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Sempronia

(272 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracchus, 2nd cent. BC Daughter of Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracchus and Cornelia [I 1] (Plut., Ti. Gracchus 1,3), from 150 BC in a childless marriage with P. Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Aemilianus, for whose death in 129 BC she is supposed to have been partly to blame (App. B Civ. 1,20 (83); Liv. Per. 59). Despite the threatening demeanour of the people, in 102 or 101 BC she refused to acknowledge L. Equitius [1] as her nephew (Val. Max. 3,8,6). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Women and Politics in Ancient Rome, 1994, 48-50. …

Opellius

(160 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Emperor, 3rd cent. AD Imp. Caes. M.O. (Antoninus) Diadumenianus, son of the emperor M.O. Macrinus, born on 14 or 19 September 208 AD (Cass. Dio 78,34,2; SHA Diad. 5,5). At the beginning of 217 he was given the title of clarissimus puer (CIL XV 7505), shortly afterwards he was also princeps iuventutis and nobilissimus Caesar (Cass. Dio 78,17,1; 19,1; Herodian. 5,4,12; Aur. Vict. Caes. 22,1; AE 1953,54; 1954,8; 1960,36; RIC IV, 2,22). In May 218, after the beginning of the mutiny of troops in Raphanaea in Syria, Macrinus made him Au…

Heraclitus I (Gk)

(1,845 words)

Author(s): Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλειτος; Hērákleitos). [German version] [1] H. of Ephesus Ionian philosopher, c. 500 BC Son of Bloson, outstanding personality within Ionian philosophy. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] A. The person H.'s main period of activity is estimated to have been about 503-500 BC (Diog. Laert. 9,1). He belonged to a leading family in the public life of Ephesus. The doxographic tradition records several anecdotes of H.'s arrogance and contempt for his fellow citizens and humanity in general, which are mostly based on fragments of H. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] B. La…

Maecenas

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Μαικήνας; Maikḗnas). Etruscan family name (cf. mehnate, mehnati and similar); the family is recorded in inscriptions for Perusia (modern Perugia) and was probably originally settled there. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Friend and counsellor of Octavian (Augustus), 1st cent. BC Father of M. [2], mentioned as early as 44 BC among the friends and counsellors of Octavian ( Augustus) (Nicolaus of Damascus, Vita Caesaris 31,133). Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) [German version] [2] Patron of literature, 1st cent. BC M., less often - with the family name of the…

Iulius

(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…

Marinianus

(210 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Jurist, teacher of law in Rome, 4th cent. Jurist from Galatia in Asia Minor, belonging to the group around Symmachus. M was a teacher of law in Rome (Symmachus, Ep. 3,23,2) and in AD 383 vicarius Hispaniae (Cod. Theod. 9,1,14). PLRE I, 559f. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Liebs, Die Jurisprudenz im spätantiken Italien, 1987, 64, 98. [German version] [2] Flavius Avitus M. Consul in AD 423 Attested in AD 422 as praetorian prefect of Italia, Illyria and Africa, and in 423 as consul, perhaps patricius. Along with his wife he contributed to the renov…

Sabinianus

(321 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the Carthaginians Was proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the inhabitants of Carthage, but was shortly after defeated by the governor of Mauretania and delivered to Gordianus [3] III by his own followers (Zos. 1,17,1; SHA Gord. 23,4). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 1, 197. [German version] [2] see Vettius Sabinianus See Vettius Sabinianus. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [3] Magister equitum per Orientem, 359-360 AD At a great age m agister equitum per Orientem in AD 359-360 under Constantius [2] II. Ac…

Pescennius

(442 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imperator Caesar C.P. Niger Iustus Augustus, Roman emperor AD 193-194, of Italian origin, born between AD 135 and 140 in Aquinum (?) (SHA Pesc. Nig. 1,3). P. initially completed the equestrian cursus honorum: he was praefectus cohortis during the reign of Marcus [2] Aurelius and served twice as tribunus militum under Commodus (SHA Pesc. Nig. 4,2; 4,4), who admitted him to the Praetorian guard ( adlectus inter praetorios). Between AD 180 and 183, P. held the office of consul ( cos. suff., Hdn. 2,7,4; [1. 138; 2. 138f.]) and may have proved his military ability …

Valentinus

(500 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Christian theologian and poet, 2nd cent. Christian theologian, probably from Egypt, taught in c. AD 140-160 in Rome ( cf. Iren. adv. haereses 3,4,3). He wanted, possibly, to become episcopus ( epískopos ), but was turned down (Tert. adv. Valentinianos 4,1 ff.); afterwards, he must have lived in Cyprus (Epiphanius, Panarion 31,7,2). Besides a few extant fragments from sermons and letters, a work entitled 'On the three natures' ( Perì triôn phýseōn) is known to have existed. V. apparently wrote psalms in verse form; a fragment (in Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haer…

Tribunus

(1,975 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
(Formed from the word tribus with the suffix - unus, which indicates a person of superordinate authority); the administrative and/or military leader of a tribus ; pl.: tribuni. [German version] [1] Tribunus aerarius Presumably originally aides to the Roman magistrates, charged by the state treasury ( aerarium ) with paying the wages of the soldiers of their tribus  (Soldiers' pay). Tribuni aerarii were perhaps also headmen of their tribus. They may have been active in financial matters into the 1st cent. BC, and were subject to distraint ( pignus ), which indic…

Volusianus

(331 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor AD 251-253 Imp. Caes. C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus V. P. F. Invictus Aug. (RIC 4,3, 173-189). Roman emperor from the middle of AD 251 until the middle of 253. Born c. 230 in Perusia (?), the son of Trebonianus Gallus and Afinia Gemina Baebiana. After the battle of Abritus against the Goths and the death of Decius [II 1], the legions proclaimed him and his father emperor in June 251 (Eutr. 9,5; Zon. 12,21 D.); at the same time, he was appointed Caesar by his father (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30)…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Hostilianus

(140 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] C. Valens H. Messius Quintus was the younger son of emperor  Decius [II 1] and Herennia Etruscilla. In September AD 250, he was named Caesar and Princeps Iuventutis (AE 1942/43, 55; ILS 518) and, after the death of his father in June 251, adopted by  Trebonianus Gallus and raised to Augustus (Zos. 1,25,1; RIC 4,3, 143ff.), probably to distract from the complicity of Trebonianus in the deaths of his father and brother. Shortly after, he died in Rome of the plague (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30,1; [Aur. Vict.] epit. Ca…

Proculus

(644 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Et al.
Roman praenomen ( P. Iulius, a contemporary of Romulus [1]), and secondarily a cognomen. Depending on the form, a diminutive (older * prokelo-) of the stem * proko- (~ classical procus 'wooer, suitor'), it originally perhaps meant 'the one who demands or claims (the inheritance?)'. Proca (King of Alba Longa) can also be regarded as etymologically connected. The praenomen, which had already become rare at an early time, survived in derivatives, the gentilician names Procilius and Proculeius. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Roman jurist, 1st cent. The jurist fro…

Triginta tyranni

(249 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] The fictitious author Trebellius Pollio uses the term triginta tyranni (TT) in the Historia Augusta to refer to 32 usurpers from all parts of the empire supposedly in the period of the emperors Valerianus [2] and Gallienus (253-268) in order to expose their rule as particularly week and bad. He increased the number that was first planned to be 20 (SHA Gall. 21,1) to 30 as an allusion to the Athenian Thirty Tyrants ( triákonta ) (SHA Trig. tyr. 2-31), among them esp. derisively (31,7) two women, Zenobia from Palmyra (30) and Victoria in…

