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Old Believers

(644 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
“Old Believers” (Russ. Raskolniki, “Schismatics”) is the name given to those Christians in the Russian Orthodox Church who in the mid-17th century opposed the liturgical reforms of the Moscow patriarch Nikon (1605–81). They themselves took the name “Old Ritualists” or “Old Orthodox,” claiming to be the only ones to continue true Orthodoxy (Orthodox Christianity; Orthodox Church). Those reforms were avowedly to restore ancient uses but were in point of fact an importation of contemporary Greek pract…

Slavophiles

(466 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
When Russian philosophy became independent in the early 19th century, a prominent question was that of the relation of Russia to Europe, which J. P. Chaadayev (1794–1856) raised in his Lettres philosophiques (1827–31; ET Philosophical Letters [Knoxville, Tenn., 1969]). A “Western” group of thinkers wanted a full and swift adoption of the achievements of the West, but another group, the Slavophiles, argued for Russia’s independence and even superiority and hence advocated separate enterprises. It is hard to draw a distinction betwee…

Stundism

(492 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
Stundism refers to a free church movement that arose in 1861 in southern Russia. It called itself the Brethren of the Friends of God, but it came to be known as Stundism (Ger. Stunde, “hour”) because of its link with the German Reformed “observing of the hours” at Rohrbach, near Odessa. For the Stundists, reading and discussing the Bible came to be viewed as more important than maintaining the external Orthodox rites of worship (Bible Study). The movement arose in the context of other indigenous sects going back to the middle o…

Starets

(486 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
A starets (Russ., lit. “old man, elder”; pl. startsy) is a spiritual adviser in the Orthodox Church, not necessarily a priest, recognized for his piety and spiritual insight. The choice of an experienced ascetic (Asceticism) who deserved special honor as an older Christian (Gk. gerōn = Russ. starets) to act as a confessor was an early feature of Eastern monasticism (Orthodoxy Christianity). In view of the Russian term for gerōn, such men came to be known as startsy toward the end of the 18th century, when they became most influential in Russia. With the developme…

Pauli

(138 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Pauli, Gregor (Grzegorz Paweł; um 1526 Brzeziny – um 1591 Rako´w), polnischer Theologe, der sich nach Studien in Krakau, Königsberg und Wittenberg vom Lutheraner zum Calvinisten und schließlich zum radikalen Antitrinitarier entwickelte. Seit 1551 ref. Pastor in seinem Geburtsort, wurde er 1556 einer der Senioren der ref. Gemeinden Kleinpolens und 1558 Pastor in Krakau. Seit 1562 bestritt er die altkirchl. Trinitätslehre in einer Reihe von Schriften, brach auf dem Reichstag zu Piot…

Reval

(150 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (estnisch: Tallinn) hieß zunächst die anstelle der 1219 vom Dänenkönig Waldemar II. eroberten Estenfestung Lyndanise gegründete Burg mit Bischofssitz. 1227 wurde sie vom Schwertbrüderorden in Besitz genommen. Das führte um 1230 zur Gründung einer dt. Stadt im Anschluß an eine frühere Handelsstätte. 1238 wiederum den Dänen überlassen, wurde R. 1346 vom Deutschen Orden zurückgekauft. Die Bischöfe von R., von jeher ohne Landesherrschaft oder eigenes Territorium, unterstanden noch bi…

Sozinianer/Sozinianismus

(921 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] . Unter dieser erst im 17.Jh. aufgekommenen Bez. versteht man den von F. Sozzini seit 1579 durch mancherlei Mäßigung geprägten Hauptstrom der antitrinitarischen Bewegung (Antitrinitarier). Hier hält man an der trinitarischen Formel im Taufbefehl (Mt 28,19) durchaus fest. Wer sie ablehnt, kann nach dem Rakówer Katechismus kein Christ sein. Allein die altkirchl. Lehre von der Wesenseinheit der Personen des Vaters und des Sohnes sowie von der Personhaftigkeit des Hl. Geistes wird en…

