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Bostar

(180 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Bdstart; Βώσταρ; Bṓstar i.a.). [German version] [1] Cartaginian strategos in 1st Punic War Carthaginian strategos in the 1st Punic War; he shared command with  Hasdrubal and Hamilcar in 256 BC against M.  Atilius Regulus, fell prisoner to the Romans at the battle of Adis and died in Rome (Pol. 1,30; Diod. Sic. 24,12) [1.20]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carhaginian sub-commander in 2nd Punic War Carthaginian sub-commander in Spain in the 2nd Punic War; in 217 he fell back from the Romans to Saguntum, where he let himself be duped into r…

Zarzas

(76 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Libyan zrbts? [1. 26490]). Prominent Libyan, leader beside (and with equal authority with?) Mathus and Autaritus in the  Mercenaries' War [2. 108 f.; 112 f.; 3. 31-33], e.g. in the battle on the Bagradas and with Spendius in the pursuit of Hamilcar [3]; [1. 26964; 264]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 Huss 2 L. Loreto, La grande insurrezione libica contro Cartagine del 241-237 a.C., 1995 3 W. Huss, Die Libyer Mathos und Zarzas und der Kelte Autaritos als Prägeherren, in: SM 38, 1988, 30-33.

Autaritus

(96 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Αὐτάριτος; Autáritos). Celtic mercenary in  Hamilcar Barca's army in Sicily; leader in Libya from 241 BC of the largest contingent (2,000 Celts) in the Mercenaries' War against Carthage; he escaped the defeat at Bagradas, urged the massacre of  Gescon and other captured Carthaginians and was the negotiator of the surrender at the foot of the Prion, in a hopeless position. As guarantor of the treaty, he was executed in Tunes with  Spendius and  Zarzas following the breaking of the treaty by the insurgents in 238 (Pol. 1,77-86). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliograph…

Thearidas

(226 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Θεαρίδας/ Thearídās). [German version] [1] From Megale polis, father of Lycortas From Megale polis, father of Lycortas, who negotiated over his conquered home city with Cleomenes [6] III in 222 BC (Syll.3 626; Plut. Cleomenes 24) [1. 194; 199 f.]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] From Megale Polis, son of Lycortas From Megale Polis, son of Lycortas, grandson of T. [1], administrator of Messene [2] c. 182 BC (IvOL 46,6). As the elder brother of the statesman and later historian Polybius [2], who was deported by the Romans, after 167 T. seem…

Geskon

(295 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Carthaginian name (*Grskn = ‘protégé of Skn’; Γέσκων, Γίσκων, Γίσγω; Géskōn, Gískōn, Gísgō; Lat. Gisgo, Gisco). [German version] [1] Father of Hannibal [1], exiled after 480 BC Son of the Magonid  Hamilcar [1]; after 480 BC he lived as an exile in Selinus, as did probably also his son Hannibal [1] for a while (Diod. Sic. 13,43,5) [1. 30f.; 2. 40]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian commander 343-339 BC Carthaginian commander in 343-339 BC in the war against  Timoleon, for which he had been recalled from exile (Diod. Sic. 16,81,3; Poly…

Taurion

(103 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ταυρείων; Taureíōn). Macedonian, phílos (Court titles B.) of Antigonus [3] and Philippus [7] V, when as their governor in the Peloponnese T. was acting on behalf of the Achaei (Pol. 4,6,4; 10,2; 10,6; 19,7 f.; 80,3; 5,92,7; 95,3; 95,5). In 219/8 BC T. was affected by the Apelles [1] affair (Pol. 4,87,1 f.; 4,87,8 f.; 5,27,4) and in 217 was probably one of the peace negotiators at Naupactus [1. 112]; T.'s negative influence on Philippus (Pol. 9,23,9) and his complicity in the death of Aratus [2] (Plut. Aratus 52,2-3) are questionable. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munic…

Rhodopis

(133 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ῥοδῶπις/ Rhodôpis, 'of rosy appearance'). Legendary hetaera in Naucratis (1st half of the 6th cent. BC), Thracian (?), slave of Iadmon of Samos, then taken by the Samian Xanthus to Egypt, where Charax, brother of  Sappho, is supposed to have bought her freedom (Hdt. 2,134,3; 135,1 f.); her identification with Doricha, the object of Charax' fatal love (Sappho fr. 26,11 Diehl; cf. fr. 7 Lobel/Page), is unclear (Hdt. 2,135,5; Str. 17,1,3…

Lasthenes

(178 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λασθένης; Lasthénēs). [German version] [1] Cavalry commander of the Chalcidians, 4th cent. BC L. of Olynthus, hípparchos (‘cavalry commander’) of the Chalcidians; in 348 BC L. with Euthycrates [1] betrayed his home town to Philip II (Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,66; 19,265; Diod. Sic. 16,53,2).…

Himilco

(674 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(*[ʾ]hmlkt = ‘brother of Mlkt’, Ἰμίλκων; Imílkōn). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander, relative of Hannibal, strategos Carthaginian commander, son of a Hanno, great-grandson of the Magonid  Hamilcar [1] and a relation of  Hannibal [1], whom he accompanied to Sicily in 407 BC as (fleet?) strategos and after whose death H. took over the supreme command (Diod. Sic. 13,80; Iust. 19,2,7). H. besieged, conquered and destroyed  Acragas in 406/405, then  Gela and  Camarina, but soon after, in 405, failed in his siege of  Syracuse because…

Mercenaries' War

(420 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Modern term (‘Libyan War’, for instance in Pol. 1,13,3; Diod. 26,23) for the uprising of the mercenaries employed by Carthage in the 1st Punic War (241/0-238 BC). It plunged Carthage into a serious crisis as the revolt of the mercenaries from various ethnic origins who still had to be paid despite the emptiness of the state coffers also provoked rebellion among the Libyans under the leadership of Mathus. The general Hanno [6] who had already fought against rebels in the Carthagini…

Moericus

(102 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] In 212 BC, Iberian commander of the Carthaginians in Syracusae, which was being besieged by M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus. It fell by reason of M.' treachery at the section of wall he was guarding in the assault on the Achradina, allowing the Romans to also conquer the island part of the city, Orthygia (= Nassus) with the royal stronghold (Liv. 25,30). M. did have to take part in Marcellus's ovatio in gold chains, but was then rewarded with Roman citizenship and lands in Sicily (Liv. 26,21,10; 12). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography J. Seibert, Hannibal, 1993, 315…