Illyrian emperors

(156 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Term applied to a group of Roman rulers whose feature in common was the fact that they came from Illyrian territory, more broadly the area between the Adriatic and the lower Danube. The sequence already begins with  Decius [II 1] (AD 249-251) but essentially includes the emperors  Claudius [III 2] Gothicus,  Aurelianus [2],  Probus,  Diocletianus,  Maximianus, and  Constantinus [1] I. Even in antiquity these rulers were credited with having little education but they were acknowled…

Herennius

(1,606 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Common Italian proper name (associated with the praenomen Herennus that is often confused with H.), which however is not documented as a surname among the Roman upper class until the 1st cent. BC. It frequently appears with epithets showing place of origin ( Etruscus, Gallus, Picens, Siculus). In the Imperial period it is the name of Caesar Q.H. [II 3] Etruscus, son of emperor  Decius [II 1], of the historian H.  Dexippus [2], and of the jurist H.  Modestinus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I Republican Period [German version] [I 1] H. Centurio and murderer of Cicero Centurio, who at the…

Valens

(948 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Rival emperor to Gallienus, 3rd cent. AD As proconsul of Achaia, V. had himself proclaimed rival emperor to Gallienus in AD 261 in Macedonia. Although he defeated Piso, who was sent there against him (PIR2 C 298), he was soon murdered by his own troops (Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 32,4; Amm. Marc. 21,16,10; SHA Tyr. Trig. 19; 21; SHA Gall. 2,2 f.). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2 227  PIR V 7  PLRE 1, 929 f. [German version] [2] Flavius Valens Eastern Roman emperor AD 364-378. Born in 321 in Cibalae (Illyria), of lowly origins and without a prof…

Trebonianus Gallus

(248 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caes. C. Vibius T. Gallus Augustus (CIL XI 1927), Roman emperor from June AD 251 to August (?) AD 253. Born about 206 in Perusia, from a noble family (Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 31,1), Senator, cos. suff. c. AD 245 (Dexippus FGrH 100 F 22), governor of the province of Moesia inferior AD 250/1 [1. 103 f.]. At Novae[1], he successfully opposed the Goths (Goti) under their king Kniva (Iord. Get. 101 f.). Emperor Decius [II 1] escaped to him after being defeated by the Goths at Beroea[2]. Together they intended to cut off the Germans'…

Furius

(3,311 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of an ancient Roman patrician lineage (on inscriptions also Fourios), derived from the praenomen Fusus and also occurring occasionally in the original form Fusius in the literary tradition; the family perhaps came from Tusculum (cf. the family grave of the Furii ILLRP 895-903). The numerous members of the gens from the early Republic in the 5th/4th cents. BC are scarcely tangible as historical persons, and their history is in part later annalistic invention. Most well known is the ‘Saviour of Rome’ after the catas…

Cecropius

(43 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] C. was the prefect of a cavalry division (the ala Dalmatorum) and participated in the conspiracy against emperor  Gallienus, whom he murdered in AD 268 near Milan (SHA Gall. 14,4; 7ff.; Zos. 1,40,2). PIR2 C 595. Franke, Thomas (Bochum)

Castor

(571 words)

Author(s): Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Κάστωρ; Kástōr). [German version] [1] see Dioscuri see  Dioscuri Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) [German version] [2] C. of Rhodos Greek historian, 1st cent. BC Greek historiographer of the first half of the 1st cent. BC, whose vita in Suda s.v. is confused with that of the homonymous Galatian dynast, author of Chronicle in six books from Belus ( Baal) and  Ninus (2123/2 BC) on until the restructuring of the Near East by Pompey (61/0 BC), with lists of kings and officials from Assyria, Sicyon, Argus, Athens, Alba and Rome. The structure of his many-stra…

Furia Sabinia Tranquillina

(56 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of C.F. Sabinius Aquila Timesitheus, from AD 241 wife of  Gordianus [3] III, who installed her as Augusta shortly before his Persian War (SHA Gord. 23,5-6; Eutr. 9,2,2; Zos. 1,17; Zon. 12, 18 p. 129 D.; CIL VI 2114; 130). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 F 587 Kienast, 21996, 197.

Victorinus

(495 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Governor of Britannia Superior, 3rd cent. AD V. was governor of the province of Britannia Superior (Zos. 1,66,2; Zon. 12,29 D.) and may be identical with Pomponius Victori(a)nus, cos. ord. and praefectus urbi in AD 282 (Chron. Min. 1,66 Mommsen). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Birley, 180 f.  PIR2 P 762  PLRE 1, 962, nr. 3 and 963, nr. 2. [German version] [2] Imp. Caesar M. Piavonius V. Invictus Augustus Emperor of Imperium Galliarum from the end of AD 269 to the spring of 271 (RIC 5,2, 379-398; CIL XIII 9040), son of Victoria, from ri…

Tacitus

(2,881 words)

Author(s): Flaig, Egon (Göttingen) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] (P.?) Cornelius T. Latin historiographer, c. AD 55- c. 120 Latin historiographer, c. AD 55 - c. AD 120. Flaig, Egon (Göttingen) [German version] I. Life (Publius?) Cornelius T. came from Gaul, and had a successful senatorial career under the Flavian emperors (70-96). He was a praetor in 88, consul in 97, proconsul in the province of Asia in 112 (OGIS 487 Mylasa). After the murder of Domitian in 96, controversies emerged as to how senators should relate to an emperor. T. replied to this issue initially with the Agricola, later with his two great works of historiography, the H…

Iotapianus

(85 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] I., who allegedly boasted of his descent from (Severus?) Alexander (Aur. Vict. Caes. 29,2), was proclaimed rival emperor to  Philippus Arabs in Cappadocia or Syria in AD 248/49 (Chron. min. 1, 521,38 Mommsen; Zos. 1,20,2; Aur. Vict. Caes. 29,2) and in September/October 249 he was killed by his soldiers (Zos. 1,21,2; RIC 4,3, 105). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 I 49 Kienast 2, 202 X. Loriot, Les premières années de la grande crise du IIIe siècle, in: ANRW II 2, 1975, 657-797, esp. 794.

