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Neo-Chalcedonism

(522 words)

Author(s): Gahbauer, Ferdinand R.
[German Version] In the theological ferment between the Council of Chalcedon in 451 and the Council of Constantinople in 553 (Constantinople: IV, 2), A. v. Harnack and F. Loofs saw a struggle between Western and Syro-Egyptian Christology (II, 1.c). Mid-20th-century students of the history of dogma rediscovered neo-Chalcedonism as a fruitful field of study. The term was coined by Joseph Lebon in 1909. The christological decisions of Chalcedon resulted in a schism and the formation of pre-Chalcedonian national churches, which followed the formula of Cyril of Alexandria, “one phýsis o…

Nicephorus of Constantinople, Saint

(192 words)

Author(s): Gahbauer, Ferdinand R.
[German Version] The vita of Nicephorus by Ignatius the Deacon (9th cent.) gives the following biographical information: born c. 750 (date contested), he took part in the Council of Nicea (787) as imperial secretary, and became a monk. In 806 he became patriarch of Constantinople without having been consecrated. He was obliged to abdicate in 815 because of his opposition to the iconoclastic line taken by Emperor Leo V (813–820). He died in exile in 828. His writings are directed against the iconocl…

Benedictines

(987 words)

Author(s): Gahbauer, Ferdinand R.
[German Version] I. Benedictine monasticism regards Benedict of Nursia as its founder and spiritual father. However, he did not want to found an order, but rather, like numerous literates in the Early Church, to live in solitude as a monk. Since, however, people with a similar objective gathered around him, he gave them a rule. II. The dissemination of the Regula Benedicti (RB, Benedict, Rule of Saint) and of Benedictine life did not take place in a linear progression. In the 7th/8th century, various rules determined monastic …

Nikephorus

(183 words)

Author(s): R. Gahbauer, Ferdinand
[English Version] (-os) von Konstantinopel. Aus der von Diakon Ignatios (9.Jh.) vf. Vita des N. ergeben sich folgende Lebensdaten: Geboren um 750 (Datum umstritten), nahm er als kaiserlicher Sekretär am Konzil von Nicaea (787) teil und wurde Mönch. 806 bestieg er den Patriarchenstuhl von Konstantinopel, ohne vorher Weihen erhalten zu haben. Aufgrund seiner Opposition gegen den bilderfeindlichen Kurs des Kaisers Leon V. (813–820) mußte er 815 abdanken. Er starb …

Niketas Seides

(162 words)

Author(s): R. Gahbauer, Ferdinand
[English Version] (2. Hälfte des 11. – 1. Hälfte des 12.Jh.). Der Hoftheologe und Redner beteiligte sich 1112 in Konstantinopel an den Diskussionen zw. dem Mailänder Erzbf. Petrus Chrysolanus und den byz. Hoftheologen über die ost-westlichen Kontroverspunkte. Seine polemischen Schriften richten sich gegen päpstl. Primat, Filioque und Azymen (Azymenstreit). In seiner 1112 vf. 21. Rede (λο´γος κα´/lo´gos ka´) gegen die Lateiner wirft er diesen 32 Irrtümer vor, darunter den päpstl. Primat (erstmals seit 1054). N. vert…

Neuchalcedonismus

(517 words)

Author(s): Gahbauer, Ferdinand R.
[English Version] . Hatten A.v. Harnack und F. Loofs in den theol. Bemühungen zw. dem Konzil von Chalcedon (451) und dem Konzil von Konstantinopel (553; Konstantinopel: IV.,2.) ein Ringen zw. abendländischer und äg.-syr. Christologie (: II.,1., c) gesehen, so haben Dogmenhistoriker in der Mitte des 20.Jh. den N. als Forschungsaufgabe neu entdeckt. Die Bez. N. stammt von Joseph Lebon (1909). Die christologischen Entscheidungen des Konzils von Chalcedon hatten in der weiteren Folge zu einer Kirchenspaltung mit der Bildung von praechalcedonischen National…

Benedict of Nursia, Saint

(195 words)