Polycratia

(60 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Πολυκράτεια/ Polykráteia). P. from Argos, first wife of Philippus [7] V, who had abducted her from her marriage to Aratus [3] (Liv. 27,31,8; 32,21,24; Plut. Aratus 49,2). They had a son Perseus [2], whose name speaks of his Argive descent (see Perseus [1]) [1. 3949]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Se…

Megaleas

(93 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεγαλέας; Megaléas). A Macedonian, appointed by Antigonus [3] Doson in his will as head of the chancery ( epì toû grammateíou) of Philippus V in 222 BC (Pol. 4,87,8). Together with Apelles [1] and Leontius [2] M. opposed the anti-Aetolian western policy of the young king and in the year 218 physically attacked Aratus [2], for which he was condemned by court martial. Released on Leontius's bail, M. fled to Thebes, where he took his life before being extradited (Pol. 5,2,8; 15f.; 25,1f.; 26-28) [1. 170]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 Errington.

Sophoni(s)ba

(187 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σοφονί(σ)βα/ Sophoní(s)ba, Punic * Spnbl = 'Baal has pronounced judgment', other Greek forms of the name: Diod. Sic. 27,7; Zon. 9,12 f.). Daughter of Hasdrubal [5], married c. 205 BC to Syphax, from whom she vehemently demanded a pro-Carthaginian policy (cf. Pol. 14,1,4; 14,7,4-7; Liv. 29,23). S. is supposed to have previously been betrothed to Massinissa (Diod. Sic. 27,7, [1. 200, note 1195; 2]), who married her after his victory over Syphax in 203 in…

Megalophanes

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεγαλοφάνης/ Megalophánēs; properly: Demophanes, Δημοφάνης/ Dēmophánēs [1. 228-233]), from Megalopolis. A pupil of Arcesilaus [5] like his friend Ecdemus. Together they established a liberal constitution in Cyrene in c. 250 BC [2. 431] and later became Philopoemen's teachers. M.'s and Ecdemus' reputation for remorseless enmity towards tyranny was not merely academic: it resulted from their partici…

Tisippus

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τείσιππος/ Teísippos, Τίσιππος/ Tísippos) from Trichonium. Stratēgós of the Aetolian League (Aetoli) in 163/2 (?) and possibly also in 156/5 BC (IG IX2…

Theoxenus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεόξενος; Theóxenos). Achaean from Leontium, father of Callicrates [11]. In 197 BC , as stratēgós of the Achaean League (Achaei) he defeated a Macedonian army at Alabanda in support of the Rhodeans (Liv. 33,18,5 f.). His corresponding votive gift in Delos is recorded there in the lists of inventories for the years 194-179 [1. 135…

Menalcidas

(135 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεναλκίδας/ Menalkídas). Spartan, of radically pro-Roman disposition. He had been taken into custody in 168 BC at Alexandria…

Aristotimus

(92 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] From Elis, son of Demaratus, in 271/70 BC tyrant in Elis, propped up by (Oscian?) mercenaries and the protection of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas; his reign of terror caused 800 citizens to flee to the Aetolians and abandon their families to the madman. It came to an end during Cyllon's conspiracy (cf. Syll.3 423) when A. was murdered in the temple asylum and his entire family was extinguished (Paus. 5,5,1.6; 14,11; Plut…

Hamilcar

(877 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Carthaginian name Hmlk = ‘grace is to mlk’; Gk. Ἁμίλκας/ Hamílkas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander about 500-480 BC Son of Hanno and a Syracusan woman (Hdt. 7,165), grandson of  Mago [1. 36,183f.], father of  Geskon [1]; Carthaginian commander in c. 500-480 BC, whose role in his brother Hasdrubal's campaign against Sardinia remains unclear (Iust. 19,1,6f.) [1. 37]. It is seriously disputed whether he was king, or rather suffete [2. 459-461; 3. 70f., 90-97]. In 480, H. undertook a military expedition against  Himera, whi…

Carthalo

(395 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Punic *Qrthls = ‘(Ml)qrt has saved’; Greek Καρθάλων; Karthálōn). [German version] [1] Son of Malchus (6th cent. BC), Carthaginian priest of Melqart Son of  Malchus (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC?). As the Carthaginian priest of  Melqart he was entrusted with presenting the tithe of the booty to the god in  Tyrus but on his return refused to support his father's rebellion and was executed by him (Just. Epit. 18,7,7-15) [1. 23f.]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian nauarch in 1st Punic War in 256/5-248/7 BC In the First Punic War the Carthaginian nauarc…

Agesilochus

(61 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀγησίλοχος; Agēsílochos) (also: Hagesilochos; Hegesilochus). Rhodian, son of Hagesias,   prytanis 171 BC (Pol. 27,3,3; Liv. 42,45,3-4). 169 envoy to Rome (Pol. 28,2; 16,5.8) and 168 to Perseus and  Aemilius Paullus (Pol. 29,10,4; Liv. 44,35,4-6). A. represented the Rhodian Rome politics of the ‘tertia’ pars [1. 185-190]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Deininger, Der polit. Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971.

Eurycleides

(176 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Εὐρυκλείδης; Eurykleídēs). Son of Micion from Cephisia; the most significant Athenian statesman of the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC: treasurer of the war-chest 244/3 BC (?), strategos of hoplites c. 245/240 (?), eponymous archon 240/239 (?) (IG II/III2 I 2 1300; II 1 1705; Syll.3 491; 497) [1. 118-127]; in 229 BC E. together with his brother  Micion in cooperation with  Diogenes [1] became the liberator of Athens from Macedonian rule, and subsequently the mentor of a strict policy of neutrality, distanced from  Aratus [2] an…

Scerdilaedas

(149 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σκερδίλαιδας; Skerdílaidas). Chieftain of the Labeates of Illyria, brother-in-law of Agron [3], chieftain of the Sardiaei [1. 45 f.]. In 229 BC S. supported Teuta against the city of Phoenice in Epirus (Pol. 2,5,6-6,7), consolidated his rule over southern Illyrian tribes after the first Illyrian War (229/8) and continued his raids south of the border with Lissus (Pol. 4,16,6), especially in 220 as an ally of the Aetolians, before he changed sides to join Philippus [7] V (Pol. 4,29…