Quartinus

(118 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Titus (?) Q. was a friend of the emperor Severus Alexander with consular rank. After the failed attempt at usurpation, directed against Maximinus [2] Thrax by Magnus [2] on the Rhine in AD 235, Q. was proclaimed rival emperor by eastern troops; however, only a little later he was murdered at the instigation of Macedo [2] (Hdn. 7,1,4-11; SHA Maximini duo 11,2; fictitious: SHA Tyr. Trig. 32). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 21996, 186 f.  X. Loriot, Les premières années de la grande crise du IIIe siècle: De l'avènement de Maximin le Thrace (235) à la mo…

Timolaus

(536 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμόλαος/ Timólaos). [German version] [1] From Corinth, politician, c. 400 BC Leading politician of Corinth. At first on the side of the Spartans, he managed to convince Thasos in 411/10 BC to secede from Athens [1. 216-231]. Later, he changed course for personal reasons [2. 83 against 3. 73 f.]: in 395 BC, he advocated an alliance with Argos and due to his expertise [4. 411] became a moving force in the Corinthian Alliance (Stv 2, 225), for which he is claimed to have received plenty of funds from Timocr…

Macrianus

(455 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, 4th cent. AD Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, where he surrendered to lulianus [11] in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,2,15-18). In 370, Valentinianus [1] mobilized a Burgundian army (Amm. Marc. 28,5,8-13) against M., who had by then become more powerful. However, M. avoided capture in 372 by fleeing. Rex Fraomarius, appointed by the emperor to replace M., could not sustain his position for long (Amm. Marc. 29,4,2-7; 30,7,11). In 374, the emperor entered into a foedus (Amm. Marc. 30,3,3-7) …

Gordianus

(707 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Imp. Caes. M. Antonius G. Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Aug. Augustus in Carthage AD 238 (G.I.), born in c. AD 159, the son of Maecius Marullus and Ulpia Gordiana (Hdn. 7,5,2; SHA Gord. 2,2; Zon. 12,17 p. 127 D.). After a successful cursus honorum (SHA Gord. 3,5-8; 4,1), he became suffect consul, probably under Elagabalus. In 216, he was governor in Britannia inferior (RIB 1, 1049), soon after in Achaea [2. 181ff.], perhaps also in Syria. In 237, he was allotted the proconsulate of the province of Africa [5; 6. 89f. N. 21]. In Thysdrus (modern El Djem, Tunesia…

Memor

(63 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] M. was a Moor placed in charge of the grain supply in Egypt In the reign of Gallienus. Apparently he planned a coup. He was killed by soldiers on the orders of Theodotus ca. 262 AD, without having been proclaimed emperor (Zos. 1,38,1; Petrus Patricius, Excerpta de sententiis, p. 264 No. 160 Boissevain). PIR2 M 490. Franke, Thomas (Bochum)

Modestus

(247 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] [1] Sab(inius?) M. Governor of the province of  Moesia inferior in AD 241, documented by coins of the city of Nicopolis [1. 504-518 nos. 2040-2107]. Accordingly he must previously have held the office of suffect consul. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography 1 F. Imhoof-Blumer (ed.), Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands, vol. 1, 1898. PIR S 2  A. Stein, Die Legaten von Moesien, 1940, 100f. [German version] [2] Flavius Domitius M. Praefectus praetorio Orientis, from 369/370 to 378 (?) AD. Praefectus praetorio Orientis from AD 369/370 to 378 (?). Originally f…

Herodianus

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡρωδιανός; Hērōdianós). [German version] [1] Aelius H. Greek grammarian, 2nd cent. AD (Αἴλιος Ἡρωδιανός; Aílios Hērōdianós), of Alexandria, one of the most important Greek grammarians, lived in the 2nd cent. AD; son of  Apollonius [11] Dyscolus and his worthy student and successor. For a time he lived in Rome and dedicated his main work, the Καθολικὴ προσῳδία ( Katholikḕ prosōidía) to the emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180). He is justifiably not seen as a brilliant but as a careful and precise grammarian, the great heir and systematician of the Alexandr…

Ingenuus

(400 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Governor of Pannonia and Moesia, proclaimed emperor rather than Gallienus in 260 AD Governor of Pannonia and Moesia, proclaimed emperor rather than  Gallienus in AD 260 by the Moesian legions after  Valerianus was captured by the Persians and the Sarmatians threatened to invade (S HA Tyr. Trig. 9,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Zon. 12,24, p. 143 D). Gallienus' cavalry leader  Aureolus defeated him at Mursa near Sirmium. I. lost his life while fleeing (Zon. loc. cit..; Aur. Vict. Caes. 32,2; Eutr. 9,8,1; Oros. 7,22,10; Chron. min. 1, 521,45 Mommsen). Franke, Thomas (Boch…

Pertinax

(793 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] P. Helvius P., Roman Emperor 31 Dec. 192-28 Mar. 193. Born 1 Aug. AD 126 in Alba Pompeia in Liguria (SHA Pert. 1,2; 15,6; Cass. Dio 73,3,1), son of a freedman. After being educated as a grammaticus , he applied for a position as centurio with the assistance of L. Hedius Lollianus [4] Avitus (SHA Pert. 1,5; (Ps.-)Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 18). He received the rank of an eques ( equites Romani D) with the support of Claudius [II 54] Pompeianus, which allowed him to pursue an equestrian career. Around AD 160, still in the reign of Antoninus [1] Pius, he served as praefectus cohortis …

Macrinus

(520 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imperator Caesar M. Opellius Severus M. Augustus. Roman Emperor AD 217-218. Born in 164 (Cass. Dio 78,40,3) or 166 (Chron. pasch. I p. 498 D.) in Caesarea Mauretania, of humble origins (Cass. Dio 78,11,1; SHA Opilius Macrinus (= Macr.) 2,1). M. initially worked as a lawyer, then as procurator of the praef. praet. Fulvius [II 10] Plautianus, whose deposal he survived unharmed thanks to the intervention of L. Fabius [II 6] Cilo (Cass. Dio 78,11,2). Septimius Severus appointed him praefectus vehiculorum per Flaminiam (Cass. Dio 78,11,3), and in c. 208 keeper of the impe…

Postumus

(1,067 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Roman praenomen Roman praenomen , like other numerical praenomina (Quintus) given to a child according to the order of his birth; the adjective postumus ('last') refers to the birth 'after the father's death' (cf. P. [2]). The use of the name as a praenomen is evident in Rome up to the 3rd cent. BC, after that only as a cognomen . The wider geographical spread of * Postumo- as an Italic personal name can be concluded from its Etruscan derivative, where it led to the formation of a nomen gentile, Pustmi-na- (CIE 8715), the equivalent to the Roman Postumius. Steinbauer, Dieter…

Poliarchos

(148 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(πολίαρχος/ políarchos). [German version] [1] Senior official in Thessalian cities (3rd cent. BC) ('High city official'). In the 3rd cent. BC, the cities of Thessaly had councils of five políarchoi, cf. IG IX 2,459 (Crannon); IG IX 2,1233 (Larisa [1]). The etymology suggests that their duties probably encompassed the military and civil interests of the polis. The division of powers with the other city council, the tagoí, is unclear (cf. [2]). The archipolíarchos served as chair (IG IX 2,1233). Tagos; Thessalians, Thessalia Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 B. Helly, L'état Thess…

Theodotus

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Et al.
(Θεόδοτος; Theódotos). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c.370 BC Mentioned several times in the construction records for the temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus as its architect; his origins are as unknown as his subsequent whereabouts. T.’ salary during the project amounted to 365 drachmae per year, together with further payments of unknown object. It is uncertain whether he is the same person as the sculptor T. named in IG IV2 102 (B 1 line 97) as having, for 2,340 drachmae, fashioned the acroteria for the pediment; it is possible that the name T. has been in…

Quietus

(113 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imperator Caesar T. Fulvius Iunius Q. Pius Felix Augustus, younger son of Fulvius Macrianus [2], who served as a military tribune under Valerianus [2] (SHA Trig. Tyr. 12,10; Zon. 12,24 D.). Elevated together with his brother to Augustus by his father before 17 September, AD 260 (RIC 5,2,582 f.; SHA Gall. 1,3-5; SHA Tyr. Trig. 12,10-12), he stayed behind in the east with the praetorian prefect Ballista. After the defeat of his father and brother by Aureolus in Illyria, Q. was also captured in Emesa by its inhabitants in the autumn of AD 261 and killed there. Franke, Thomas (Bo…

Maeonius

(44 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Murdered the Palmyrene prince Odaenathus and his eldest son Herod in Emesa in AD 266/7 (SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,5; 17,1; SHA Gall. 13,1; different in Sync. I p. 717; Zon. 12,24 D.; Zos. 1,39,2). PIR2 M 71. Franke, Thomas (Bochum)

Salonina

(78 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Iulia Cornelia S., wife of the emperor Gallienus, elevated to Augusta and mater castrorum in AD 254 (IGR 3, 237; AE 1982, 272; RIC V 1, 63; 105; 107-115; 191-200), perished together with her husband in AD 268 outside of Mediolanum [1] (Zon. 12,25). Her three sons were P. Licinius Cornelius Valerianus, P. Licinius [II 6] Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus and Marinianus [3]. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2, 222 f.  PIR2 C 1499  PLRE 1, 799.