Polen

(2,838 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] I. Allgemeines Der Name P. geht auf einen der westslaw. Stämme zurück, aus deren Zusammenschluß im 9. und 10.Jh. das polnische Volk entstanden ist, und kennzeichnet die Angehörigen dieses Stammes als Feldbewohner (Polani oder Poleni). Das vom Geschlecht der Piasten begründete Reich wird erstmals um das Jahr 1000 als Polonia bez. Heute nennt sich das Staatswesen Polska Rzeczpospolita (Republik P.). Geographisch ist P. von Deutschland im Westen, von der Ostsee und dem Gebiet Kaliningrad der Russ. Föderation im Norden, von Litauen (baltisch…

Slawenmission

(366 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] . Nachdem die Slawen von ihrer Urheimat nördlich der Karpaten zw. Weichsel und Dnepr aus ihr Siedlungsgebiet so weit nach Westen und Süden vorgeschoben hatten, daß sie zu Beginn des 7.Jh. die Grenzen des Karolingerreichs erreichten und die byz. Reichsgrenzen überschritten, wurde dort die S. als dringliche Aufgabe erkannt. Der Anfang gelang bei den Alpenslawen (Slowenen), wo der Karantanerherzog Borut um die Mitte des 8.Jh. seinen Sohn taufen ließ. Die Gründung der Klöster Inniche…

Nino

(131 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Nino, die Heilige (1. Hälfte des 4.Jh.), »Erleuchterin« Georgiens. Rufinus von Aquileia berichtet in seiner Kirchengesch. von einer Kriegsgefangenen, die um 330 durch ihre Askese und Wunderheilungen das ostgeorgische Königspaar für den christl. Glauben gewann und zur Einladung griech. Missionare veranlaßte (PL 21, 480–482). Erst in legendär überwucherten einheimischen Quellen aus dem 10.Jh. erscheint sie unter dem Namen N., wohl einer Kontraktionsform aus »Christiana«. Hier verar…

Tschavtschavadze

(129 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Čavčavadze), Ilja (27.10.1837 Qvareli – 30.8.1907 Cicamuri), georgischer Dichter und Schriftsteller, Publizist und Politiker von fürstlicher Abkunft, als »hl. Ilia der Gerechte« am 20.7.1987 kanonisiert. Nach philos. sowie verwaltungs- und wirtschaftswiss. Studien in St. Petersburg wirkte er in Georgien seit 1864 als Friedensrichter und seit 1874 als Vorsitzender der Verwaltung der Allgeorgischen Adelsbodenkreditbank. 1906 wurde er in den Staatsrat des Kaiserreichs Rußland gewähl…

Vvedenskij

(142 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Vvedenskij, Aleksandr Ivanovič (30.8.1889 Vitebsk – 25.7.1946 Moskau), Apologet und schismatischer Metropolit. Urspr. Lehrer und im 1. Weltkrieg Feldgeistlicher, opponierte er als St. Petersburger Erzpriester und Sekretär einer linken kirchl. Gruppe bereits 1917 gegen die Wiedererrichtung des Moskauer Patriarchats. Als sich Patriarch Tichon in Haft befand, bemächtigte er sich mit zwei anderen Priestern am 18.5.1923 der Patriarchatskanzlei und ermöglichte so die Bildung der »Oberst…

Wenden

(488 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] . Seit dem MA faßt man die hinter der urspr. dt. Ostgrenze zw. Ostsee und Oberfranken an Elbe und Saale, Havel und Spree sowie bis zum Main ansässigen westslaw. Stämme unter der Sammelbez. W. zus., die vom Namen des illyrischen Stammes der Veneter herzuleiten ist und auch zur Bez. der Slowenen, zumal ihrer Minderheiten auf östr. Gebiet, dient. Die Missionierung der W. gestaltete sich ungemein schwierig. Der große Slawenaufstand von 983 machte alle Anfangserfolge zunichte. Auch de…