Pacatus

(233 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Latinus P. Drepanius, a rhetor from the region around Bordeaux, lived in the 4th/5th cents. AD and in 390 attained the proconsulship of Africa. He was a friend of  Ausonius and Symmachus, presumably also of  Paulinus [5] of Nola. In 389 P. held a panegyric on the emperor  Theodosius I. In this there was an especially striking accumulation of exempla from the Roman tradition with which P. probably wanted to do justice to the dignity of the res publica [8. 57-61]: P. sees the Roman concept of humanitas realised in the person of Theodosius. Despite …

Hannibal

(1,492 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Ḥnbl = ‘grace of Bl’; Ἀννίβας; Anníbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian general end of 5th cent. BC Successful Carthaginian commander, son of  Gescon [1], the Magonid. Having grown up in exile in Selinunt among other places, he established the Punic ‘province’ in western Sicily (‘epicracy’) through military campaigns in 410/9 and 406/5 BC. The politics of Carthaginian intervention which H. inaugurated were initially occasioned by a call for help from Segesta but the true cause lies in Syracuse's hegemonic …

Cycliadas

(108 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Κυκλιάδας; Kykliádas). Strategos of the Achaean League in 209 and 200 BC, as an exponent of the Macedon-friendly faction, he supported  Philippus V in 209 against Elis (Liv. 27,31,10), but adroitly rejected his offer of help against  Nabis in 200 (Liv. 31,25,3; 9f.; [1. 165-168]). Banished after the change toward Rome (Liv. 32,19,2; [2. 40f.]), C. was at the disposal of the king as an envoy to T.  Quinctius Flamininus in Nicaea (198) (Pol. 18,1,2; Liv. 32,32,10) and after the defeat of Cynoscephalae (197) (Pol. 18,34,4). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 …

Teuta

(355 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τεύτα/ Teúta, also Teutana, cf. Flor. Epit. 1,21; Illyrian title: 'queen' [1. 93]). From 232/1 BC ruler, as the widow of Agron [3] and regent for her step-son Pinnes, of a confederation of Illyrian tribes (Cass. Dio fr. 49,3; [2. 41, 68]). T.'s pirate-like attacks on the coasts of Epirus, Acarnania and even the western Peloponnesus unsettled the Greek cities there as well as Italic merchants in the Adriatic. In 231/0 T. (with the help of Scerdilaedas) raided Phoenice, Corcyra [1] and Epidamnos (Dyrrhachium), defeated an …

Theophiliscus

(44 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεοφιλίσκος; Theophilískos). Rhodean admiral, who won a victory for a Rhodean-Pergamene alliance against Philippus [7] V at Chios in 201 BC, in which he was mortally wounded (Pol. 16,2-9; [1. 118-120]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, 1984.

Lycortas

(206 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Λυκόρτας; Lykórtas) of Megalopolis, son of Thearidas (Syll.3 626), father of the historian Polybius, leading statesman of the Achaeans in c. 190-168 BC: in 192 hípparchos (Liv. 35,29,1), in 184 and 182 stratēgós, who in 182 brought Messenia and Sparta back into the league (Pol. 2,40,2-6; 22,9f.; 12,8; 23,16f.) [1. 124]. Like Philopoemen, L. was an exponent of limited resistance to Rome's imposition of its will, and he defended Achaean autonomy in Rome (in 189), before Roman envoys in Greece (in 185/4) and befo…

Maharbal

(278 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(* Mhrbl = ‘servant of Bl’; Greek Μαάρβας/ Maárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander (?) Carthaginian commander of dubious historicity, who is supposed to have outsmarted rebellious Libyans by means of doped wine and defeated them (Frontin. Str. 2,5,12; cf. Polyaenus, Strat. 5,10,1; [1. 193f.]).…

Genthius

(254 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Γένθιος; Génthios). King of the  Labeates c. 181-168 BC, allegedly a drunkard and fratricide (Pol. 29,13; Liv. 44,30,2-5); he also supposedly encouraged the activitie…

Brachylles

(96 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βραχύλλης; Brachýllēs). From Thebes, son of  Neon, firm supporter of the pro-Macedonian party in Boeotia; in 222 BC royal commissioner of  Antigonus Doson in Sparta, ally and confidant of Philip V in the 2nd Macedonian War (Pol. 18,1,2; 20,5,12) [1. 50-51]; when released from captivity by  Flamininus, B. was elected  boeotarch in 197/6, and that so unsettled the pro-Romans in  Zeuxippus' en…

Archedamus

(119 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Aetolian, commander of the Aetolian Federation 191/0, 188/7, 182/1 and 175/4 BC (IG IV 12 1 p. LI) [1. 993, 132, 151]; as leader of the Aetolian unit in the 2nd Macedonian War, played a significant role with  Flamininus in the victory of Cynoscephalae (Pol. 21,5; cf. Liv. 32,4,2) [1. 59-60]. As at times moderate, at times radical opponent…

Zenicetes

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ζηνικέτης; Zēnikétēs). Lycian/Isaurian pirate chieftain, defeated during P. Servilius [I 27] Vatia Isauricus' campaign in 77 BC, with Z. being killed in his own house in Olympus [11]  (Str. 14,5,7) [1. 216 f.; 2. 259-263, 226]. Piracy Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. A. Ormerod, Piracy in the Ancient World, 1924 …

Onomastus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ὀνόμαστος/ Onómastos). Confidant and official of Philippus V [1. 109f.], as governor in Thrace in 185/4 BC he and Cassander actuated a bloody raid by the Thracians on pro-Roman Maronea [1] (Pol. 22,13,3-7; Liv. 39,34,2), which, however, Philippus protected from being handed over to Rome (Pol. 22,14,1-5; Liv. 39,34,6-10). In the Demetrius [5] high treason affair O. probably advised rigour (Liv. 40,8,4-6; cf. 16,1-3).…

Alexamenus

(83 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀλεξαμενός; Alexamenós). From Calydon, strategos of the Aetolians 197/6 BC, organized at the bidding of  Flamininus the murder of  Brachylles (Pol. 18,43,11) [1. 56]. He was supposed to topple the regime in Sparta in 192 and murdered  Nabis, but, intent on looting, neglected the new political order and was …