Fulvius

(3,286 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Roman plebeian gentes name, derived from fulvus (‘reddish yellow, brownish yellow’ [1. 1,561], probably named after hair colour); further evidence: [2. 170], inscriptions also Folvius (ILLRP 124 et passim). The Roman gens probably came from Tusculum (Cic. Planc. 20; cf. Cic. Phil. 3,16; Plin. HN 7,136), where F. [I 15] also had put up works of art from the spoils of war. The most important branches are initially the Centumali, Curvi and Paetini, since the 3rd cent. BC the Flacci and Nobiliores. Genealogical tree: [3. 231f.]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F. Bambalio…

Septimius

(3,206 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Et al.
Nomen gentile, probably originally Etruscan, occurred at Rome only from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A certain S. from Camerinum was commissioned to recruit followers for Catilina at Picenum in 63 BC, presumably because he was of the Umbrian-Picenan municipal nobility (cf. CIL I2 1921; 1929) (Sall. Catil. 27,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Friend of Horace's; he hoped to enter the cohors amicorum of a member of the imperial household through his relationship with the latter (Hor. Carm.…

Marcianus

(1,758 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Greek geographer from Heraclea, between AD 200 and 530, Marcianus I Greek [1] (Μαρκιανός; Markianós). Geographer from Heraclea [7] between AD 200 (he used the geographer Protagoras) and 530 (he is often quoted by Steph. Byz.), possibly after 400 (GGM 1, CXXX; [2. 272; 3. 997; 6. 156f.]) or even closer to Steph. Byz. [1. 46]. Personal information about him is not available. Only 21 quotes from his Epitome of the eleven books of the Geōgraphía by Artemidorus [3] of Ephesus have been handed down by Steph. Byz. and one as Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,859 (GGM 1,…

Timagenes

(304 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμαγένης/ Timagénēs). [German version] [1] T. of Alexandria Greek rhetor and historian, 1st cent. BC The Greek rhetor and historian T. arrived in Rome in 55 BC as a prisoner of war of A. Gabinius [I 2] and was ransomed by Sulla's son Cornelius [I 87] Faustus (FGrH 88 T 1). He worked there as a respected rhetor, mentioned in the same breath as Caecilius [III 5] of Cale Acte and Craton (T 1 and 2). Initially, he was in great favour with Augustus, but later fell into disgrace with the emperor because of his all…

Tigidius

(223 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] A powerful praefectus praetorio under the emperor Commodus. Sex.(?) T. Perennis had probably already reached the high rank of praefectus [4] annonae under Marcus [2] Aurelius (his name erased in the Tabula Banasitana ; AE 1971, 534) and was then appointed praefectus praetorio by Commodus along with Tarrutenius Paternus (SHA Comm. 4,7; 14,8; inaccurate in Hdn. 1,8,1); he and the latter disposed of Saoterus, Commodus' influential chamberlain (SHA Comm. 4,5). Shortly afterwards, T. brought about the execution of Paternus (Ca…

Geta

(483 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] see Hosidius, Lusius, Septimius, Vitorius see  Hosidius, Lusius, Septimius, Vitorius Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [2] Imp. Caesar P. Septimius Geta Augustus Son of the emperor Septimius Severus, brother of Caracalla Born in March AD 189 in Rome, the son of L.  Septimius Severus and  Iulia Domna, younger brother of  Caracalla (Cass. Dio 57,2,5; SHA Sept. Sev. 4,2; Get. 3,1 [27 May 189]; [2. 522ff.]). In 197 he went with his father, together with his mother and brother, to the ‘Second Parthian War’…

Magnia Urbica

(63 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Wife of the emperor Carinus (end of the 3rd cent. AD) from Colonia Iulia Gemella Accitana in Hispania (CIL II 3394). She bore the titles of Augusta, mater castrorum and mater senatus ac patriae (CIL VIII 2384; XI 6957). PIR2 M 99. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography H. Cohen, Description Historique des Monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain VI2, 1886, 405-408.

Paccia

(67 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] P. Marciana was from Africa (Leptis Magna?); from c. AD 175 she was the first wife of  Septimius Severus (SHA Sept. Sev. 3,2) and died in about AD 185 ([1. nos. 410, 411]; CIL VIII 19494 = ILS 440). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J.M. Reynolds (ed.), The Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitana, 1952. A.R. Birley, Septimius Severus, 21988, 52; 75; 225  PIR2 P 20  Raepsaet-Charlier, 590.

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, provi…

Laelianus

(128 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imperator Caesar Ulp(ius) Cor(nelius) Laelianus (RIC V 2, 373 no. 8; [1. 66 no. 6]). Probably commander of the legio XXII Primigenia in Mogontiacum (Mainz) or governor of the province of Germania superior, rebelled early in AD 269 against Postumus and was proclaimed Augustus. Shortly afterwards Postumus defeated and killed him (Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,8; Eutr. 9,9; Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 152 FHG, here incorrectly ‘Lollianus’); according to another tradition (SHA Tyr. Trig. 4; 5; 6,3; 8,1), L. was murdered by Victorinus or by his own soldiers. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bib…

Macrinius

(384 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] M. M. Avitus Catonius Vindex Cos. suff. c. AD 175 Son of M. [4]. Began his career as an equestrian with the quattuor militiae, receiving the dona militaria from Marcus [2] Aurelius in AD 169. Procurator of Dacia Malvensis. Entered the Senate, legate of Moesia superior, perhaps as praetorian; suffect consul probably in 175; consular governor of Moesia inferior before the year 177. Died at the age of 42, probably during his governorship of Moesia inferior (CIL VI 1449 = ILS 1107). PIR2 M 22. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. M. Decianus Governor of Numidia…

Petronius

(3,217 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] High official of the late 4th/early 5th cents. AD Vicarius Hispaniarum AD 395-397, at the court of Mediolanium [1] (Milan) from 398; addressee, with his brother Patroinus, of numerous letters from Symmachus. He gained an unknown office in 401 ( comes rerum privatarum?). From 402-408, P. was praef. praet. per Gallias; while there, he introduced a convocation of the seven provinces, which met annually at Arelate (Arles) (Zos. Epist. 8 = MGH Epp 3, p. 14). He may have been recalled in connection with the usurpation of Constantine…

