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Laelianus

(128 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imperator Caesar Ulp(ius) Cor(nelius) Laelianus (RIC V 2, 373 no. 8; [1. 66 no. 6]). Probably commander of the legio XXII Primigenia in Mogontiacum (Mainz) or governor of the province of Germania superior, rebelled early in AD 269 against Postumus and was proclaimed Augustus. Shortly afterwards Postumus defeated and killed him (Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,8; Eutr. 9,9; Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 152 FHG, here incorrectly ‘Lollianus’); according to another tradition (SHA Tyr. Trig. 4; 5; 6,3; 8,1), L. was murdered by Victorinus or by his own soldiers. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bib…

Macrinius

(384 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] M. M. Avitus Catonius Vindex Cos. suff. c. AD 175 Son of M. [4]. Began his career as an equestrian with the quattuor militiae, receiving the dona militaria from Marcus [2] Aurelius in AD 169. Procurator of Dacia Malvensis. Entered the Senate, legate of Moesia superior, perhaps as praetorian; suffect consul probably in 175; consular governor of Moesia inferior before the year 177. Died at the age of 42, probably during his governorship of Moesia inferior (CIL VI 1449 = ILS 1107). PIR2 M 22. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. M. Decianus Governor of Numidia…

Petronius

(3,217 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] High official of the late 4th/early 5th cents. AD Vicarius Hispaniarum AD 395-397, at the court of Mediolanium [1] (Milan) from 398; addressee, with his brother Patroinus, of numerous letters from Symmachus. He gained an unknown office in 401 ( comes rerum privatarum?). From 402-408, P. was praef. praet. per Gallias; while there, he introduced a convocation of the seven provinces, which met annually at Arelate (Arles) (Zos. Epist. 8 = MGH Epp 3, p. 14). He may have been recalled in connection with the usurpation of Constantine…

Regalianus

(157 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caesar P. C[...] R. Augustus (RIC V/2, 586 f.; [1]). Governor in Illyricum, probably of Dacian descent. In AD 260, after the overthrow of Ingenuus [1] by Aureolus at Mursa, he was proclaimed anti-emperor to Gallienus by the Danube troops (SHA Tyr. Trig. 10,1; Ps.-Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 32,3; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Pol. Silv. Chronica minora 1,521,45). He fought the Sarmatae, who had already been threatening the lower Danube provinces for some time (SHA Tyr. Trig. 10,2). A sho…

Numerianus

(193 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Follower of Septimius Severus N. was a schoolteacher in Rome who, as a senator on commission from  Septimius Severus pretended to raise for him an army in Gaul. In fact he achieved considerable success in battle against the troops of  Clodius [II 1] Albinus. N. allegedly seized 70 million sesterces for Severus, after whose victory in AD 97 N. renounced all his privileges and was content with only a small maintenance pension (Cass. Dio 75,5). PIR2 N 198. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [2] Imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Numerius N. Augustus 3rd cent. AD emperor Roman e…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Laelianus

(123 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Imperator Caesar Ulp(ius) Cor(nelius) Laelianus (RIC V 2, 373 Nr. 8; [1. 66 Nr. 6]). Wohl Kommandeur der legio XXII Primigenia in Mogontiacum (Mainz) oder Statthalter der Prov. Germania superior, rebellierte Anf. 269 n.Chr. gegen Postumus und wurde zum Augustus erhoben. Postumus besiegte und tötete L. kurz darauf (Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,8; Eutr. 9,9; Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 152 FHG, hier fälschlich “Lollianus”); nach anderer Trad. (SHA trig. tyr. 4; 5; 6,3; 8,1) soll L. erst von Victorinus oder seinen eigenen Soldaten ermordet worden sein. Franke, Thomas (Bochu…

Modestus

(226 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[English version] [1] Sab(inius?) M. Statthalter der Prov. Moesia Inferior im J. 241 n.Chr., belegt durch Mz. der Stadt Nikopolis [1. 504-518 Nr. 2040-2107]. Dementsprechend muß er vorher den Suffektkonsulat bekleidet haben. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography 1 F. Imhoof-Blumer (Hrsg.), Die ant. Mz. Nord-Griechenlands, Bd. 1, 1898. PIR S 2  A. Stein, Die Legaten von Moesien, 1940, 100f. [English version] [2] Flavius Domitius M. Praefectus praetorio Orientis, 369/370 bis 378 (?) n.Chr. Praefectus praetorio Orientis 369/370 bis 378 (?) n.Chr. Aus Arabien stammend, b…

