Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Freiberger, Oliver" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Freiberger, Oliver" )' returned 10 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Saṃgha

(257 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver
[English Version] . Der S. (auch San˙gha; Sanskrit/Pāli; wörtl.: »Versammlung«) ist die urspr. vom Buddha (: I.) gegründete Ordensgemeinschaft (Buddhismus: I., 4.), die nach buddhistischem Ordensrecht aus ordinierten Bhikṣus und Bhikṣuṇı̄s (»Mönchen und Nonnen«; Mönchtum: IV., Kloster: III.) besteht. Da der monastische Buddhismus keine übergreifende Organisationsstruktur entwickelt hat, muß der alle Ordensmitglieder umfassende »S. der vier Himmelsrichtungen« als Idee vom realen Lokal-S. untersc…

Saṃgha

(282 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver
[German Version] Saṃgha (also saṅgha; Sanskrit/Pali; lit. “assembly”) is the monastic community originally founded by the Buddha (I; Buddhism: I, 4); according to the Buddhist rules governing such communities, it consists of ordained bhikṣus and bhikṣuṇīs (“monks and nuns”; monasticism: IV; monasteries: III). Since monastic Buddhism never developed an overall organizational structure, the idea of the “ saṃgha of the four points of the compass” that includes all monastics must be distinguished from the actual local saṃgha. The saṃgha was already defined conceptuall…

Sannyāsin

(259 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver
[German Version] The Sanskrit word saṃnyāsin (“renouncer”) is one of several terms for an ascetic in the Indo-Brahmanic tradition (Asceticism: VIII). A saṃnyāsin renounces “the world,” especially all forms of ritual. In the classic formulation of the four stages of life (Āśrama: Brahmin student, householder, hermit, itinerant ascetic), saṃnyāsa (“renunciation”) represents the fourth and final stage: having completely fulfilled his duties, the ideal twice-born man – someone who has experienced his “second birth” through initiation, in other…

Nirvāṇa

(440 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver
[German Version] The Sanskrit word nirvāṇa (Pāli nibbāna; lit. “extinction”) is one of several terms for the final stage and goal of the path of salvation in Indian religions, especially Buddhism. Early Buddhist texts view nirvāṇa as the state attained through awakening ( bodhi; Enlightenment [Spiritual]) or liberating knowledge ( ājñā, Pāli añña; Redemption: IX). In this state, ignorance, desire, and hate, which lead to suffering and rebirth, are “extinguished,” ending the imprisonment of the individual in the universal, painful cycle of rebirth ( Samsāra ). …

Saṃnyāsin

(247 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver
[English Version] . Das Sanskritwort saṃnyāsin (»Entsager«) ist eine von mehreren Bez. für den Asketen in indisch-brahmanischer Tradition (Askese: VIII.). Ein S. entsagt »der Welt«, insbes. allem Ritual. In der klassischen Formulierung der vier Lebensstadien (āśrama; Brahmanenschüler, Hausvater, Waldeinsiedler, Wanderasket) stellt die Entsagung (saṃnyāsa) das vierte und letzte Stadium dar: Nachdem er seine Pflichten ganz erfüllt hat, wendet sich der ideale Zweimalgeborene – jemand, der in der In…

Nirvāṇa

(426 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver
[English Version] . Das Sanskrit-Wort nirvāṇa (Pāli nibbāna, wörtl. »Erlöschen«) ist einer von mehreren Begriffen für die letzte Stufe und das Ziel des Heilsweges in indischen Religionen, insbes. im Buddhismus. In frühbuddhistischen Texten wird N. als der Zustand betrachtet, den man durch Erwachen (bodhi; Erleuchtung: IV.) bzw. befreiende Erkenntnis (ājn˜ā, Pāli an˜n˜ā) erlangt (Erlösung: IX.). In diesem Zustand sind Unwissenheit, Begierde und Haß, die zu Leiden und neuer Geburt führen, »e…

Monasteries

(3,085 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Köpf, Ulrich | Mürmel, Heinz | Kalb, Herbert
[German Version] I. Comparative Religion – II. Christianity – III. Buddhism – IV. Monastic Law I. Comparative Religion The term monastery (or cloister) derives from the Christian tradition, where it denotes the living and working quarters, relatively secluded from the outside world, of a monastic community leading some type of ascetic life (Asceticism; see II below). In the broader context of other religions, the term is also tied to the context of monasticism. When certain social structures in non-Christian reli…

Monasticism

(13,595 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | Freiberger, Oliver | Mürmel, Heinz | Horstmann, Monika
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Religious Studies – III. Church History – IV. Buddhism – V. India I. Terminology Monasticism is a collective term for an alternative way of life, always religiously motivated, that includes asceticism but is also characterized by a more or less radical withdrawal from society (the “world”) as well as from the monastics' own community of faith. The term monk commonly used in Christianity (from secular Gk μοναχός/ monachós, “solitary,” Lat. monachus, borrowed by way of a hypothetical 8th-century monichus* into Old High German [ munih] and othe…

Laity

(5,415 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Karrer, Leo | Schneider, Johann | Plasger, Georg | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. North America – VI. Missiology I. Religious Studies Generally speaking, the term laity (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”) denotes adherents of a religious tradition who do not act as religious specialists or function within a defined socio-religious class (Priesthood, Monasticism). The use of the term is therefore inappropriate in religions without religious specialists, for example Islam. In some religions, the laity, who…

Fasting

(4,168 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Podella, Thomas | Böcher, Otto | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Troickij, Aleksandr | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. Christianity – IV. Ethics – V. Judaism – VI. Islam I. History of Religions “Fasting” is a universally attested cultural technique to produce an expansion of mental and social control, power, or awareness (Asceticism) by restricting the intake of food. Many different types of and reasons for fasting can be found in the history of religions, and they are combined in various ways. Several studies have been produced with regard to individual religions …