Pausistratus

(177 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παυσίστρατος; Pausístratos). P. from Rhodes, admiral energetically active in the second of the Macedonian Wars and in the Syrian War o…

Philopoemen

(462 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φιλοποίμην/ Philopoímēn). Son of Craugis from Megale Polis, 253-182 BC, prominent Achaean statesman, instigator of a 'limited resistance' against Rome [1. 112-127]; idealized by Polybius [2] and celebrated into the Roman Imperial Period as the 'last of the Greeks' and last champion of liberty (Paus. 8,52,6; Plut. Philopoemen 1,7), more recently criticized for his 'doctrinaire patriotism' [2. 227; 3. 51]. P.'s lofty reputation depended on his numerous military successes achieved as hípparchos and stratēgós of the Achaean League (209 and from 208/7 on;…

Lattabus

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Λάτταβος; Láttabos). Aetolian who jointly with Nicostratus (and Dorimachus) attacked the Boeotians in 220 BC at their confederate festival (Pol. 9,34,11; cf. 4,3,5), probably identical with the epigraphically attested Naupactian (?) L., son of Strombichus and brother of a Nicostratus; not identical with the stratēgós Lattamus, son of Bucatieus (s. Syll.3 539,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Echedemus

(72 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἐχέδημος; Echédēmos). Prominent Athenian from Cydathenaeum [1. 189-193], tried in vain in 190 BC to mediate between the Aetolians and the Romans, i.a. with P. Cornelius Scipio (Pol. 21,4-5; Liv. 37,6; 7) [2. 277-288], and in 185/4 contributed decisively to the reorganization of the Delphian  amphictyony [3. 213]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 C. Habicht, Studien zur Gesch. Athens in hell. Zeit, 1982 2 P. Pantos, E., the Second Attic Phoibos, in: Hesperia 58, 1989 3 Habicht.

Amynander

(149 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀμύνανδρος; Amýnandros, also Ἀμυνᾶς; Amynâs). King of  Athamania since 220(?) or c. 205 BC (Pol. 4,16,9; Syll.3 565; Welles 35; Moretti II 94), usually allied with the Aetolians, he received  Zacynthus (Liv. 36,31,11-12) [1. 405] from Philip V for his neutrality in 207/6; in the second Macedonian War on the Roman side (Pol. 16,27,4; 18,1,3; 36,3; 47,13;) [1. 420-425; 2. 1-8]; in 198/8  Flamininus sent him as envoy to Rome (18,10,7) [3. 253 f.]. In 192/1 allied with  Antiochus, as he hoped to see…

Volux

(68 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Son of the Moorish king Bocchus [1]. In 106 BC in the Romans' war with his brother-in-law Iugurtha, he took L.Cornelius [I 90] Sulla to Bocchus, who thereby indicated his change of sides. The dramatic description of this risky mission in Sallustius [II 3] (Sall. Iug. 101,5; 105-107), which shows V. as an unreliable cowardly 'barbarian', can probably be traced to Sulla's memoirs. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Pleuratus

(299 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πλευράτος/ Pleurátos). [German version] [1] Illyrian king c. 200 BC Illyrian king, son of Scerdilaedas and from 212 (?) BC his co-regent [1. 256]; nephew of Agron [3]. He ensured his autocracy over the southern Illyrian tribes from 206 onwards by means of an alliance with Rome in the first (Pol. 10,41,4; Liv. 26,24,9; 27,30,13; 28,5,7; 29,12,14) [2. 298-302] and the second of the Macedonian Wars (Pol. 21,11,7; 21,21,3; Liv. 31,28,1f) [2. 302-306], for which in 196 he received the cities of Lychnis (moder…

Barcids

(206 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαρκαῖοι; Barkaîoi). Relatives of  Hamilcar Barcas (Punic hbrq, brk:, Greek Βάρκας, Lat. Barcas, Boccor) ‘Lightning’ [1. 220-221], one of the most prominent families of Carthage, which traced itself back to  Dido (Sil. Pun. 1,71-77) [1.76]. From 237 BC Hamilcar provided the B. with a solid power base, after the (re-?) conquest of Hispania [2. 271-273; 3. 26]; until the withdrawal of  Mago, the last Carthaginian general of Iberia, in the year 206 (Liv. 28,36-37; App. Hisp. 37,151) [3. 40…

Cleuas

(53 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Κλεύας; Kleúas). Macedonian officer of  Perseus; as garrison commander of  Phanote (Epeirus) in the year 169 BC equally successful against Ap.  Claudius [I 4] Centho as subsequently at  Antigonea [4], where C. jointly with the Epirote general Philostratus forced the Romans back to Illyria (Liv. 43,21,5; 23,1-5). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Spendius

(95 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σπένδιος/ Spéndios). Campanian slave who defected to Carthage in the 1st Punic War. In 241 BC, he and Mathos led the insurgent army in the so-called Mercenaries' War. He was known for his strength and courage (Pol. 1,69,4-7) more than for his revolutionary thinking (cf. [1. 95, 107 f.]). After his initial military successes, he was defeated several times, had his army pursue Hamilcar [3], surrendered near Prion and was executed in 238 at Tynes/Tunis (Pol. 1,86,4; [2. 259 f., 263-265]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 L. Loreto, La grande insurrez…

Nicodamus

(35 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Νικόδαμος/ Nikódamos). Aetolian, whose brave attack on the Romans besieging Ambracia in 189 BC failed because Nicander [2], contrary to expectations, failed to arrive with reinforcements (Liv. 38,5,6-10; 38,6,5-7). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Aristaenus

(106 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] From Megalopolis, exponent of the extremely pro-Roman party in the Achaean Confederation and opponent of  Philopoemen (Pol. 24,11-13; Plut. Phlp. 17,4-5 [1. 109-115]; strategos of the federation in 198/7, 195 and 186/5 BC; initiated in 198 in Sicyon the decisive changeover to the Romans (Pol. 18,13,8-10; Liv. 32,19,5-23,3) [1. 40-45] and persuaded in 197 the Boeotians to form an alliance with the Romans (Liv. 33,2,4). A. agitated in 195 against the Aetolians and Nabis (Liv. 34,34,24), in 186 against th…

