Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Hartmann, Martina" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Hartmann, Martina" )' returned 36 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Wala

(160 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[English Version] (um 755 – 31.8.836 Bobbio), Bruder Adalhards von Corbie, mit dem zus. er Kloster Corvey/Weser und das Damenstift Herford gründete; Vetter und Berater Karls des Großen, von Ludwig I., dem Frommen 813 verbannt und gezwungen, Mönch in Corbie zu werden; 826–830 Abt von Corbie in der Nachfolge seines Bruders und seit 823 Berater Lothars I.; 830 erneut verbannt, ging W. nach Italien, wo er 833–836 Abt von Bobbio war und Klosterstatuten vf. Paschasius Radbertus, 843/44–851 Abt von Corbie, schrieb seine Vita, das sog. Epitaphium Arsenii. Martina Hartmann Bibliography Quel…

Servatus Lupus

(214 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[English Version] (um 805 – nach Herbst 862), aus westfränkisch-bayerischer Adelsfamilie, von 840 bis zu seinem Tod Abt von Ferrières (Erzbistum Sens), wo er ausgebildet worden war (829–836 Aufenthalt bei Hrabanus Maurus in Fulda); Hofkaplan Karls des Kahlen und sein Berater im Prädestinationsstreit. S. war einer der bedeutendsten Philologen der Karolingerzeit: Sammlung und textkrit. Bearb. antiker Autoren wie Cicero und Sallust, wovon etliche autographe Hsn. zeugen; er gab sein Wissen an Schüler …

Paulinus

(127 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[English Version] (II.), Patriarch von Aquileia seit ca.782 (vor 750 Friaul – 11.1.802 Cividale), kam als berühmter Grammatiker an den Hof Karls des Großen (um 776) und schloß Freundschaft mit Alkuin. Als Theologe bekämpfte er mit Alkuin den span. Adoptianismus und vf. drei Bücher gegen Felix von Urgel (Contra Felicem libri tres, um 800). Auf der Synode von Cividale 796/97 sprach er sich für die Aufnahme des Filioque in das Nicaeno-Constantinopolitanum aus. Bei der Missionierung der Awaren und Slawen…

Walburga, Saint

(155 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (Waldpurga, Walpurgis; c. 710, southern England – Feb 25, 779/790), of the Anglo-Saxon brothers Willibald (bishop of Eichstätt) and Wunibald (abbot of Heidenheim) and related to Boniface. She traveled to the continent in the 830s, possibly with Lioba, and may have lived in Tauber­bischofsheim. After Wunibald’s death, she succeeded him as abbess of the double abbey of Heidenheim, where she encouraged the nun Hugeburc to write the vitae of Willibald and Wunibald. She preserved the memory of her family by rebuilding churches, gathering the remains o…

Hedwig, Saint

(145 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (Duchess of Silesia; 1174/1178, Andechs – Oct 14, 1243, Trzebnica, Poland), canonized by Clement IV in 1267 because of her charitable works (feast day: Oct 16). She was the daughter of the Count of Andechs-Merania, and was married to Duke Henry I of Silesia (c. 1190). Both took a vow of chastity after 20 years of marriage. Hedwig withdrew to the Cistercian convent in Trzebnica in 1202, which she founded, and led an ascetic life. Her cult was maintained both among the Cistercians a…

Corbinian

(180 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (before 700, near Melun – c. 728/730, Freising). The only source is Arbeo's v ita of him. Initially a settler, Corbinian made two journeys to Rome (before 714 and 715/17), during which he was made priest and bishop. In 719/20, after previous contact with Theodo, duke of Bavaria, in Regensburg and establishing relations with the part-duke Grimoald in Freising, he founded a precursor of the monastery of Weihenstephan. When he opposed Grimoald's marriage to his sister-i…

Jonas of Orléans

(180 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (before 780 – 843) was the bishop of Orléans and adviser to the subregent Pippin of Aquitania; he was an adherent of Louis the Pious, who had him elevated to the episcopacy in 818. Jonas authored an important document, De cultu imaginum, in support of the Frankish standpoint in the iconoclastic controversy in opposition to Byzantium and the papacy (Veneration of images: VI). He revised the Merovingian Vita of Saint Hucbert, participated in the writing of the synodal texts of Paris in 825 and 829, and wrote the important princes' guide, De institutione regia, for Pippin of…