Postumus

(964 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Röm. Praenomen Röm. Praenomen, das wie andere der sog. “Numeralpraenomina” (Quintus) Kindern nach der Reihenfolge der Geburt gegeben wurde: das Adj. p., “letzter”, meint hier “(weil) nach (dem Tod des Vaters) geboren” (vgl. P. [2]). Bei den Römern war P. bis ins 3. Jh. v. Chr. als Vorname in Gebrauch, dann nur noch als Cognomen. Die weitere Verbreitung eines ital. Individualnamens * Postumo- läßt sich aus der Entlehnung ins Etr. erschließen, wo daraus ein Gent. Pustmi-na- (CIE 8715) gebildet wurde; dies entspricht dem röm. Gent. Postumius. Steinbauer, Dieter (…

Regalianus

(152 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Imp. Caesar P. C[...] R. Augustus (RIC V/2, 586 f.; [1]). Statthalter im Illyricum, wahrscheinlich dakischer Abstammung, wurde im J. 260 n. Chr. nach der Niederwerfung des Ingenuus [1] bei Mursa durch Aureolus von den Donautruppen zum Gegenkaiser des Gallienus ausgerufen (SHA trig. tyr. 10,1; Ps.-Aur. Vict. epit. Caes. 32,3; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Pol. Silv. chronica minora 1,521,45). Er kämpfte gegen die Sarmaten (Sarmatai), die bereits seit einiger Zeit die unteren Donauprovinz…

Flavianus

(473 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Praefectus praetorio 222 oder 223 n. Chr. Praefectus praetorio mit (Geminius) Chrestus im Jahre 222 oder 223 n.Chr. Als ihnen auf Drängen der Iulia Mamaea Domitius Ulpianus von Severus Alexander als Praetorianerpraefekt übergeordnet wurde, meuterte die Garde, worauf Ulpianus F. und Chrestus töten ließ (Cass. Dio 80,2,2; Zos. 1,11,2). PIR2 F 180. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [English version] [2] Virius Nicomachus F. heidnischer, stadtröm. Aristokrat; Freund des Symmachus Dominierende Gestalt der stadtröm. nichtchristl. Aristokratie im letzten Vier…

Felicissimus

(89 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Leiter des Fiskus unter Aurelianus [3] (SHA Aurelian. 38,3), stiftete 271 oder 274 n.Chr. die Arbeiter zur Münzfälschung an. Als dies bekannt wurde, organisierte er einen Aufstand auf dem mons Caelius, den die kaiserlichen Truppen nur unter großen Verlusten niederschlagen konnten. F. fand dabei den Tod (Eutr. 9,14; Aur. Vict. Caes. 35,6; [Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes. 35,4; Suda s.v. μονιτάριοι). Polemius Silvius (Chron. min. 1, 521f. Mommsen) zählt ihn zu den Usurpatoren. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 F 140 PLRE 1, 331f. 1 Kienast, 21996, 238.

Illyrische Kaiser

(142 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Als I.K. wird eine Gruppe von röm. Herrschern bezeichnet, deren gemeinsames Merkmal ihre Herkunft aus dem illyrischen Raum, im weiteren Sinne das Gebiet zwischen der Adria und der unteren Donau, ist. Die Reihe beginnt bereits mit Decius [II 1] (249-251 n.Chr.), umfaßt aber im wesentlichen die Kaiser Claudius [III 2] Gothicus, Aurelianus [2], Probus, Diocletianus, Maximianus und Constantinus [1] I. Diesen Herrschern schrieb man bereits in der Ant. wenig Bildung, andererseits aber …