Indibilis

(174 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀνδοβάλης; Andobálēs). Tribal prince of the  Ilergetes; he and his brother  Mandonius were omnis Hispaniae principes (Liv. 27,17,3); As an ally of the Carthaginians in the 2nd Punic War, I. was captured by the Romans in 218 BC (Pol. 3,76,6f.), and in 211 was involved in the victory of  Hasdrubal [3] and  Mago over P.  Cornelius [I 68] Scipio (Liv. 25,34,6-9) [1. 319]. After reprisals on the part of  Hasdrubal [5] and courted by P.  Cornelius [I 71] Scipio, he went over to the Romans (Pol. 9,11;…

Balari

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαλαροί; Balaroí). Rapacious mountain people in Sardinia (Str. 5,225; Plin. HN 3,85). The B. were supposedly descendants of Iberian and Libyan mercenaries, who had deserted from Carthaginian service (Paus. 10,17,9); participated in the rebellion of the neighbouring  Ilienses against the Romans in 178 BC and defeated the consul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Liv. 41,6,12) in 177.   Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Hasdrubal

(991 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( zrbl = ‘Help is Bl’; Ἀσδρούβας/ Asdroúbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian field marshal in the 1st Punic War, 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian field marshal in the First Punic War. Together with  Bostar [1] he was defeated near Adys by the Roman invasion troops of consul M.  Atilius [I 21] Regulus in 256 BC, under  Xanthippus he probably took part in the victory near Tynes in 255 (Pol. 1,30; 32; Diod. Sic. 23,11) [1. 48, 264 and 132, 751] and from 251 he was active i.a. in Sicily with 140 elephants, until he suffer…

Pamphilidas

(62 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παμφιλίδας/ Pamphilídas) from Rhodes. A cautious admiral, and willing to seek peace, in the war against Antiochus [5] III. (Pol. 21,7,6-7; 21,10,5; cf. Liv. 37,2,9; 37,19,1). He was in action on the Carian coast in 190 BC, together with Eudamus [2], and played a leading role in the naval victory over Hannibal [4] off Side (Liv. 37,22,3; 37,24,9). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Abantidas

(64 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀβαντίδας; Abantídas). Son of Paseas and related through marriage to the family of  Aratus [2] (tyrant of Sicyon 264-252 BC); having come to power due to the murder of the tyrant Cleinias, he was killed by Deinias and the otherwise unknown dialectician Aristoteles (Plut. Arat. 2,2; 3,4; Paus. 2,8,2) [1. 394]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967.

Hampsicora

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] High-ranking Sardinian, who in 215 BC, along with his son Hostus, acted as organizer and military leader of the revolt by Sardinian tribes against the Roman rulership. H. received only insufficient Carthaginian assistance through  Hasdrubal [4] and killed himself after a devastating defeat against T.  Manlius Torquatus (Liv. 23,32,7-10; 40,3-41,6). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography Huss, 348f.

Telemnastus

(70 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τηλέμναστος; Tēlémnastos) from Gortyn. Cretan mercenary leader, who supported Philopoemen against Nabis in 192 BC (IG IV2 244,3 f.; Pol. 33,16,1; 33,16,6). In the third Macedonian War T. was the ambassador of Perseus [2] taking his request to Antiochus [6] IV for diplomatic or military aid in the spring of 168 BC (Pol. 29,4,8-10; Liv. 44,24,1-7; cf. [1. 167 f.]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 E. Olshausen, Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten, 1974.

Bomilcar

(191 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Bdmlqrt?; Βορμίλκας; Bormílkas i.a.). [German version] [1] Carthaginian strategos, 310-308 BC Carthaginian strategos 310-308 BC, nephew of  Hamilcar; shared the supreme command with Hanno against  Agathocles, the first occasion that the command had been shared (Diod. Sic. 20,10; 12); executed after an attempted coup (?) (Diod. Sic. 20,44; Just. Epit. 22,7 [1. 16-18]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian emissary to Athens, 330/300 BC Carthaginian emissary to Athens c. 330/300 BC (IG II/III2 1, 1418), probably identical with B. [1] [2. 194123]. Gü…

Mathos

(178 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μάθως/ Máthōs). Libyan, Carthaginian officer in the First Punic War in Sicily, 241-238/7 BC. With Spendius leader of the 70,000(?) insurgents in the Mercenaries' War, which M. propagandised among the Libyans and Numidians as a freedom fight against Carthage. M. besieged and conquered Hippo [5], besieged Carthage and for a long time defended himself in his operational base at Tunes until, after vicissitudinous battles, the joined forces of Hamilcar [3] and Hanno [6] were finally ab…

Phaeneas

(185 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φαινέας; Phainéas) from Arsinoe. Strategos of the Aetolian League in 198/7 and 192/1 BC (Aetolians, with map), who in vain presented to T. Quinctius Flamininus in the second of the  Macedonian Wars Aetolian demands against Philippus [7] V (in 198: Pol. 18,2,6; 4,3; Liv. 32,32,11; 33,8; 34,2-3; in 197: Pol. 18,37,11f.; 38,3-7) and later in the escalating conflict with the Romans firmly represented a moderate position (in 192: Liv. 35,4,41; 35,45,2-5) [1. 73-75, 102]. As strategos he completed with M'. Acilius [I 10] Glabrio (who later confiscated a piec…

Myttones

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μυττόνης/ Myttónēs, Pol.; Μοττόνης/ Mottónēs, Syll.3 585,87; Muttines, Liv.). Senior Carthaginian officer of Libyo-Phoenician origin from Hippo [5], whom Hannibal [4] sent to Sicily in 212 BC to support Epicydes [2] and Hanno [9]. He fought with success there against the Romans, but in 210, after being slighte…

Demotikon

(201 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Modern word formation to describe a name component of a full Greek citizen: apart from the person's name (e.g., Δημοσθένης/ Dēmosthénēs) and the father's name (genitive, e.g., Δημοσθένους/ Dēmosthénous), the demotikon indicates origin from a   dḗmos [2], a local unit of a   pólis (e.g., Paianieús, ‘from the deme Paeania’) and was primarily used in epigraphic contexts, i.e. in texts directed at the public. In Attica the demotikon became customary after the political elevation of the dḗmoi by  Cleis…