Hincmar of Laon

(185 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] Hincmar of Laon, bishop of Laon from 858 to 871 (c. 835/838–879) and the nephew of Hincmar of ¶ Reims, who had him brought up at his court. The conflict with Charles the Bald began in 868, soon followed by that with his uncle. Ostensibly, these conflicts pertained to the church property of Laon, although in reality they had to do with the rights of the suffragans versus the metropolitan. Uncle and nephew exchanged letters and polemics; in the so-called Pittaciolus, Hincmar was the first to quote from the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals. When Hincmar came under sus…

Luxeuil Abbey

(176 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] Luxeuil Abbey, a prominent abbey situated in the borderland between Austrasia and Burgundy, founded around 590 by the Irishman Columbanus and patronized by the Merovingian kings (Merovingians), especially by Chlothar II (from 613). The extensive library and the great scriptorium are first attested under Abbot Walbert (629–670). Luxeuil Abbey fell into decay in the late Merovingian period, only to rise to new (intellectual) heights under the Carolingians, now as a Benedictine abbey. Endowed with rich landholdings ¶ and supervised by influential churchmen su…

Paulinus of Aquileia (Saint)

(137 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (II; before 750, Friuli –Jan 11, 802, Cividale), patriarch of Aquileia from c. 782, came to the court of Charlemagne (c. 776) as a famous grammarian, and became a friend of Alcuin. As a theologian he joined Alcuin in fighting Spanish adoptionism, and wrote three books against Felix of Urgel ( Contra Felicem libri tres, c. 800). At the Synod of Cividale in 796/797 he spoke in favor of adding the Filioque to the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed. In the mission to the Avars and Slavs (Slavic missions), he stressed the priority of Chris…

Lupus of Ferrières

(234 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (c. 805 – after autumn 862), from a west Franconian/Bavarian noble family, was from 840 until his death abbot of Ferrières (archdiocese of Sens), where he had been educated (staying with Rabanus Maurus in Fulda from 829 to 836). He was the court chaplain of Charles the Bald and his adviser in the predestination controversy. Lupus was one of the most important philologists of the Carolingian period: he collected and prepared text-critical editions of ancient authors such as Cicero …

Gregory of Tours, Saint

(272 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (Nov 30, 538 or 539, Clermont – after Jul 4, 593, probably Nov 17 [feast day] 594), with a background in the Romance senatorial nobility, was raised by Bishop Gallus of Clermont, his paternal uncle, after the death of his father. After an illness, he made a vow to become a priest. He was then educated by his maternal uncle, Bishop Nicetius of Lyon, and went to Tours as bishop in 573 to succeed his cousin, Euphronius. He did not have an easy position during the battles between vari…

Columbanus (Saint)

(388 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] ( Columba; c. 543, Ireland – Nov 23, 615, or Nov 21, 616, Bobbio), abbot of Luxeuil and Bobbio. As a senior monk in the monastery of Bangor, Columbanus and 12 companions (St. Gall) undertook the peregrinatio to Gaul, probably in 590/591, where he founded the monasteries of Luxeuil, Annegray, and Fontaine with the permission of King Childebert II. They experienced a great afflux of young Frankish noblemen and soon numbered more than 200 members. Columbanus came into conflict with the bishops of Burgundy…

Lullus of Mainz (Saint)

(147 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (Lul; c. 710, Wessex – Oct 16, 786, Hersfeld). In Rome in 738 Lullus joined his fellow-countryman Boniface, whom he helped (after 752 as auxiliary bishop) expand the organization of the church east of the Rhine. After the death of Boniface in 754, Lullus was appointed to the see of Mainz (I), although Pope Hadrian I did not make him archbishop until 780/782. Lullus commissioned the Vita Bonifatii, served as an adviser to Charlemagne in evangelizing the Saxons, and expanded the bishopric of Mainz by absorbing the sees of Büraburg and Erfurt (I). S…

