 24); Herodotus pinpoints three buildings on Samos as the largest among those of the Greeks: the Temple of Hera, the harbour mole and the aqueduct of the architect Eu…

Antiphon

(1,591 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Cassin, Barbara (Paris)
(Ἀντιφῶν; Antiphôn). [German version] [1] Athenian (end of the 5th cent. BC) Athenian, who towards the end of the Peloponnesian War equipped two triremes. He was executed 404/403 BC by the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) (Xen. Hell. 2,3,40; Traill PAA, 138325). He is probably identical with an A., for whose daughter  Lysias gave an oration (Traill PAA, 138320; cf. Theop. FGrH 115 F 120 = Plut. Mor. 833A-B). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian (middle of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian, was removed from the list of citizens. Thereafter he allegedly promised  Philippu…

Demophon

(535 words)

Author(s): Clinton, Kevin (Ithaca N. Y.) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δημοφῶν; Dēmophôn). [German version] [1] Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus and Metaneira. According to myth D. was nurtured by the goddess  Demeter, who had been hired as a wet-nurse; she anointed him with ambrosia and hardened him at night in the fire so as to burn away his mortality (cf. Thetis: Achilles), until his mother noticed and cried out. Demeter then placed D. on the ground and threatened the Eleusinians with civil wars (Hom. Il. 2,233-255);…

Python

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Πύθων/ Pýthōn). [German version] [1] Dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi An enormous dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi with his arrows. The oldest version of the story is offered by H. Hom. 3,300-374: Apollo overcomes a female dragon who perpetrates her mischief in the vicinity of Delphi and into whose care Hera had given her son Typhon (Typhoeus, Typhon). The town and the god receive the nickname Pythṓ (cf. also the name of the female seer at Delphi, Pythía [1]) from its decaying (πύθεσθαι/ pýthesthai) corpse. According to Eur. IT 1245-1252, the dragon is male and guards the…

Xenocles

(633 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ξενοκλῆς; Xenoklês). [German version] [1] See Little-Master cups See Little-Master cups. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Attic tragic poet, end of 5th cent. BC Attic tragic poet, end of the 5th cent. BC, son of Carcinus [3] (family tree: TrGF I 21, p. 129), frequently mocked in comedy (TrGF I 33 T 1-7); successful at the Dionysia in 415 (DID C 14) with Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae and the satyr play Athamas. There is evidence of the further titles Licymnius (one surviving verse, F 2) and possibly Myes (Μύες, Mice) (but cf. TrGF I 21 T 3 d-e). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) …

Aristonicus

(1,329 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος; Aristónikos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half 4th cent. BC) of Marathon, a wealthy man whose political allegiances lay with  Lycurgus and  Demosthenes (Plut. Mor. 846a); in 336/335 BC, he proposed the act about the  Panathenaea (LSCG no. 33), in 335/334 BC, together with Lycurgus, the psephisma for the deployment of the Athenian fleet against pirates (IG II2 1623, B 276-285), and prior to 322 BC, several laws to the   nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). In 324/323 BC, A. faced prosecution in the trials of Harpa…

Aeschines

(1,604 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Αἰσχίνης; Aischínēs). [German version] [1] Student of Socrates From the Attic deme of Sphettus, son of Lysanias, student of Socrates. Born between 430/420 BC, died after 375/6 BC. A. was present during Socrates' trial and death (Pl. Ap. 33e; Phaed. 59b). A. is said to have been poor when he joined Socrates. In a speech by Lysias, he was accused of being a notorious debtor (Ath. 13,611d-612f). It remains unclear, whether A. indeed composed court speeches and delivered lectures for cash -- as claimed by …

Neon

(631 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Νέων; Néōn). [German version] [1] Military official under Chirisophus Lacedaemonian from the perioeci town of Asine [3], subordinate commander (ὑποστράτηγος/ hypostrátēgos) of Chirisophus [1] in the campaign of the younger Cyrus [3] against Artaxerxes [2]. After Chirisiphorus' death, N. commanded the Lacedaemonian contingent. After Xenophon had relinquished command at Byzantium, N. hoped for supreme command, and opposed the decision to place the mercenary army in the service of the Odrysian King Seuthes (Xen. An. 6,4,23f.; 7,2,1-2; 7,3,7; [1. 350]). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…

Glaucon

(411 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Et al.
(Γλαύκων; Glaúkōn). [German version] [1] Athen. strategós about 440 BC Son of Leagoras, Athenian   stratēgós at Samos in 441-440 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38 with comm.); in 439-438 and 435-434 stratēgós, in 433-432 commander of the fleet sent to Corcyra (Thuc. 1,51; Syll.3 72). Often mentioned on Attic   kalos-inscriptions in 480-450 BC. Traill, PAA 277035. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Critias, father of Plato's mother Perictione Son of  Critias, father of Charmides and of Plato's mother Perictione (Pl. Prt. 315a; Charm. 154ab; Symp. 222b; T…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Hierocles

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…

Neoptolemus

(2,308 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Νεοπτόλεμος; Neoptólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia The son of Achilles [1] and Deidamia, the daughter of king Lycomedes [1] of Scyros. Rare but explainable variants of the mother's name are Pyrrha (Heliodorus 3,2 = Anth. Pal. 9,485,8) and Iphigenia (Duris of Samos FGrH 76 F 88; on this FGrH 2 C 130). Homer only knows the name N., and Pyrrhus probably only becomes more common in the 4th cent. (first Theopompus FGrH 115 F 355) because of dynastic considerations of the Epirote king…

Xenon

(849 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Et al.
(Ξένων/ Xénōn). [German version] [1] From Athens, banker mentioned in Demosthenes, 4th cent. BC Athenian banker of the 4th cent. BC, witness in a lawsuit for property damage ( blábēs díkē ) against Phormion [2] c. 350/49 (Dem. Or. 36,13 and 37). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11322  Traill, PAA 734715  A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol. 2, 1971, 116 f. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Hermione, second half of the 3rd cent. BC Tyrant of Hermion(e), one of the tyrants in the Peloponnese who under pressure from Aratus [2] after the death of the Macedon…

Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …
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