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Thor

(265 words)

Author(s): Harris, Joseph
[German Version] (Donar). The name of this Scandinavian god (Old Nordic Þórr, older Þunarr) is widely attested in other Germanic areas (e.g. Old-Eng. Þunor) and corresponds to words for “thunder” itself. In mythology (Germanic religion), the bluff, red-bearded Thor drives a noisy chariot pulled by two goats and wields the throwing hammer, Mjǫllnir (root connected with lightning and grinding); the early Germanic interpretation of the Roman days of the week associates him with the lightning-wielding Jupiter (Thursday; Jovis dies). He was borrowed into both Finnish and Sámi …

Thor

(276 words)

Author(s): Harris, Joseph
[English Version] (Donar). Der Name des skandinavischen Gottes Th. (alt-nordisch Þórr, älter Þunarr) stimmt mit verschiedenen Worten für »Donner« überein und ist auch in anderen germ. Sprachen (z.B. alt-engl.Þunor) oft belegt. In der Mythologie (germanische Religion) fährt der rotbärtige, grobschlächtige Th. mit einem lärmenden, von zwei Ziegen gezogenen Wagen umher und schwingt seinen Wurfhammer Mjo¸llnir (abgeleitet von der indogerm. Wurzel, gezeigt in slaw. Wörtern für »Blitz«). Die frühe germ.…

Odin

(277 words)

Author(s): Harris, Joseph
[English Version] (altnordisch O´ðinn; dt. Wodan, Wotan) ist der germ. Hauptgott des wikingerzeitlichen Heidentums im Norden und zugleich seine vielseitigste Figur. Odinsmythen handeln u.a. von der Suche nach Weisheit (z.B. Raub des Skaldenmets) oder dem Wissenswettstreit (z.B. mit dem Riesen Vafþru´ðnir). In manchen Mythen muß er schamanenähnliche Qualen leiden (z.B. sich erhängen, um die Runen zu erringen). Als Zauberer betreibt er sogar die den Männern unwürdige Schwarzkunst seiðr. Um Weisheit …

Odin

(306 words)

Author(s): Harris, Joseph
[German Version] (Old Norse Óðinn; Ger. Wodan, Wotan; Eng. also Woden) is the chief Germanic god of northern paganism in the Viking period, and also its most versatile figure. Myths about Odin include the search for wisdom (e.g. theft of the skaldic meal) and knowledge contests (e.g. with the giant Vafþrúðnir). In some myths he has to undergo shaman-like sufferings (e.g. hang himself in order to obtain runes). As a magician he even practices the black art of seiðr, unworthy of men. In order to attain wisdom he sacrifices one eye, and is therefore portrayed as one-eyed. He…

Edda

(850 words)

Author(s): Harris, Joseph
[German Version] I. The name Edda (“great-grandmother”) is applied in one 14th-century Icelandic ms. to the work now know as The Prose Edda ( PrE) or Snorri's Edda. Seventeenth-century Icelandic scholars extended the name to a recently discovered collection like the presumed source of PrE, now known as The Poetic Edda ( PE) or Elder Edda. These two are referred to in studies of myth and religion as the “eddas,” but as an adjective “eddic” designates similar poetry elsewhere in Icelandic literature. II. PE, as it exists in an Icelandic vellum of c. 1…

African-American Reactions to War in Ethiopia, 1936-1941

(74 words)

Author(s): Harris, Joseph E.
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 11: The U…