Corbie Abbey

(168 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] on the Somme (in the diocese of Amiens). Founded in 657/661 by the Merovingian Queen Balthild and assigned to Luxeuil Abbey. Kings and bishops favored it; it enjoyed its heyday (because of its scriptorium and library) under the Carolingians in the 9th century with such important abbots as Adalhard, Wala and Paschasius Radbertus. Monks in Corbie included the later missionaries Ansgar and Ratramnus (died 868) who authored theological …

Paul the Deacon

(166 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (c. 720/725 – shortly before 800), Lombard historian, scholar, and poet. Born to a prominent family and educated at the court of the Lombard king, Paul did much of his writing at the courts of Pavia and Benevento. Sometime before 774 he became a monk; in 782 he traveled to France to petition Charlemagne to release his brother, who had participated in a rebellion against the Franks. Charlemagne granted his request, and in return Paul stayed some five years at his court, where besides occasional poems and epitaphs he wrote a history of the Carolingian family ( Gesta episcoporum…

Pippin, Donation of

(293 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] When the Carolinigian mayor of the palace, Pippin the Younger (c. 715–768), wanted to overthrow the Merovingians in 750/751 and become king himself, he sought and received the support of the papacy, and replaced the royal lineage he lacked by sacralization of the new kingship. The popes had already attempted to form an alliance with the Franks, since Rome was repeatedly threatened by the Lombards, and Byzantium was too weak to give protection. In 754, during a visit to Frankish la…

Hersfeld

(156 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (on the River Fulda). In 770, Bishop Lullus of Mainz founded a Benedictine monastery on the site of the hermitage founded by Sturmi (Sturmius) and his companions in 736; it was intended as a counterweight to Fulda. The relics of St. Wicbert of Fritzlar were transferred to Hersfeld around 780. The monastery was endowed with considerable landholdings and owned an important library. Its historiography prospered, notably in the 11th century with Lampert of Hersfeld and the pro-imperial publicists such as the anonymous author of the Liber de unitate ecclesiae conservanda. …

Hincmar of Reims

(270 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (c. 806 – Dec 21 or 23, 882, Epernay [while fleeing from the Normans]), archbishop of Reims from 845. Reared in the monastery of St.-Denis and at the court of Louis I the Pious, Charles the Bald, whom he joined in 840, made him successor to the deposed Ebo of Reims. Hincmar soon became the king's leading adviser and defended the kingdom of West Franconia that arose in 840/843. He led the opposition to Louis the German who had intruded in 858, supported Charles in the annexation of…

Florian of Noricum, Saint

(116 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (feastday May 4), a Roman administrative official, was drowned in the Enns near Lorch in 304 during the Diocletian persecution of Christians (I) when he confessed Christianity. His Passio is transmitted in two versions (9th/10th cent.). Attributes: banner, millstone (reference to martyrdom), burning house and water bucket (patron of danger from fire). His cult spread in the Middle Ages esp. in Austria (St. Florian, Linz supposedly his first burial site) and in Eastern Europe (relics moved to Cracow in 1148), esp. in Poland and Hungary. Martina Hartmann Bibliography ¶…

Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint

(175 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (625 or 626 – Mar 17, 659, Nivelles). Gertrude was the daughter of Pippin I, the Austrasian mayor of the palace, and St. Ida. She refused a marriage arranged by King Dagobert I; after her father's death, she entered the abbey of Nivelles, founded by her mother and St. Amand, and served as its abbess, adorning it with precious relics and manuscripts. At the age of 30, weakened by asceticism, she passed the abbacy over to her niece; she died three years later. Venerated as a noble s…

Emmeram, Saint

(80 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (Haimhramm; feastday Sep 22) was an itinerant bishop from Poitiers. He arrived at the court of the Agilofing duke, Theodo, c. 660 or 670. Likely entangled in the disputes within the ducal family, he suffered matryrdom near Munich and was brought to Regensburg (St. Emmeram monastery); his cult spread from there. Martina Hartmann Bibliography ¶ Arbeo von Freising, Vita vel Passio san Haimrhami, B. Krusch, ed., MGH.SRG 13, 1920 St. Emmeram in Regensburg. Geschichte, Kunst, Denkmalpflege, 1992.