Hostilianus

(138 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] C. Valens H. Messius Quintus war der jüngere Sohn des Kaisers Decius [II 1] und der Herennia Etruscilla. Im Sept. 250 n.Chr. wurde er zum Caesar und princeps iuventutis ernannt (AE 1942/43, 55; ILS 518) und nach dem Tod seines Vaters im Juni 251 von Trebonianus Gallus adoptiert und zum Augustus erhoben (Zos. 1,25,1; RIC 4,3, 143ff.), wohl um von der Mitschuld des Trebonianus am Tode seines Vaters und Bruders abzulenken. Er starb kurz darauf in Rom an der Pest (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30,1; [Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes…

Odaenathus

(393 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(griech. Ὀδαίναθος, Odaínathos). [English version] [1] Mörder des Septimius O. [2] Ermordete - wohl im Frühjahr 267 n.Chr. - den Herrscher von Palmyra, Septimius O. [2], als dieser durch Kappadokien nach Herakleia [7] Pontika zog, um die Goten aus Kleinasien zu vertreiben. Er selbst wurde daraufhin von der Garde des Ermordeten getötet (Synk. 717). Dies steht jedoch im Widerspruch zu anderen Quellen, die einen consobrinus Maeonius (SHA trig. tyr. 15,5; 17,1) bzw. den Neffen des palmyren. Fürsten als Mörder nennen (Zon. 12,24 D.). Nach Zo…

Opellius

(151 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Kaiser, 3. Jh. n.Chr. Imp. Caes. M.O. (Antoninus) Diadumenianus, Sohn des Kaisers M.O. Macrinus, geb. am 14. oder 19. Sept. 208 n.Chr. (Cass. Dio 78,34,2; SHA Diad. 5,5). Anfang 217 erhielt er den Titel clarissimus puer (CIL XV 7505), kurz danach war er auch princeps iuventutis und nobilissimus Caesar (Cass. Dio 78,17,1; 19,1; Herodian. 5,4,12; Aur. Vict. Caes. 22,1; AE 1953,54; 1954,8; 1960,36; RIC IV, 2,22). Im Mai 218 nach dem Beginn der Truppenmeuterei in Raphanaea in Syrien verlieh ihm Macrinus die Augustuswürde (Cass.…

Herodianos

(1,128 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Ἡρωδιανός). [English version] [1] Ailios H. griech. Grammatiker, 2. Jh. (Αἴλιος Ἡρωδιανός), aus Alexandreia, einer der bedeutendsten griech. Grammatiker, lebte im 2. Jh. n.Chr.; Sohn des Apollonios [11] Dyskolos und dessen würdiger Schüler und Nachfolger. Eine Zeit lang hielt er sich in Rom auf und widmete Kaiser Marc Aurel (161-180) sein Hauptwerk, die Καθολική προσῳδία ( Katholikḗ prosōdía). Zu Recht sieht man in ihm zwar keinen brillanten, jedoch einen sorgfältigen und genauen Grammatiker, den großen Erben und Systematiker der alexandrinischen Tr…

Salonina

(76 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Iulia Cornelia S., Gattin des Kaisers Gallienus, 254 n. Chr. zur Augusta und mater castrorum erhoben (IGR 3, 237; AE 1982, 272; RIC V 1, 63; 105; 107-115; 191-200), zusammen mit ihrem Mann 268 n. Chr. vor Mediolanum [1] umgekommen (Zon. 12,25). Ihre drei Söhne waren P. Licinius Cornelius Valerianus, P. Licinius [II 6] Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus und Marinianus [3]. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2, 222 f.  PIR2 C 1499  PLRE 1, 799.

Quartinus

(109 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] Titus (?) Q. war ein Freund des Kaisers Severus Alexander mit consularischem Rang. Nach dem gescheiterten, gegen Maximinus [2] Thrax gerichteten Usurpationsversuch des Magnus [2] 235 n. Chr. am Rhein wurde Q. von östl. Truppenteilen zum Gegenkaiser erhoben, wenig später aber auf Betreiben von Macedo [2] ermordet (Herodian. 7,1,4-11; SHA Maximini duo 11,2; fiktiv: SHA trig. tyr. 32). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 21996, 186 f.  X. Loriot, Les premières années de la grande crise du IIIe siècle: De l'avènement de Maximin le Thrace (235) à la …