Regalianus

(157 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caesar P. C[...] R. Augustus (RIC V/2, 586 f.; [1]). Governor in Illyricum, probably of Dacian descent. In AD 260, after the overthrow of Ingenuus [1] by Aureolus at Mursa, he was proclaimed anti-emperor to Gallienus by the Danube troops (SHA Tyr. Trig. 10,1; Ps.-Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 32,3; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Pol. Silv. Chronica minora 1,521,45). He fought the Sarmatae, who had already been threatening the lower Danube provinces for some time (SHA Tyr. Trig. 10,2). A sho…

Numerianus

(193 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Follower of Septimius Severus N. was a schoolteacher in Rome who, as a senator on commission from  Septimius Severus pretended to raise for him an army in Gaul. In fact he achieved considerable success in battle against the troops of  Clodius [II 1] Albinus. N. allegedly seized 70 million sesterces for Severus, after whose victory in AD 97 N. renounced all his privileges and was content with only a small maintenance pension (Cass. Dio 75,5). PIR2 N 198. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [2] Imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Numerius N. Augustus 3rd cent. AD emperor Roman e…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Soldier emperors

(177 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] The term SE was first [1. 13] used to describe the emperors "from the end of the reign of Commodus until the beginning of that of Diocletian" (AD 192-284), but today the Severan dynasty (AD 193-235; Septimius [II 7]) is generally kept separate (as already [2. 393-468]: Severans = military monarchy, subsequently military anarchy) and only the period from Maximinus [2] Thrax (235-238) to Diocletianus (284-305) is called the period of the SE or the "Crisis of the 3rd cent. AD." The t…

Priscus

(884 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
Common Roman cognomen ('venerable') . Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek grammarian (Πρεῖσκος/ Preîskos). The 3rd cent. AD PTurner 39 (PIenensis inv. 267), a book catalogue from a private library, presents at line 4 'a commentary on epic verses by P.' [2], who is identified as one of the two Prisci mentioned in Ov. Pont. 4,16,10 ( Priscus uter); he may be identical to Clutorius Priscus, the Roman equestrian and poet mentioned in Tac. Ann. 3,49 and Cass. Dio 57,20,3-4. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 SH 710 A 2 R. Otranto, Antiche liste di libri su papi…

Gallienus

(862 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caes. P. Licinius Egnatius G. Augustus, born c. AD 218 near Milan ([Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes. 33,3), son of the later emperor P. Licinius Valerianus and Egnatia Mariniana. Valerian, who had himself proclaimed emperor in September/October 253, immediately appointed G. Caesar, then Augustus, and had this confirmed by the Senate with a territorial allocation of responsibilities: Valerian went to the east to confront the Persian threat, G. went to the west to defend the Rhine and Danube bo…

Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…

Herennianus

(87 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] The younger son of  Odaenathus and  Zenobia (SHA Gall. 13,2; SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,2; 17,2; 24,4; 27; 28; 30). Following the death of his father he and his elder brother Timolaus received the ornamenta imperatoria, while their mother ruled on behalf of the under-age children (SHA Tyr. Trig. 27,1; 30,2; SHA Aurel. 22,1; 38,1). Later, however, her third son  Vaballathus assumed power. H. was probably killed by Aurelian (SHA Tyr. Trig. 27,1f.). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 H 95 PLRE 1, 421 (H. 1).

Helvius

(995 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Wiseman, T. P. (Exeter) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Roman proper name, possibly derived from the first name Helvus. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] H., C. Praetor in 198 BC in Gallia Cisalpina In 199 BC plebeian aedile, in 198 praetor in Gallia Cisalpina (Liv. 32,7,13), in 189 legate of Cn.  Manlius Vulso in the campaign against the Galatians of Asia Minor (Pol. 21,34,2-4; Liv. 38,14,4f. etc.). MRR 1,327; 330; 364. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] H., M. Praetor in 197 BC in Hispania Citerior In 198 plebeian aedile, in 197 praetor in Hispania citerior. Kept there until 195 because of an illne…

Hierocles

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…

Odaenathus

(426 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Greek Ὀδαίναθος, Odaínathos). [German version] [1] Murderer of Septimius O. [2] O. murdered the ruler of Palmyra, Septimius O. [2], probably in the spring of AD 267, when the latter was travelling through Cappadocia to Heraclea [7] Pontica to expel the Goths from Asia Minor. O. himself was then killed by the guards of his victim (Sync. 717). However, this is contradicted by other sources that name a consobrinus,Maeonius (SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,5; 17,1), or the nephew of the Palmyrenian prince as the murderer (Zon. 12,24 D.). According to Zosimus (1,39,2), the deed w…

Saturninus

(490 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1-2] See Ap(p)uleius [I 10-11]. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [3] Emperor for a short time, 3rd cent. Was elevated to emperor by the army at the time of Gallienus, but killed by the soldiers a short time afterwards because of his severity (SHA Tyr. Trig. 23; cf. SHA Firmus 11,1; SHA Gall. 9,1). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2, 230  PLRE 1, 805 no. 1. [German version] [4] Imperator Caesar C. Iulius S. Augustus of Moorish extraction, followed a military career (Zos. 1,66,1; SHA Quatt. tyr. 9,5; Zon. 12,29), until Aurelianus [3] appointed him dux l…

Simonius

(135 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] D. S. Proculus Iulianus, senator, homo novus with a career under 7 emperors, probably from Italy, property in the Po Valley and a villa in Rome. S. was c. AD 234-235 iuridicus per Transpadum, in 236 governor of Thrace (IGR I 691-693), 237-238 legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Arabiae (CIL III 14149, 33; AE 1904, 67) and in 238 probably cos. suff. [1. 66; 2. 232]; governor, perhaps of Pannonia inferior c. 238/9-240, then of the Tres Daciae 241-243 (CIL III 1573; VI 1520 = ILS 1189; [3. 206 f.]); 244-245 leg. Aug. pro praetore provinciae Syriae Coeles (CIL VI 1520 =…

Maximinus

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] M. Daia Roman emperor, AD 305-313 Roman emperor, AD 305-313. The son of Galerius' [5] sister and like Galerius born in Dacia ripensis, possibly in Šarkamen (modern Serbia), he rose from protector to tribunus (Lactant. De mort. pers. 19,6); as Galerius' adoptive son he became Caesar in the change of rulers of 305 (thereafter: Galerius Valerius Maximinus). As co-ruler over the diocese Oriens he continued the persecutions of Christians (Euseb. Hist. eccl. 8,14,9). Like Constantinus [1] not content with the title …

Laelianus

(123 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Imperator Caesar Ulp(ius) Cor(nelius) Laelianus (RIC V 2, 373 Nr. 8; [1. 66 Nr. 6]). Wohl Kommandeur der legio XXII Primigenia in Mogontiacum (Mainz) oder Statthalter der Prov. Germania superior, rebellierte Anf. 269 n.Chr. gegen Postumus und wurde zum Augustus erhoben. Postumus besiegte und tötete L. kurz darauf (Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,8; Eutr. 9,9; Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 152 FHG, hier fälschlich “Lollianus”); nach anderer Trad. (SHA trig. tyr. 4; 5; 6,3; 8,1) soll L. erst von Victorinus oder seinen eigenen Soldaten ermordet worden sein. Franke, Thomas (Bochu…