Theaedetus

(120 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεαίδητος; Theaídētos) from Rhodes, father of Astymedes [1. 1552], significant moderately Rome-friendly statesman [2. 185, 188]; in the peace treaty of Apamea [2] (Antiochus [5] III) with Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso in 189 BC he and Philophron had achieved i.a. the apportionment of Lycia (Lycii) to Rhodes (Pol. 22,5,2; [1. 85; 3. 182]). T. was about 80 years old when he travelled to Rome as naúarchos in the spring of 167 to effect a new alliance, but died there (Pol. 30,5,1-10; 30,21 f.; Liv. 45,25,7-10; [1. 139, 155-158; 4. 200-202]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) B…

Ethnikon

(167 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Modern term, from ἐθνικός/ ethnikós, ‘belonging to an éthnos’; ethnic). Scholarly term in epigraphy for the designation of origin of a person mentioned outside his native polis or region. The ethnikon (cf. Str. 14,2,18) identifies affiliation with the inhabitants of a particular polis (e.g.,

Magonus

(46 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μάγωνος; Mágōnos), more correctly: Mago [1. 188,1113], Carthaginian councillor in the army of Hannibal [4]. In 215 BC he took the oath on the Carthaginian-Macedonian treaty (Pol. 7,9,1). M.'s identification with Mago [7] is contentious [1. 14,53].…

Machanidas

(131 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μαχανίδας/ Machanídas, cf. Syll.3 551). As the guardian of Pelops, dictator in Sparta from 211(?) to 207 BC (Liv. 27,29,9: tyrannus Lacedaemoniorum; [1. 408; 2. 65]); active opponent of the Achaeans who were allied with Philippus V in the First Macedonian War; conquered Tegea in 209 and …

Astymedes

(122 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Rhodian, son of the nauarch Theaedeton (Inscr. Lindos 216f) [1. 1524; 2. 18825], supported Rhodian military aid in the 3rd Macedonian war as a representative of the friends of Rome (Pol. 27,7,3) [2. 187; 3. 183], in 167-166 BC he defended Rhodes' stance in Rome with explanations that were sharply criticized by Polybius (30,4-5,22; Liv. 45,22-24; Diod. Sic. 31,5,1) [1. 22-23, 153; 2. 206; 3. 197], but only regained amicitia in 164 with a more humble speech (Pol. 31,6,1. 7) [1. 160-161; 3. 205-211]. As a nauarch in the Rhodian-Cretan war he on…

Halcyoneus

(53 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἁλκυονεύς/ Halkyoneús or Ἀλκυονεύς/ Alkyoneús). Son of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, to whom he brought the head of his fallen archrival  Pyrrhus in Argos in 272 BC; rebuked by his father as a barbarian, H. treated Pyrrhus' son Helenus honourably (Plut. Pyrrhus 34; Plut. Mor. 119C; Ael. VH 3,5). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Morzius

(86 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μόρζιος; Mórzios) of Gangra, prince of (south) Paphlagonia (Str. 12,562,41). As an alleged ally of Antiochus [5] III, like Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia, M. supported the Celts against Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso (Liv. 38,26,4) in 189 BC. Around 182/180 Pharnaces of Pontus plundered M.'s territory and in 179 had to pay him compensation as part of the peace treaty with the main enemy, Eumenes [3] II of Pergamon (Pol. 25,2,5;9). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography J. Hopp, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der letzten Attaliden, 1977, 46.

Mandonius

(134 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Iberian. Like his brother Indibilis, together with whom he is mostly mentioned, he was a prince of the Ilergetes; in the 2nd Punic War he changed sides several times as an ally initially of the Carthaginians and then of the Romans: he joined P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio in 208 BC, because of the good treatment the latter had given to M.'s wife and relatives who had been taken hostage (Pol. 10,18,7-15; 35,6-8; Liv. 26,49,11-16; 27,17,3). Later he was received back into the alliance w…

Sufetes

(140 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Punic sptm = 'judge'; Latin sufetes). Highest-ranking functionaries of the civil administration in Punic and probably also in Libyan and Sardo-Punic cities [1. 461, 467 note 7, 470, 473 note 58]. From at least the 6th cent. BC, sufetes are also attested in Carthage [1. 458-460; 2. 69 note 10], where (instead of the usual two) there is occasionally evidence of four sufetes. In addition to certain religious duties, it fell to the sufetes to control judicial and financial affairs and pre…

Micythion

(132 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μικυθίων; Mikythíōn) from Chalcis [2], son of Mikylion (Syll.3 585, 235f.), an influential friend of the Romans, who in the years 198-192 BC stopped a pro-Aetolian or a pro-Seleucid movement in Chalcis but then had to flee before the Seleucid king Antiochus [5] III. (Liv. 35,38,1-12; 46,9-13; 50,10; 51,4; 6; Diod. 29,1) [1. 81-84; 130]. He returned after the Roman victory and continued to be part of the principes (compare IG XII 9,904).In 179/8 BC he acted as próxenos in Delphi (Syll.3 585,235f.). In 170 BC, in spite of his great age and …

Diaeus

(208 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Δίαιος; Díaios) of Megalopolis; a radical opponent of Rome, strategos of the Achaeans in 150/49, 148/7, and 146 BC. In 146 BC, D., together with  Critolaus led the league into catastrophe (Pol. 38,10,8; 18,7-12) [1. 127, 228]. Following a dispute with Menalcidas of Sparta over bribery and capital jurisdiction, D. travelled to Rome in 149/8, wh…

Morcus

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μόρκος/ Mórkos). Illyrian. In 169 BC, he and Parmenion were sent to Dion as envoys from Genthius to Perseus to conclude the Illyrian-Macedonian alliance against Rome. In 168 BC, he took part in Metrodorus's [4] negotiations on Rhodes (Pol. 29,3,9; 29,11,1-6; Liv. 44,23,4f.). Macedonian Wars Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography …

Acesimbrotus

(57 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀκεσίμβροτος; Akesímbrotos, Latin Acesimbrotus). Rhodian nauarch in the second Macedonian War, in 199 BC supported the Romans with 20 ships at the conquest of Oreos (Liv. 31,46,6; 47,2) and represented Rhodian interests 198/7 in the negotiations between  Flamininus and  Philip V (Pol. 18,1,4; 2,3) [1. 70]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography

Thebe

(258 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Θήβη/ Thḗbē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Iason [2], 4th cent. BC Daughter of Iason [2] of Pherae; her name refers to Jason's former polit…