Sempronia

(272 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracchus, 2nd cent. BC Daughter of Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracchus and Cornelia [I 1] (Plut., Ti. Gracchus 1,3), from 150 BC in a childless marriage with P. Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Aemilianus, for whose death in 129 BC she is supposed to have been partly to blame (App. B Civ. 1,20 (83); Liv. Per. 59). Despite the threatening demeanour of the people, in 102 or 101 BC she refused to acknowledge L. Equitius [1] as her nephew (Val. Max. 3,8,6). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Women and Politics in Ancient Rome, 1994, 48-50. …

Opellius

(160 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Emperor, 3rd cent. AD Imp. Caes. M.O. (Antoninus) Diadumenianus, son of the emperor M.O. Macrinus, born on 14 or 19 September 208 AD (Cass. Dio 78,34,2; SHA Diad. 5,5). At the beginning of 217 he was given the title of clarissimus puer (CIL XV 7505), shortly afterwards he was also princeps iuventutis and nobilissimus Caesar (Cass. Dio 78,17,1; 19,1; Herodian. 5,4,12; Aur. Vict. Caes. 22,1; AE 1953,54; 1954,8; 1960,36; RIC IV, 2,22). In May 218, after the beginning of the mutiny of troops in Raphanaea in Syria, Macrinus made him Au…

Heraclitus I (Gk)

(1,845 words)

Author(s): Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλειτος; Hērákleitos). [German version] [1] H. of Ephesus Ionian philosopher, c. 500 BC Son of Bloson, outstanding personality within Ionian philosophy. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] A. The person H.'s main period of activity is estimated to have been about 503-500 BC (Diog. Laert. 9,1). He belonged to a leading family in the public life of Ephesus. The doxographic tradition records several anecdotes of H.'s arrogance and contempt for his fellow citizens and humanity in general, which are mostly based on fragments of H. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] B. La…

Maecenas

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Μαικήνας; Maikḗnas). Etruscan family name (cf. mehnate, mehnati and similar); the family is recorded in inscriptions for Perusia (modern Perugia) and was probably originally settled there. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Friend and counsellor of Octavian (Augustus), 1st cent. BC Father of M. [2], mentioned as early as 44 BC among the friends and counsellors of Octavian ( Augustus) (Nicolaus of Damascus, Vita Caesaris 31,133). Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) [German version] [2] Patron of literature, 1st cent. BC M., less often - with the family name of the…

Iulius

(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…

Volusianus

(331 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor AD 251-253 Imp. Caes. C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus V. P. F. Invictus Aug. (RIC 4,3, 173-189). Roman emperor from the middle of AD 251 until the middle of 253. Born c. 230 in Perusia (?), the son of Trebonianus Gallus and Afinia Gemina Baebiana. After the battle of Abritus against the Goths and the death of Decius [II 1], the legions proclaimed him and his father emperor in June 251 (Eutr. 9,5; Zon. 12,21 D.); at the same time, he was appointed Caesar by his father (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30)…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Hostilianus

(140 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] C. Valens H. Messius Quintus was the younger son of emperor  Decius [II 1] and Herennia Etruscilla. In September AD 250, he was named Caesar and Princeps Iuventutis (AE 1942/43, 55; ILS 518) and, after the death of his father in June 251, adopted by  Trebonianus Gallus and raised to Augustus (Zos. 1,25,1; RIC 4,3, 143ff.), probably to distract from the complicity of Trebonianus in the deaths of his father and brother. Shortly after, he died in Rome of the plague (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30,1; [Aur. Vict.] epit. Ca…

Proculus

(644 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Et al.
Roman praenomen ( P. Iulius, a contemporary of Romulus [1]), and secondarily a cognomen. Depending on the form, a diminutive (older * prokelo-) of the stem * proko- (~ classical procus 'wooer, suitor'), it originally perhaps meant 'the one who demands or claims (the inheritance?)'. Proca (King of Alba Longa) can also be regarded as etymologically connected. The praenomen, which had already become rare at an early time, survived in derivatives, the gentilician names Procilius and Proculeius. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Roman jurist, 1st cent. The jurist fro…