Modestus

(226 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[English version] [1] Sab(inius?) M. Statthalter der Prov. Moesia Inferior im J. 241 n.Chr., belegt durch Mz. der Stadt Nikopolis [1. 504-518 Nr. 2040-2107]. Dementsprechend muß er vorher den Suffektkonsulat bekleidet haben. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography 1 F. Imhoof-Blumer (Hrsg.), Die ant. Mz. Nord-Griechenlands, Bd. 1, 1898. PIR S 2  A. Stein, Die Legaten von Moesien, 1940, 100f. [English version] [2] Flavius Domitius M. Praefectus praetorio Orientis, 369/370 bis 378 (?) n.Chr. Praefectus praetorio Orientis 369/370 bis 378 (?) n.Chr. Aus Arabien stammend, b…

Postumus

(964 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Röm. Praenomen Röm. Praenomen, das wie andere der sog. “Numeralpraenomina” (Quintus) Kindern nach der Reihenfolge der Geburt gegeben wurde: das Adj. p., “letzter”, meint hier “(weil) nach (dem Tod des Vaters) geboren” (vgl. P. [2]). Bei den Römern war P. bis ins 3. Jh. v. Chr. als Vorname in Gebrauch, dann nur noch als Cognomen. Die weitere Verbreitung eines ital. Individualnamens * Postumo- läßt sich aus der Entlehnung ins Etr. erschließen, wo daraus ein Gent. Pustmi-na- (CIE 8715) gebildet wurde; dies entspricht dem röm. Gent. Postumius. Steinbauer, Dieter (…

Regalianus

(152 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Imp. Caesar P. C[...] R. Augustus (RIC V/2, 586 f.; [1]). Statthalter im Illyricum, wahrscheinlich dakischer Abstammung, wurde im J. 260 n. Chr. nach der Niederwerfung des Ingenuus [1] bei Mursa durch Aureolus von den Donautruppen zum Gegenkaiser des Gallienus ausgerufen (SHA trig. tyr. 10,1; Ps.-Aur. Vict. epit. Caes. 32,3; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Pol. Silv. chronica minora 1,521,45). Er kämpfte gegen die Sarmaten (Sarmatai), die bereits seit einiger Zeit die unteren Donauprovinz…

Flavianus

(473 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Praefectus praetorio 222 oder 223 n. Chr. Praefectus praetorio mit (Geminius) Chrestus im Jahre 222 oder 223 n.Chr. Als ihnen auf Drängen der Iulia Mamaea Domitius Ulpianus von Severus Alexander als Praetorianerpraefekt übergeordnet wurde, meuterte die Garde, worauf Ulpianus F. und Chrestus töten ließ (Cass. Dio 80,2,2; Zos. 1,11,2). PIR2 F 180. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [English version] [2] Virius Nicomachus F. heidnischer, stadtröm. Aristokrat; Freund des Symmachus Dominierende Gestalt der stadtröm. nichtchristl. Aristokratie im letzten Vier…

Herennianus

(89 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Der jüngere Sohn des Odaenathus und der Zenobia (SHA Gall. 13,2; SHA trig. tyr. 15,2; 17,2; 24,4; 27; 28; 30). Nach dem Tod des Vaters erhielten er und sein älterer Bruder Timolaus die ornamenta imperatoria, während die Mutter für die unmündigen Kinder die Herrschaft führte (SHA trig. tyr. 27,1; 30,2; SHA Aurelian. 22,1; 38,1). Später übernahm aber ihr dritter Sohn Vaballathus die Macht. H. ist wahrscheinlich von Aurelian getötet worden (SHA trig. tyr. 27,1f.). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 H 95  PLRE 1, 421 (H. 1).

Iulius

(17,472 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name einer alten patrizischen Familie, wohl verbunden mit dem Götternamen Iuppiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. Die gens gehörte zu den sog. “trojanischen Familien”, die angeblich unter König Tullus Hostilius [I 4] aus Alba Longa nach Rom übergesiedelt waren (s.u.). Im 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. waren die Iulli bedeutend. Unklar bleibt die Verbindung zum Zweig der Caesares, die ab dem 3. Jh. hervortraten und deren herausragender Angehöriger der Dictator Caesar war [Stammbaum: 3. 183f.]. Sein Adoptivsohn, der spätere Kaiser Aug…

Pescennius

(390 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Imperator Caesar C.P.Niger Iustus Augustus, röm. Kaiser 193-194 n.Chr. Italiker, geb. zw. 135 und 140 n.Chr. in Aquinum (?) (SHA Pesc. 1,3). P. absolvierte zunächst den ritterlichen cursus honorum: Er war praefectus cohortis während der Herrschaft des Marcus [2] Aurelius und zweimal tribunus militum unter Commodus (SHA Pesc. 4,2; 4,4), der ihn unter die Praetorier aufnahm ( adlectus inter praetorios). Zwischen 180 und 183 n.Chr. bekleidete P. den Konsulat ( cos. suff., Herodian. 2,7,4; [1. 138; 2. 138f.]), bewährte sich möglicherweise als Statthalte…

Marcianus

(904 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Köln) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München)
[English version] [1] s. Icelus s. Icelus Eck, Werner (Köln) [English version] [2] Proconsul der Baetica, etwa 22 n.Chr. Proconsul der Baetica etwa 22 n.Chr., dessen voller Name wohl M. Granius M. lautete (CIL IX 2335 = ILS 961 = AE 1990, 222). Eck, Werner (Köln) [English version] [3] General des Gallienus, ca. 262/3 n.Chr. M. besiegte als General des Gallienus ca. 262/3 n.Chr. mehrfach die Goten in Achaia und war 268 an der Verschwörung gegen den Kaiser bei Mediolanum beteiligt (Zos. 1,1,40,1f.; SHA Gall. 6,1; 13,10; 14,1; 14,7; 15,2; SHA Claud. 6,1; 18,1; AE 1965, 114 = 1975, 770c). PIR2 M …

Helvius

(926 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Wiseman, T. P. (Exeter) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Röm. Eigenname, möglicherweise abgeleitet vom Praenomem Helvus. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] H., C. Praetor 198 v. Chr. in Gallia Cisalpina 199 v.Chr. plebeischer Aedil, 198 Praetor in Gallia Cisalpina (Liv. 32,7,13), 189 Legat des Cn. Manlius Vulso beim Feldzug gegen die kleinasiatischen Galater (Pol. 21,34,2-4; Liv. 38,14,4f. u.a.). MRR 1,327; 330; 364. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] H., M. Praetor 197 v. Chr. in Hispania Citerior 198 plebeischer Aedil, 197 Praetor in Hispania Citerior. Durch eine Krankheit bis 195 dort …

Marinianus

(187 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Jurist, Rechtslehrer in Rom, 4. Jh. Jurist aus Galatien in Kleinasien, gehörte dem Kreis um Symmachus an, war Rechtslehrer in Rom (Symm. epist. 3,23,2) und 383 n.Chr. Vicarius Hispaniae (Cod. Theod. 9,1,14). PLRE I, 559f. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Liebs, Die Jurisprudenz im spätant. It., 1987, 64, 98. [English version] [2] Flavius Avitus M. Consul 423 n.Chr. 422 n.Chr. als Praetorianerpraefekt von Italien, Illyrien und Africa bezeugt, 423 Consul, vielleicht patricius. Zusammen mit seiner Frau an der Erneuerung der Petrusbasil…