Eudamus

(218 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Εὔδαμος; Eúdamos). [German version] [1] Macedonian general under Alexander the Gr. Macedonian general ( dux Thracium in Curt. 10,1,21), appointed in 323 BC by Alexander [4] the Great as military commander together with Taxiles (Arr. Anab. 6,27,2). He slew Porus and took 120 elephants west when he followed the call of Eumenes [1] together with other eastern satraps in 317 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,14). He fought under Eumenes and was killed together with him by Antigonus [1] (Diod. Sic. 19,27-44). According to Bernard, the so-called Porus coins perhaps go back to …

Polyaratus

(210 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πολυάρατος/ Polyáratos). [German version] [1] Rich Athenian official c. 400 BC Rich ([Demosth.] Or. 40,24) Athenian from Cholargus (IG I3 375,21), first mentioned in 410/409 BC ( ibid., l. 20 f.) as próhedros of the

Hanno

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] [1] King (suffete) ‘King’ (suffete) of Carthage, probably in the early 5th cent. BC, only known for his sea expedition along the western coast of Africa intended to create and secure Carthaginian colonies. It led from the ‘Columns of Hercules’ (Straight of Gibraltar) to the island of Kerne (near modern Mauretania?), and ─ for the purpose of discovering passages ─ further to the Bay of Notou Keras (‘Horn of the Southern Wind’, modern Cameroon?). References to H.'s voyage begin to appear in the 3rd cent. BC (Aristot. Mir. 833a 11), esp. in Mela (3,90; 93)…

Andriscus

(174 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀνδρίσκος; Andrískos). [German version] [1] (Pseudophilippos) the Macedonian; king Philippus VI (149-148 BC) (Pseudo-Philippus) from Adramyttium, incited 153 BC a rebellion in Syria as alleged son of  Perseus and was handed over by  Demetrius I to the Romans, but he fled and 151 arrived at Pergamum, where he came into possession of a diadem, in an ominous way, before he sought restoration of the Antigonid throne from Thrace with the help of his ‘relative’ Teres; 149 in Pella he was named king (Philip VI), 1…

Anaxidamus

(122 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἀναξίδαμος; Anaxídamos). [German version] [1] Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war According to Paus. 3,7,6 and 4,15,3 Spartan king, Eurypontid, whose reign together with the Agiad Anaxander fell in the time of the second Messenian War. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Achaean, subcommander in 207 BC Achaean, subcommander of  Philopoemen in 207 BC at Mantinea against  Machanidas (Pol. 11,18,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] Achaean (middle of 2nd cent. BC) A. from Megalopolis, Achaean envoy to Rome in 164 and 155/4 (Po…

Dasius

(188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Messapic name in Lat. form (Schulze, 39, 44; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Respected bearers of that name in Apulia (in particular from Arpi and Sala) were still anti-Roman during the Second Punic War. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1] Commander of Clastidium against Hannibal D. from Brundisium, in 218 BC commander of the allied occupation forces of  Clastidium with large Roman stores which he betrayed to Hannibal after the victory at the Ticinus for 400 pieces of gold (Pol. 3,69; Liv. 21,48). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Leader of the pro-Carthaginian p…

Xenocleides

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ξενοκλείδης/ Xenokleídēs). [German version] [1] Corinthian naval commander, 5th cent. BC Corinthian. One of five naval commanders sent by Corinth against Corcyra in 433 BC (Thuc. 1,46,2). The fleet achieved a partial victory near the Sybota islands (Thuc. 1,47-54; Diod. 12,33,3 f.). On the return voyage X. captured Anactorium on the Gulf of Ambracia and occupied the town with Corinthian settlers (Thuc. 1,55,1). In 426/5 BC X. led 300 hoplites in defence of Ambracia (Thuc. 3,114,4). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984, 318 K.-W. Wel…

Hegesilochus

(145 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἡγεσίλοχος; Hēgesílochos). [German version] [1] Rhodian, middle of 4th cent. BC Rhodian, exploited the conflict between Rhodes and Athens ( Social Wars [1]) in 356/5 BC, in order to take over power in Rhodes at the head of an oligarchical clique with the support of  Maussollos of Caria. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, 1984, 31, with n. 41 (sources and bibliography). [German version] [2] Rhodian prytanis and envoy, 2nd cent. BC (also: Ἀγησίλοχος; Agēsílochos). Son of Hagesias, Rhodian, moderate friend of Rome, who as prytanis (17…

Pyrrhus

(1,260 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πύρρος/ Pýrr(h)os). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia See Neoptolemus [1] Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Athens, c. 430 BC Bronze sculptor from Athens. A base bearing P.' signature of a larger than life-size statue on the Athenian Acropolis is dated to c. 430-420 BC and connected with a record of an Athena Hygieia constructed by order of Pericles [1]. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 904-906; 869  A. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 166  L. Guerrini, s.v. Pyrrhos (3), EAA 6, 1965, 573. [German version] [3] King of Epirus, 306-302 and 297-272 BC, and of Macedonia 288-284 King of the Molossi in Epirus 306-302 and 297-272 BC; king of Macedonia 288-284. Born 319/8; son of Aeacides [2] and the Thessalian Phthia (Plut. Pyrrhus 1,7); banished as a child, he was brought up by Glaucias [2], who returned him to Epirus in 306 (ibid. 2,1-3,5). In 302, P. fled from Cassander [1. 10…

Critolaus

(280 words)

Author(s): Sharples, Robert (London) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Κριτόλαος). [German version] [1] Of Phaselis, peripatetic head of school of Phaselis, peripatetic head of a school in the 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC [1; 2] and one of the most important peripatetic philosophers of the period between  Straton and  Andronicus [4] (Testimonies in [3]). He accompanied  Carneades and  Diogenes [15] of Babylon in 156/5 BC in the philosphers' delegation to Rome. C. defended the Aristotelian theories of the eternity of the World and the fifth element (of which he assumed the s…

