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Eastern Churches, Catholic

(410 words)

Author(s): Hardt, Michael
[German Version] The term Catholic Eastern churches refers to those churches that originally belonged to the old Eastern or Orthodox churches. In the process of the Orthodox separation from the Roman Catholic Church, they either remained in communion with the pope or later entered into unions with Rome. They acknowledge the primacy and infallibility of the pope, but have their own church law and celebrate the ¶ liturgy according to the respective Eastern Church rite so that they hardly differ from their Orthodox mother churches. Accordin…

Ostkirchen, katholische

(389 words)

Author(s): Hardt, Michael
[English Version] . Unter kath. O. werden jene Kirchen verstanden, die urspr. zu den altorientalischen oder orth. Kirchen gehörten. Sie verblieben im Prozeß der Trennung der O. von der röm.-kath. Kirche in der Gemeinschaft mit dem Papst bzw. gingen später Unionen mit Rom ein. Sie anerkennen den Primat und die Unfehlbarkeit des Papstes, haben aber ein eigenes Kirchenrecht und feiern die Liturgie nach dem jeweiligen ostkirchl. Ritus, so daß sie sich von ihren orth. Mutterkirchen kaum unterscheiden. …

Peter (the Disciple)

(5,420 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter | Thümmel, Hans Georg | Hardt, Michael
[German Version] I. New Testament 1. The historical figure. Peter, originally called Simon, was born around the turn of the era in a Jewish household in Bethsaida, on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee (John 1:44; Gal 2:14f.); his father’s name was John (John 1:42) or Jonah (Matt 26:17: Simon bar Jonah; the plural bar Yone [“brigands in the wilderness”] as a term for Zealots is not supported by Giṭ. 56ab and does not suggest that Peter had Zealot sympathies). Peter lived in Capernaum with his wife, his mother-in-law, and his brother Andrew all under one roof (Mark 1:16…

Church Unity

(2,522 words)

Author(s): Haustein, Jörg | Brandt, Reinhard | Hardt, Michael
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Theology – III. Ecumenics I. Church History The unity of the church as a theological term does not appear explicitly in the New Testament; it emerged during the early history of the church, although the concept itself is a central NT theme. A further difficulty for a historical presentation is the nature of unity: is it ethical and theological (consensus in faith and conduct; cf. Eph 4:1–6) or juridical and structural (singularity)? The t…

Petrus

(4,493 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter | Thümmel, Hans Georg | Hardt, Michael
[English Version] I. Neues Testament 1.Historische GestaltP., urspr. Simon benannt, wurde um die Zeitenwende in einem jüd. Haus in Bethsaida am Nordufer des Sees Genezareth geboren (Joh 1,44; Gal 2,14f.) als Sohn eines Johannes (Joh 1,42) bzw. eines Jona (Mt 16,17: Barjona; die pluralische Bez. »Barjone« [»Strolche draußen in der Wildnis«] für Zeloten ist nicht vor Git 56ab belegt und kann nicht für zelotische Gesinnung des P. sprechen).In Kapernaum wohnte P. mit Frau, Schwiegermutter und Bruder Andreas unter einem Dach (Mk 1,16–18.29f.); die Familie lebt…