Macrinius

(302 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Köln) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] M.M.Avitus Catonius Vindex Cos. suff. ca. 175 n.Chr. Sohn von M. [4]. Begann seine Laufbahn als Ritter mit den quattuor militiae, wobei er 169 n.Chr. von Marcus [2] Aurelius dona militaria erhielt. Procurator von Dacia Malvensis. Aufnahme in den Senat, Legat von Moesia superior, vielleicht als Praetorier; Suffektconsul wohl 175; consularer Statthalter von Moesia inferior vor dem J. 177. Mit 42 J. gest., verm. während seiner Statthalterschaft in Moesia inferior (CIL VI 1449 = ILS 1107). PIR2 M 22. Eck, Werner (Köln) [English version] [2] C.M. Decianus Statthal…

Proculus

(587 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Basel) | Et al.
Röm. Praenomen ( P. Iulius, ein Zeitgenosse des Romulus [1]), und sekundär Cognomen. Der Bildung nach ein Deminutivum (älter * prokelo-) zum Stamm * proko- ( klass. procus “Bewerber, Freier”), bedeutet es urspr. etwa “wer (das Erbe?) fordert, beansprucht”. Etym. ist Proca (König von Alba Longa) anzuschließen. Das schon früh selten gewordene Praen. lebt in Ableitungen, den Gent. Procilius und Proculeius, fort. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [English version] [1] röm. Jurist, 1. Jh. Der Jurist aus der Zeit der Julio-Claudier, verm. Schüler des Antistius [II 3] Labeo…

Kekropios (-us)

(40 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] K. war Praefekt einer Reiterabteilung (der ala Dalmatorum) und beteiligt an der Verschwörung gegen Kaiser Gallienus, den er 268 n.Chr. bei Mailand ermordete (SHA Gall. 14,4; 7ff.; Zos. 1,40,2). PIR2 C 595. Franke, Thomas (Bochum)

Petronius

(2,681 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Hoher Amtsträger E. 4./Anf. 5. Jh. n. Chr. 395-397 n.Chr. vicarius Hispaniarum, ab 398 am Hof in Mediolanium [1] (Mailand), zusammen mit seinem Bruder Patroinus Adressat zahlreicher Briefe des Symmachus; 401 erhielt er ein unbekanntes Amt ( comes rerum privatarum?). In den J. 402-408 war P. praef. praet. per Gallias; er richtete dort einen jährlich in Arelate (Arles) tagenden Landtag der sieben Prov. ein (Zos. epist. 8 = MGH Epp 3, p. 14). Vielleicht wurde er im Zusammenhang mit der Usurpation des Constantinus [3] III. abberufen. PLRE 2, 862f. Nr. 1. Groß-Albenhaus…

Quietus

(105 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Imperator Caesar T. Fulvius Iunius Q. Pius Felix Augustus, jüngerer Sohn des Fulvius Macrianus [2], der unter Valerianus als Militärtribun diente (SHA trig. tyr. 12,10; Zon. 12,24 D.). Vom Vater zusammen mit seinem Bruder vor dem 17.9.260 n. Chr. zum Augustus erhoben (RIC 5,2,582 f.; SHA Gall. 1,3-5; SHA trig. tyr. 12,10-12), blieb er mit dem Praetorianerpraefekten Ballista im Osten zurück. Nach der Niederlage von Vater und Bruder gegen Aureolus in Illyrien wurde auch Q. im Herbst 261 n. Chr. von den Einwohnern in Emesa eingeschlossen und dort getötet. Franke, Thomas…

Herennius

(1,428 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Weitverbreiteter ital. Eigenname (verbunden mit dem Praenomen Herennus, das mit H. oft verwechselt wird), der aber in der röm. Oberschicht erst ab dem 1. Jh. v.Chr. als Familienname bezeugt ist. Zu ihm treten häufig Beinamen als Herkunftsbezeichnungen ( Etruscus, Gallus, Picens, Siculus). In der Kaiserzeit Name des Caesars Q.H. [II 3] Etruscus, Sohn des Kaisers Decius [II 1], des Historikers H. Dexippos [2], des Juristen H. Modestinus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] H. Centurio und Ciceromörder Centurio, der Ende 43 v.Chr. Cice…

Marcellinus

(1,062 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
Siehe auch Markellinos. [English version] [1] Bf. von Rom seit 296 Röm. Bischof seit 296 n.Chr., laut Liber Pontificalis 1,61 aus Rom gebürtig; nach Eus. HE 7,32 soll er während der Verfolgung unter Diocletianus am 24.10.304 hingerichtet worden sein. Seine Haltung in der Verfolgungszeit ist jedoch umstritten. Sein Name fehlt im Chronograph von 354 (MGH AA 9,1,70). Augustinus verteidigt M. gegenüber den Donatisten, die ihn des Verrats bezichtigen (contra litteras Petiliani 2,92,102; de unico baptismo 16,27)…

Licinius

(9,829 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basel) | Et al.
Name der wohl bedeutendsten plebeischen Familie Roms. Die etr. Namensparallele lecne und die Verbindung der Gens nach Etrurien in histor. Zeit (L. [I 7]) deuten auf eine Herkunft aus dieser Region [1. 108, Anm. 3]; der Name kann aber auch lat. Ursprungs sein (Licinus). Schreibung mit n-Verdoppelung nicht nur in der griech Form Λικίννιος, sondern auch in lat. Inschr. [1. 108, Anm. 1]. In der annalist. Überl. zur Gesch. der frühen Republik erscheinen die Angehörigen unter den ersten Volkstribunen und erreichen mit dem Initiator der Licinisch-Sextischen Ges…

Magnia Urbica

(58 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Gattin des Kaisers Carinus (E. 3. Jh.n.Chr.) aus der Colonia Iulia Gemella Accitana in Hispania (CIL II 3394). Sie führte die Titel Augusta, mater castrorum und mater senatus ac patriae (CIL VIII 2384; XI 6957). PIR2 M 99. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography H. Cohen, Description Historique des Monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain VI2, 1886, 405-408.

Furius

(2,916 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eder, Walter (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name eines altröm. Patriziergeschlechtes (inschr. auch Fourios), abgeleitet vom Praenomen Fusus und gelegentlich auch in der lit. Überlieferung in der urspr. Form Fusius vorkommend; die Familie stammte vielleicht aus Tusculum (vgl. das Familiengrab der Furii ILLRP 895-903). Die zahlreichen Angehörigen der Gens aus der frühen Republik im 5./4. Jh. v.Chr. sind als histor. Personen kaum greifbar, und ihre Geschichte ist z.T. spätannalistische Erfindung. Am bekanntesten ist der “Retter Roms” nach der Gallierkatastrophe M…

Numerianus

(184 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[English version] [1] Anhänger des Septimius Severus N. war Schullehrer in Rom und gab vor, als Senator im Auftrag des Septimius Severus in Gallien ein Heer für diesen aufzustellen. Tatsächlich gelangen ihm beträchtliche Erfolge im Kampf gegen die Truppen des Clodius [II 1] Albinus; N. erbeutete angeblich 70 Millionen Sesterzen für Severus. Nach dessen Sieg im J. 197 n.Chr. lehnte N. alle Vergünstigungen ab und begnügte sich lediglich mit einer kleinen Versorgungsrente (Cass. Dio 75,5). PIR2 N 198. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [English version] [2] Imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Numerius …