Meton

(340 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Μέτων; Métōn). [German version] [1] Son of Empedokles, who won a victory at Olympia in 496BC Meton came from Acragas, he was the son of one Empedocles who won a victory at Olympia in 496BC, and father of the famous philosopher Empedocles [1]. After the overthrow of the tyrant Thrasydaeus in 472/1 Meton was a highly regarded figure in Akragas (Diog. Laert. 8,51-53; 8,72 = Diels/Kranz 31 A 1; Suda s.v. Empedokles = Diels/Kranz 31 A 2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] From Athens, Astronomer und Geometrist end of. 4th cent.BC Astronomer and geometrist from Athens, son of Pausanias. At the end of. 5th cent BC, next to Euctemon, he played a leading role…

Agron

(193 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἄγρων; Ágrōn). [German version] [1] Mythical figure: inhabitant of Cos Lived with his father Eumelus and his two sisters Meropis and Byssa on the island of Cos. They worshipped only Gaia, rejected the cult of the other gods and sc…

Archon

(211 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] [1] Macedonian officer, Satrap of Babylonia (2nd half 4th cent. BC) Macedonian officer in the army of  Alexander [4], in 326 BC one of the triarchoi of the fleet on the  Hydaspes, prior to Alexander's death satrap of Babylonia, where he stayed on after the reorganization of Babylon (Diod. Sic. 18,3,3). Soon after, however,  Perdiccas sent  Docimus as his successor. A. was killed in the fight against him (Arr. succ. FGrH 156 F 10). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 103. [German version] [2] Achaean strategos (1st half of the 2nd cent. BC) Of Aegira, br…

Nestor

(1,290 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
(Νέστωρ; Néstōr). [German version] [1] Son of Nesleus Important figure in Greek mythology, particularly in the legend of the Trojan War. N. represents the aging warrior who has lost some of his former physical strength but due to his wealth of experience fulfills an important function in the group of leaders and in the Greek army. N. is the son of Neleus (thus his fixed epithet Neleid [Νηλεΐδης; Nēleΐdēs]) and of Chloris [4]. He has two brothers by the names of Chromius and Periclymenus, who are of no mythological significance, and a sister Pero who appears to h…

Aratus

(2,847 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Ἄρατος; Áratos). [German version] [1] Legendary figure in the early history of Sparta Legendary figure in the early history of Sparta. According to Just. Epit. 3,4,8, in the first Messenian War A. sent the younger soldiers back to their homes, where they had intercourse with all the women and thus ensured the growth of the Spartan population. The so-called  Partheniae conceived in this way, later founded Tarentum under  Phalanthas, the son of A. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Sikyonian leader of the Achaean League (245-213 Bc) Sicyonian, 271-213 BC, between 245 an…

Perseus

(1,751 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Περσεύς; Perseús). [1] Son of Danae and Zeus, Argive hero [German version] I. Mythology Son of Danae and Zeus, who impregnates her in the form of a shower of gold; grandson of Acrisius, the king of Argos, and Eurydice. Because of an oracle predicting that the son of his daughter will kill him, Acrisius sets Danae and P. adrift at sea in a chest. Mother and son are washed ashore in Seriphus and found and taken in by Dictys [1]. When Polydectes, the brother of Dictys and king of Seriphus, wishes to marry Danae…

Lyciscus

(327 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυκίσκος; Lykískos). [German version] [1] Governor of Epirus, late 4th cent. BC Appointed governor of Epirus by Cassander in 316 BC after the Epirotes had banished their king Aeacides [2] and joined Cassander there. After the synoecism of the eastern Acarnanians, he was ordered to protect them against the Aetolians. Aeacides returned and caused Epirus to rebel ag…

Lysandridas

(147 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυσανδρίδας; Lysandrídas). [German version] [1] Spartan military commander, 4th cent. BC (Plut.: Λυσανορίδας; Lysanorídas). Spartan, one of the three harmostai of the Spartan occupation in Thebes, who could not prevent this polis from being liberated by Pelopidas in 379 BC. L. was condemned to a big fine in Sparta and left the Peloponnese (Plut…

Deinocrates

(705 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt)
(Δεινοκράτης; Deinokrátēs). [German version] [1] Of Syracuse. Took part in the battle against Agathocles [2] shortly after 316 BC Of Syracuse. Spared as a friend of  Agathocles [2] at the latter's seizure of power in 316 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,8,6), he soon became the leader of the exiles and of all opponents of Agathocles, took many towns in Sicily and fought with the Carthaginians against the tyrant (19,103f.). In 309 he marched with Hamilcar against Syracuse (20,29,5), and after the death of Hamilcar he was elected strategos by the exiles and the rest of the Greeks (20,31,2); when …

Adherbal

(236 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
(drbl; Greek Ἀτάρβας; Atárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian general, 307 BC Successful general at the defence of Carthage against  Agathocles in 307 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,59; 61) [1. 9]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 [1. 9-10], successful in battle against the Romans in 250 at  Lilybaeum and in 249 at the defence of Drepana (Pol. 1,46; 49-51). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] Carthaginian ship commander under  Mago Carthaginian ship commander und…

Phileas

(199 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Φιλέας; Philéas). [German version] [1] Of Athens, Greek geographer, middle of the 5th cent. BC Greek geographer from Athens (cf. Marcianus, Epitome peripli Menippei 2 = GGM 1, 565; Avien. 43f.), middle of the 5th cent. BC. His 13 directly preserved fragments have not been edited (sources and contents: [1. 2134f.]). As probably the first Attic successor to the early Ionian periegesis (P…

Epicydes

(179 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἐπικύδης; Epikýdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Euphemides of Athens c. 480 BC Son of Euphemides of Athens. In 480 BC, he ran for the office of strategos but  Themistocles supposedly bribed him into withdrawing his candidacy (Plut. Themist. 6; Mor. 185A). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Confidant of Hannibal Brother of Hippocrates, grandson of Arcesilaus, a Syracusian exile in Carthage. E. grew up in Carthage as the son of a Carthaginian woman (Pol. 7,2; Liv. 24,6; Iust. 22,8). He was a confidant of Hannibal and, in 214 BC, achieved the Carthaginian-Syracusian alliance with  Hieronymus, for whom he became advisor and general. In 213, he prevented a possible re-emergence of a pro-Roman line in Syracuse in the midst of the turmoil following the assassination of the king, and secured his position of power with the aid of Cretan mercenaries and others (Pol. 7,4-5; Liv. 24,29-33). During the Roman conquest of Syracuse, he fled to Acragas in 212, and after its fall in 211, to North Africa (Liv. 25,24; 27; 26,40) [1. …
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