Echternach

(183 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (Luxemburg). In 697/698, abbess Irmina of Oeren gifted her portion of the villa Epternacus to Willibrord (died 739), who obtained the other portion c. 700 from Plectrud and Pippin II in order to found his monastery. Willibrord's grave in Echternach attracted many pilgrims, and Alcuin wrote his Vita of the missionary there. The scriptorium produced the outstanding products of an insular scribal art and flourished again from the 11th century ( Codex Egberti; court studio of the Salians). From c. 848 on, it was a canonical institution; from 973, it came under the Rule of Ben…

Ebo of Reims

(175 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (c. 778–851), from a family of royal fiscalines, was archbishop of Reims (816/17–835 and 840/41) and, from 845, bishop of Hildesheim. Ebo devoted himself to the development of his archdiocese, church reform, and the mission in Denmark. Having been instrumental in the overthrow of Louis I, the ¶ Pious in 833, he was himself deposed in 835, only to be reinstated in 840 by Lothar I. Expelled once again in 841, Louis the German finally made him bishop of Hildesheim. The controversy su…

Chrodegang of Metz (Saint)

(236 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (c. 712/715 – 766) was born into the aristocratic family of Hesbania (Hesbaye), related to the Pippinids; after his education at the court of Charles Martel, he became the latter's referendarius (chancellor). Appointed bishop of Metz by Pippin III, probably in 742, he was among the Frankish clergy who were open to reform but hostile to the Anglo-Saxons and St. Boniface. In 743 Chrodegang traveled to Rome; he accompanied pope Stephen II back across the Alps to Reims, where th…

Sturmi (Sturmius), Saint

(173 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (c. 704, Lorch [?] – Dec 779, Fulda), first abbot of Fulda. Related to the dukes of Bavaria, Sturmi was a disciple of Boniface; he was ordained to the priesthood c. 734. After three years as a missionary and hermit in Hersfeld, he was commissioned by Boniface to find a suitable site for a monastery. In 744 Fulda was founded, with the support of Carloman, the Frankish mayor of the palace. After Boniface’s death in 754, Sturmi succeeded in having his remains buried at Fulda, despite…

Corvey Abbey,

(187 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] a Benedictine abbey near Höxter (Paderborn diocese). Founded in 822 by Corbie Abbey, Corvey experienced a rapid rise thanks to its favorable location on the ford of the Weser in Hellweg and its popularity with the Carolingians. The most important literary work written here was Widukind's Saxon history. Under Henry II of Germany, Corvey joined the Gorze Reform (Gorze), and under the influence ¶ of the Hirsau Reform (Hirsau), became a Gregorian center in the Investiture Controversy. In the so-called Osnabrück Tithe Controversy …

Libri carolini

(283 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] The Caroline Books is the modern term for the Franconian court's answer to the resolutions of the 7th Ecumenical Council of Nicea (787) on the issue of iconolatry (Cultic images). Empress Eirene, after iconoclasm had asserted itself in Byzantium, directed attention back to the veneration, rather than worship, of icons. The Council, which took place without Franconian participation, was nominally presided over by papal representatives. Pope Hadrian I had a (rather poor) translation…

Gerhard of Brogne

(104 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (I; d. 959 near Namur) has been venerated as a saint since 1131 (feast day Oct 3); the Vita Gerardi dates to 1074/75. He was a noble-man who founded a monastery on his property in 919, became its abbot, and reformed other monasteries in Lorraine and northern France (St-Pierre-et-Bavo/Gent, St-Bertin, St-Riquier, St-Amand, St-Remi). Since the abbeys had no institutional ties, Gerhard's work collapsed after his death (renewed by Richard of St. Vannes). Martina Hartmann Bibliography D. Misonne, LMA IV, 1989, 1316f. W. Mohr, Studien zur Klosterreform des Grafen Arnu…

