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(423 words)

Author(s): Erler, Michael (Würzburg)
[German version] (Greek ἀπορία [ aporía], opposite εὐπορία [ euporía], Latin dubitatio) means hopelessness, distress, embarrassment and neediness (Xen. An. 5,6,10; Hdt. 1,72,2; Thuc. 1,11,11). In the Meno, Plato adds the inability to procure necessities to the list of meanings (Cra. 415c 5; Symp. 203e, Men. 78c ff.). In Plato's dialogues, aporia describes a state of being (the experience of a need) as well as the cause for this state (the inherent philosophical problem). Aporia is the result of an elenctic conversation, i…


(4,558 words)

Author(s): Erler, Michael (Würzburg)
(Ἐπίκουρος; Epíkouros). [German version] A. Life E. was born in 342/1 BC on Samos, where his father Neocles, an Athenian citizen from the deme Gargettos, had moved as a cleric in 352. His birthday was the 20th of Gamelion [1]. He had three brothers, Neocles, Chaeredemus and Aristobulus. His early interest in philosophy is attested. He associated with the Platonist Pamphilus (Diog. Laert. 10,14), and then on Teos listened to lectures given by the Democritean and acquaintance of the sceptic Pyrrhon, Nau…


(673 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Erler, Michael (Würzburg)
(Κωλώτης; Kōlṓtēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Heraclea in Elis Sculptor from Heraclea in Elis. C. was a pupil of  Phidias, and worked together with him, e.g. on the Zeus at Olympia. He worked principally in gold and ivory. In gold-ivory C. created an Asclepius in Kyllene and, according to Pliny (Plin. HN 35,54), an Athena in Elis, which according to Pausanias (Paus. 6,26,3), however, was attributed to Phidias; as this Athena's shield is said to have been painted by  Panaenus, a collective effort …

Philosophical literature, genres of

(3,042 words)

Author(s): Erler, Michael (Würzburg)
The term 'genres of philosophical literature' refers to the forms and linguistic tools of presentation used by ancient philosophy. It is not always possible to make a clear distinction between philosophy and non-philosophical genres with respect to the use of specialized terminology (which is sometimes consciously avoided: Pl. Tht. 182a; cf. the dispute between Epicurus and Metrodorus [3] of Lampsacus, Epicurus De natura B 28 [1. 101, 218]) or logical rigour. It is essential to consider the cont…


(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides who became famous for his paradoxes. According to the Suda (29 A 2 DK), Z. wrote many books; but his Λόγοι ( Lógoi, 'Arguments', 40 according to Proclus, 29 A 15 DK) probably belonged to a single book, the one he read aloud to his closest circles in Athens (cf. Pl. Prm. 127c-d). In the lost dialogue Sophistes, Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) declares Z. to have been the 'inventor' ( protos heuretes


(686 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Erler, Michael (Würzburg)
(Greek εἰρωνεία, eirōneía, orig. ‘dissimulation’, Lat. simulatio, dissimulatio, illusio). [German version] I. Rhetoric Like e.g. metaphor ( Comparison), irony is classed in the rhetorical system among the tropes ( Figures) (Rhet. Her. 4,46 assigns it to allegory). While metaphor works through the similarity between what is said and what is meant, irony is characterized by a relationship of contrast ( contrarium) (Anaximen. Ars Rhetorica = [Arist.] Rh. Al. 21,1,1434a, 17f.; Quint. Inst. 8,6,54-56; Aquila Rhetor 7 p. 24,21f. H). Irony is context dependen…