Author(s): Gahbauer, Ferdinand R.
[German Version] (c. 480, Norcia, Umbria – Mar 21, 547, Monte Cassino; according to some scholars, between 550 and 560) studied liberal arts in Rome, but soon retired into isolation near Affide, c. 60 km east of Rome. Thence, he went to Subiaco (75 km east of Rome), where he lived for three years as a hermit in a cave (today: Sacro Speco

Nicetas Seides

(192 words)

Author(s): Gahbauer, Ferdinand R.
[German Version] (2nd half of the 11th cent. – 1st half of the 12th), rhetorician and theologian at the imperial court. In 1112, he took part in discussions in Constantinople between Archbishop Petrus Chrysolanus of Milan and theologians of the Byzantine court over issues dividing the East and West. His polemical writings attack papal primacy, the Filioque , and the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist. His 21st

Patriarchate, christliche

(2,778 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Gahbauer, Ferdinand | Kraft, Ekkehard
1. Begriff P. bezeichnet im kirchl. Sprachgebrauch den Amtsbezirk eines Patriarchen. Patriarch (griech. patriárchēs – zusammengesetzt aus patḗr, »Vater« und árchein, »Anführer sein«, »herrschen« – bedeutete ursprgl. Sippenoberhaupt bzw. Stammvater) war seit der Spätantike Titel für leitende christl. Geistliche. Bereits auf dem ersten allgemeinen Konzil von Nicäa (325) war eine regionale Struktur der Kirche mit den Zentren Rom, Alexandria und Ant…

Thessalonich

(1,061 words)

Author(s): Brocke, Christoph vom | Gahbauer, Ferdinand R.
[English Version] I. Stadt Hafenstadt am Thermaischen Golf, heute zweitgrößte Stadt Griechenlands. 316/15 v.Chr. von Kassander wohl an der Stelle der Vorgängersiedlung Therme (Ionischer Tempel; 5.Jh. v.Chr.) gegründet und nach seiner Frau Θεσσαλοn̆ι´κη benannt. Die Bevölkerung rekrutierte sich aus den umliegenden Siedlungen (Synoikismos). Teile der ersten Ummauerung sind im Kern der spät-röm.-byz. Befestigung gefunden worden und belegen, daß die Stadt anfangs auf den höher gelegenen Bereich der heutigen Altstadt beschränkt war. 1. In makedonischer Zeit (bis 168 …

Thessalonica

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Brocke, Christoph vom | Gahbauer, Ferdinand R.
[German Version] I. The City A seaport on the Thermian Gulf and today the second largest city in Greece, Thessalonica was founded by Cassander in 316/315 bce, probably on the site of the older city of Therma, and named after his wife Θεσσαλοnίκη. The population was recruited from neighboring settlements ( synoikismos). Portions of the first city walls were discovered within the Late Roman/Byzantine fortifications and indicate that the city was initially confined to the higher ground of what is now the old city. 1 In Macedonian times (up to 168 bce), Thessalonica was a trade port and a naval base (cf. Livy XLIV 6). Excavations on the site brought numerous finds to light, includ…

Church and State

(8,630 words)

Author(s): Thümmel, Hans Georg | Kandler, Karl-Hermann | Klueting, Harm | Oelke, Harry | Valeri, Mark | Et al.
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Law – III. Practical Theology – IV. Systematic Theology I. Church History 1. Early Church The Roman state (Roman Empire) tolerated philosophical atheism and a multitude of cults that flooded in from its conquered territories, but it refused to tolerate rejection of the cult of the official gods ( di publici populi Romani), on which the security of the state was believed to depend. Since Christians refused to participate in this cult, they inevitably came into conflict with the Roman state. Bot…

Mysticism

(17,207 words)

Author(s): Brück, Michael v. | Gordon, Richard L. | Herrmann, Klaus | Dan, Joseph | Köpf, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. The Concept – II. Religious Studies – III. History – IV. Philosophy of Religion – V. Practical Theology – VI. Islamic Mysticism – VII. Hindu Mysticism – VIII. Taoist Mysticism I. The Concept The concept of mysticism is closely linked to the development of the history of religion in Europe and the term must not be taken and applied uncritically as a general term for a phenomenologically determined group of phenomena in o…