Triginta tyranni

(249 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] The fictitious author Trebellius Pollio uses the term triginta tyranni (TT) in the Historia Augusta to refer to 32 usurpers from all parts of the empire supposedly in the period of the emperors Valerianus [2] and Gallienus (253-268) in order to expose their rule as particularly week and bad. He increased the number that was first planned to be 20 (SHA Gall. 21,1) to 30 as an allusion to the Athenian Thirty Tyrants ( triákonta ) (SHA Trig. tyr. 2-31), among them esp. derisively (31,7) two women, Zenobia from Palmyra (30) and Victoria in…

Illyrian emperors

(156 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Term applied to a group of Roman rulers whose feature in common was the fact that they came from Illyrian territory, more broadly the area between the Adriatic and the lower Danube. The sequence already begins with  Decius [II 1] (AD 249-251) but essentially includes the emperors  Claudius [III 2] Gothicus,  Aurelianus [2],  Probus,  Diocletianus,  Maximianus, and  Constantinus [1] I. Even in antiquity these rulers were credited with having little education but they were acknowled…

Herennius

(1,606 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Common Italian proper name (associated with the praenomen Herennus that is often confused with H.), which however is not documented as a surname among the Roman upper class until the 1st cent. BC. It frequently appears with epithets showing place of origin ( Etruscus, Gallus, Picens, Siculus). In the Imperial period it is the name of Caesar Q.H. [II 3] Etruscus, son of emperor  Decius [II 1], of the historian H.  Dexippus [2], and of the jurist H.  Modestinus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I Republican Period [German version] [I 1] H. Centurio and murderer of Cicero Centurio, who at the…

Valens

(948 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Rival emperor to Gallienus, 3rd cent. AD As proconsul of Achaia, V. had himself proclaimed rival emperor to Gallienus in AD 261 in Macedonia. Although he defeated Piso, who was sent there against him (PIR2 C 298), he was soon murdered by his own troops (Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 32,4; Amm. Marc. 21,16,10; SHA Tyr. Trig. 19; 21; SHA Gall. 2,2 f.). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2 227  PIR V 7  PLRE 1, 929 f. [German version] [2] Flavius Valens Eastern Roman emperor AD 364-378. Born in 321 in Cibalae (Illyria), of lowly origins and without a prof…

Magnia Urbica

(63 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Wife of the emperor Carinus (end of the 3rd cent. AD) from Colonia Iulia Gemella Accitana in Hispania (CIL II 3394). She bore the titles of Augusta, mater castrorum and mater senatus ac patriae (CIL VIII 2384; XI 6957). PIR2 M 99. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography H. Cohen, Description Historique des Monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain VI2, 1886, 405-408.

Paccia

(67 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] P. Marciana was from Africa (Leptis Magna?); from c. AD 175 she was the first wife of  Septimius Severus (SHA Sept. Sev. 3,2) and died in about AD 185 ([1. nos. 410, 411]; CIL VIII 19494 = ILS 440). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J.M. Reynolds (ed.), The Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitana, 1952. A.R. Birley, Septimius Severus, 21988, 52; 75; 225  PIR2 P 20  Raepsaet-Charlier, 590.

Cecropius

(43 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] C. was the prefect of a cavalry division (the ala Dalmatorum) and participated in the conspiracy against emperor  Gallienus, whom he murdered in AD 268 near Milan (SHA Gall. 14,4; 7ff.; Zos. 1,40,2). PIR2 C 595. Franke, Thomas (Bochum)

Castor

(571 words)

Author(s): Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Κάστωρ; Kástōr). [German version] [1] see Dioscuri see  Dioscuri Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) [German version] [2] C. of Rhodos Greek historian, 1st cent. BC Greek historiographer of the first half of the 1st cent. BC, whose vita in Suda s.v. is confused with that of the homonymous Galatian dynast, author of Chronicle in six books from Belus ( Baal) and  Ninus (2123/2 BC) on until the restructuring of the Near East by Pompey (61/0 BC), with lists of kings and officials from Assyria, Sicyon, Argus, Athens, Alba and Rome. The structure of his many-stra…

Furia Sabinia Tranquillina

(56 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of C.F. Sabinius Aquila Timesitheus, from AD 241 wife of  Gordianus [3] III, who installed her as Augusta shortly before his Persian War (SHA Gord. 23,5-6; Eutr. 9,2,2; Zos. 1,17; Zon. 12, 18 p. 129 D.; CIL VI 2114; 130). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 F 587 Kienast, 21996, 197.