Macrianus

(296 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Rex von Alamannen am Main-Neckar, 4. Jh. n.Chr. Rex von Alamannen am Main-Neckar, wo er sich 359 n.Chr. Iulianus [11] unterwarf (Amm. 18,2,15-18). Valentinianus I. mobilisierte 370 ein Burgunderheer (Amm. 28,5,8-13) gegen den inzwischen erstarkten M., der sich aber der Gefangennahme 372 durch Flucht entzog. Der vom Kaiser eingesetzte rex Fraomarius hielt sich nicht lange (Amm. 29,4,2-7; 30,7,11). 374 schloß der Kaiser ein foedus (Amm. 30,3,3-7) mit dem fortan loyalen M. Ca. 380 kam er beim Angriff auf die Franken unter Mallobaudes um. Kehne, Peter (Hannover) B…

Furia Sabinia Tranquillina

(52 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Tochter des C.F. Sabinius Aquila Timesitheus, Gattin Gordians [3] III. seit 241 n.Chr.; Erhebung zur Augusta kurz vor dessen Perserkrieg (SHA Gord. 23,5-6; Eutr. 9,2,2; Zos. 1,17; Zon. 12, 18 p. 129 D.; CIL VI 2114; 130). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 F 587 Kienast, 21996, 197.

Iotapianus

(85 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] I., der sich der Abstammung von (Severus?) Alexander gerühmt haben soll (Aur. Vict. Caes. 29,2), ist 248/49 n.Chr. in Kappadokien oder Syrien (Chron. min. 1, 521,38 Mommsen; Zos. 1,20,2; Aur. Vict. Caes. 29,2) zum Gegenkaiser des Philippus Arabs erhoben und im Sept./Okt. 249 von den Soldaten getötet worden (Zos. 1,21,2; RIC 4,3, 105). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 I 49  Kienast 2, 202  X. Loriot, Les premières années de la grande crise du IIIe siècle, in: ANRW II 2, 1975, 657-797, bes. 794.

Maximinus

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[English version] [1] M. Daia röm. Kaiser 305-313 n.Chr. Röm. Kaiser 305-313 n.Chr. Als Sohn der Schwester des Galerius [5] und wie dieser in der Dacia ripensis geboren, vielleicht in Šarkamen (h. Serbien), stieg er vom protector zum tribunus auf (Lact. mort. pers. 19,6) und wurde Caesar im Thronwechsel von 305 als Adoptivsohn des Galerius (seither: Galerius Valerius Maximinus). Als Teilherrscher über die Diözese Oriens führte er die Christenverfolgung fort (Eus. HE 8,14,9). Wie Constantinus [1] gab sich M. nicht mit dem Titel eines…

Gordianus

(657 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Imp. Caes. M. Antonius G. Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Aug. Augustus in Karthago 238 n. Chr. (G.I.), geb. um 159 n.Chr. als Sohn des Maecius Marullus und der Ulpia Gordiana (Herodian. 7,5,2; SHA Gord. 2,2; Zon. 12,17 p. 127 D.). Nach einem erfolgreichen cursus honorum (SHA Gord. 3,5-8; 4,1), gelangte er - wohl unter Elagabal - zum Suffektkonsulat. 216 war er Statthalter in Britannia inferior (RIB 1, 1049), kurz darauf in Achaia [2. 181ff.], vielleicht auch in Syria. 237 fiel ihm per Los das Prokonsulat der Provinz Africa zu [5; 6. 89f. …

Heraclitus

(201 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Röm. Militärführer für Britannien, 193/4 n. Chr. Septimius Severus beauftragte H. 193/4 n.Chr. damit, ihm die Herrschaft über Britannien zu sichern (SHA Sept. Sev. 6,10; SHA Pescennius 5,2 wird fälschlich Bithynia genannt) und möglicherweise dem Clodius Albinus den Caesar-Titel anzubieten. (Cass. Dio 73,15,1; Herodian. 2,15,4). Vielleicht ist er identisch mit dem legatus der legio VI Ferrata H. aus dem Jahre 196 (PIR2 H 89; IGR 3,1107) bzw. mit H. [2] (PIR2 H 88). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [English version] [2] procurator 201 n. Chr. Bekleidete 201 n.Chr. das …

Pertinax

(740 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] P. Helvius P., röm. Kaiser 31.12.192-28.3. 193. Geb. am 1.8.126 n.Chr. im ligurischen Alba Pompeia (SHA Pert. 1,2; 15,6; Cass. Dio 73,3,1), Sohn eines Freigelassenen. Zunächst zum grammaticus ausgebildet, bewarb er sich mit Hilfe des L. Hedius Lollianus [4] Avitus um eine Centurionenstelle (SHA Pert. 1,5; (Ps.-)Aur. Vict. epit. Caes. 18). Mit Unterstützung des Claudius [II 54] Pompeianus erhielt er den Rang eines eques ( equites Romani D.), der ihm die ritterliche Laufbahn ermöglichte. Um 160 n.Chr., noch unter Antoninus [1] Pius, diente er als praefectus coho…

Priscus

(518 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
Weitverbreitetes röm. Cogn. (“altehrwürdig”). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] L. P. In Philippopolis 250 n. Chr. zum Kaiser ausgerufen Vielleicht identisch mit T. Iulius P., dem Statthalter von Thrakia (AE 1932, 28 = SEG 7,784 [1. 103 f. Anm. 4]), wurde 250 n. Chr. von seinen Truppen in dem von den Goten belagerten Philippopolis (h. Plovdiv) zum Kaiser ausgerufen - möglicherweise im Einverständnis mit diesen -, als der Entsatz durch Kaiser Decius [II 1] ausblieb [2. 111, 162]. In Verhandlungen mi…

Faustinus

(274 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg)
[English version] [1] s. Faustulus s. Faustulus Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] Begüterter Freund des Dichters Martial Begüterter Freund des Dichters Martial, der ihm B. 3 (3,2) und 4 (4,10) widmete; er besaß Villen in Baiae (3,58), Tibur (4,57), Tarracina (10,51,8) und Trebula (5,71). PIR2 F 127. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [3] Wahrscheinlich 273 n.Chr. Statthalter der Provinz Belgica unter Esuvius [1] Tetricus Wahrscheinlich 273 n.Chr. Statthalter der Provinz Belgica unter Esuvius [1] Tetricus, gegen den er nach Polemiu…

Fulvius

(2,957 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Röm. plebeischer Gentilname, abgeleitet von fulvus (“rotgelb, braungelb” [1. 1,561], wohl nach der Haarfarbe); weitere Belege [2. 170], inschr. auch Folvius (ILLRP 124 u.ö.). Die röm. gens stammte wahrscheinlich aus Tusculum (Cic. Planc. 20; vgl. Cic. Phil. 3,16; Plin. nat. 7,136), wo F. [I 15] auch Kunstwerke aus Kriegsbeute aufstellen ließ. Die bedeutendsten Zweige sind zunächst die Centumali, Curvi und Paetini, seit dem 3. Jh. v.Chr. die Flacci und Nobiliores. Stammbaum: [3. 231f.]. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] F. Bambalio, M. Vater der Fulvia [2] (“Sta…
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