Fleury Abbey

(166 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (Floriacum; Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire), monastery founded in the Merovingian period. After transferring the bones of St. Benedict of Nursia there and changing the patron (former: Saint-Pierre), it rose to become an important center of Benedictine monasticism in the Carolingian period. After its destruction by the Normans, it was restored under Cluniac influence (Cluny). Its library and scriptorium flourished from 800 until 1150, especially under the abbots Abbo and ¶ Gauzlin. The historiographic tradition in the 11th century (Aimoin and Andreas of F…

Wala

(183 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (c. 755 – Aug 31, 836, Bobbio), brother of Adalhard of Corbie, with whom he founded the abbey of Corvey and the chapter of nuns at Herford. A cousin and adviser of Charlemagne, he was banished by Louis the Pious in 813 and forced to become a monk at Corbie Abbey. From 826 to 830 he was abbot of Corbie Abbey, succeeding his brother, and after 823 he was an adviser to Lothar I. Banished once more in 830, he went to Italy, where he was abbot of Bobbio Monastery from 833 to 836 and wrote its statutes. Paschasius Radbertus, abbot of Corbie from 843/844 to 851, wrote his vita, the so-called Epita…

Liber diurnus romanorum pontificum

(147 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] is first encountered as a title for this disputed source in the canon collection (Canons/Canon collections) of Cardinal Deusdedit (died 1098/1099), which contains extensive excerpts. In addition, there are three manuscripts in Carolingian minuscule ( Vaticanus, Ambrosianus, Claramontanus) of this possibly oldest collection of formularies (approx. 100 items) for the papal records. Both the date (8–10th cent.) and the place of origin of the manuscripts are disputed, as are the questions whether or not the Liber diurnus was composed over several stages and w…

Sturmi

(151 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[English Version] (Sturmius), Hl. (geb. um 704 [aus bairischem Adel] – Dezember 779 Kloster Fulda), erster Abt des Klosters Fulda. Schüler des Bonifatius, um 734 zum Priester geweiht; nach dreijähriger Tätigkeit als Missionar und Einsiedlerdasein in Hersfeld wurde S. von Bonifatius mit der Suche nach einem geeigneten Ort für eine Klostergründung beauftragt. 744 wurde Fulda gegründet mit Unterstützung des Hausmeiers Karlmann. Nach dem Tod des Bonifatius 754 setzte S. gegen Lullus von Mainz die Beis…

Walburga

(145 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[English Version] (Waldpurga, Walpurgis; die Heilige; um 710 Südengland – 25.2.779/790), Schwester der angelsächsischen Brüder Willibald (Bf. von Eichstätt) und Wunibald (Abt von Heidenheim) und verwandt mit Bonifatius; kam in den 30er Jahren des 8.Jh. vielleicht mit Lioba auf den Kontinent und lebte möglicherweise in Tauberbischofsheim. 761 übernahm sie nach dem Tod Wunibalds die Leitung des Doppelklosters Heidenheim und förderte die Nonne Hugeburc, die die Viten von Willibald und Wunibald vf.; d…

Paulus Diaconus

(146 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[English Version] (um 720/725 – kurz vor 800), langobardischer Geschichtsschreiber, Gelehrter und Dichter. Aus vornehmer Familie, am langobardischen Königshof (Langobarden) erzogen und dann an den Höfen von Pavia und Benevent lit. tätig, wurde P. vor 774 Mönch und reiste 782 ins Frankenreich, um von Karl dem Großen die Freilassung seines an einem antifränkischen Aufstand beteiligten Bruders zu erbitten. Karl gewährte dies, dafür blieb P. ca.5 Jahre an seinem Hof, wo er neben Gelegenheitsgedichten …

Pippinsche Schenkung

(256 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[English Version] . Als der karolingische Hausmaier Pippin d.J. (um 715–768) 750/51 die Merowinger absetzen und selbst König werden wollte, suchte und erhielt er die Unterstützung des Papsttums und ersetzte die fehlende königliche Abstammung durch eine Sakralisierung des neuen Königtums. Die Päpste hatten sich schon früher um eine Bindung an das Frankenreich (Franken) bemüht, da Rom wiederholt von den Langobarden bedroht wurde und Byzanz als Schutzmacht zu schwach war. Papst Stephan II. erhielt 75…
▲   Back to top   ▲