Victorinus

(495 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Governor of Britannia Superior, 3rd cent. AD V. was governor of the province of Britannia Superior (Zos. 1,66,2; Zon. 12,29 D.) and may be identical with Pomponius Victori(a)nus, cos. ord. and praefectus urbi in AD 282 (Chron. Min. 1,66 Mommsen). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Birley, 180 f.  PIR2 P 762  PLRE 1, 962, nr. 3 and 963, nr. 2. [German version] [2] Imp. Caesar M. Piavonius V. Invictus Augustus Emperor of Imperium Galliarum from the end of AD 269 to the spring of 271 (RIC 5,2, 379-398; CIL XIII 9040), son of Victoria, from ri…

Tacitus

(2,881 words)

Author(s): Flaig, Egon (Göttingen) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] (P.?) Cornelius T. Latin historiographer, c. AD 55- c. 120 Latin historiographer, c. AD 55 - c. AD 120. Flaig, Egon (Göttingen) [German version] I. Life (Publius?) Cornelius T. came from Gaul, and had a successful senatorial career under the Flavian emperors (70-96). He was a praetor in 88, consul in 97, proconsul in the province of Asia in 112 (OGIS 487 Mylasa). After the murder of Domitian in 96, controversies emerged as to how senators should relate to an emperor. T. replied to this issue initially with the Agricola, later with his two great works of historiography, the H…

Iotapianus

(85 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] I., who allegedly boasted of his descent from (Severus?) Alexander (Aur. Vict. Caes. 29,2), was proclaimed rival emperor to  Philippus Arabs in Cappadocia or Syria in AD 248/49 (Chron. min. 1, 521,38 Mommsen; Zos. 1,20,2; Aur. Vict. Caes. 29,2) and in September/October 249 he was killed by his soldiers (Zos. 1,21,2; RIC 4,3, 105). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 I 49 Kienast 2, 202 X. Loriot, Les premières années de la grande crise du IIIe siècle, in: ANRW II 2, 1975, 657-797, esp. 794.

Quartinus

(118 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Titus (?) Q. was a friend of the emperor Severus Alexander with consular rank. After the failed attempt at usurpation, directed against Maximinus [2] Thrax by Magnus [2] on the Rhine in AD 235, Q. was proclaimed rival emperor by eastern troops; however, only a little later he was murdered at the instigation of Macedo [2] (Hdn. 7,1,4-11; SHA Maximini duo 11,2; fictitious: SHA Tyr. Trig. 32). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 21996, 186 f.  X. Loriot, Les premières années de la grande crise du IIIe siècle: De l'avènement de Maximin le Thrace (235) à la mo…

Timolaus

(536 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμόλαος/ Timólaos). [German version] [1] From Corinth, politician, c. 400 BC Leading politician of Corinth. At first on the side of the Spartans, he managed to convince Thasos in 411/10 BC to secede from Athens [1. 216-231]. Later, he changed course for personal reasons [2. 83 against 3. 73 f.]: in 395 BC, he advocated an alliance with Argos and due to his expertise [4. 411] became a moving force in the Corinthian Alliance (Stv 2, 225), for which he is claimed to have received plenty of funds from Timocr…

Macrianus

(455 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, 4th cent. AD Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, where he surrendered to lulianus [11] in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,2,15-18). In 370, Valentinianus [1] mobilized a Burgundian army (Amm. Marc. 28,5,8-13) against M., who had by then become more powerful. However, M. avoided capture in 372 by fleeing. Rex Fraomarius, appointed by the emperor to replace M., could not sustain his position for long (Amm. Marc. 29,4,2-7; 30,7,11). In 374, the emperor entered into a foedus (Amm. Marc. 30,3,3-7) …
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