Vilnius

(219 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] capital of the Republic of Lithuania (Baltic countries), with a population of 554,060 (2011); it is situated in southeastern Lithuania where the Vilnia joins the Neris, a tributary of the Memel. Its earliest mention in a document is in a 1323 letter of Grand Duke Gediminas. When Grand Duke Jogaila accepted baptism in 1387 and saw to the building of a cathedral, he also granted Vilnius a city charter modeled on the Magdeburg Law. The personal union of Lithuania with Poland in 1385 …

Ivan IV, the Terrible

(179 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] ( Groznyj, better: the Harsh; Aug 25, 1530, Moscow – Mar 18, 1584, Moscow), was the first grand duke to be crowned tsar of all Russia in 1547. He laid the foundations of Russia's rise to a major power by pursuing a policy of territorial expansion in the east (conquest of Kazan in 1552 and of Astrakhan in 1554, beginning of the subjugation of Siberia in 1582), but also contributed to its ruin by engaging in unsuccessful wars (esp. for Livonia, 1558–1582) and implementing cruel measu…

Albert of Buxhöveden

(201 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Albert of Riga; 1165/1170, Bremen – Jan 17, 1229, Riga), of the ministerial line of Buxhöveden. A Bremen canon and scholaster, he was ordained the 3rd bishop of Livonia in 1199. In 1200 he was the first to sail with a crusader army to the Daugava estuary, where in 1201 he founded the city of Riga, in which he set t…

Old Believers, Russian

(566 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] I. The believers who, from 1653, were expelled from the Great Church because of their rejection of the liturgical reforms of the Moscow patriarch Nikon, gathered in their own communities in order to maintain the Old Russian forms of devotion laid down by the Moscow Hundred Chapter Synod of 1551. The authorities first called them “schismatics” (Raskol’niki), and later “Old Ritualists,” while for the people they were the Old Believers. They did not contest the necessity for correcti…

Soner, Ernst

(160 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (or Sohner; Dec 1572, Nuremberg – Sep 28, 1612, Altdorf, near Nuremberg), appointed district physician in Nuremberg in 1603 and professor of medicine at the Reichsstädische Akademie in Altdorf in 1605. In 1607/1608 he served as its rector. During an educational tour in 1598, he had been converted by Andreas Wojdowski and Christoph Ostorodt in Leiden to the theological views of their teacher F. Socinus; on his return to Altdorf, he promoted their ideas among his close friends. He w…

Leontyev, Konstantin Nikolaevič

(158 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Leont'ev; Jan 13, 1831, Kudinovo near Kaluga – Nov 12, 1891, Sergiev Posad), was initially a physician before entering the diplomatic service and finally becoming a censor. As a cultural philosopher, his worldview was shaped by aesthetic considerations. Beauty in the sense of diversity, power, and fullness was for him an objective fact. He thus became the advocate of Byzantine theocracy, ¶ aristocracy, and popular culture against democratic liberalism, petit-bourgeois attitudes, and egalitarianism. His return to the Orthodox faith following…

Warsaw

(314 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Warszawa), the capital of Poland, with a population of 1.71 million (2009), goes back to a trading settlement established in the 11th/12th century on the left bank of the Vistula; in 1413 it received Kulm rights. From 1406 to 1526, it was the official residence of the Piast dukes of Masovia. When the dynasty died out, Warsaw was incorporated into the crown of Poland. The Sejm met there for the first time in 1529; after 1569 it met there regularly, and as a result the royal court …

Makary (Bulgakov)

(168 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Michail Petrovič; Sep 19, 1816, Surkovo near Novyj Oskol –Jun 9, 1882, Moscow), metropolitan of Moscow (from 1879), previously (from 1857), successively bishop of Tambov, Char'kov, and Lithuania (Baltic countries). He was particularly influential as a teacher of theology. Initially, he was active at the Spiritual Academy of Kiev (II) as professor of history and church history, then from 1842 at the St. Petersburg Spiritual Academy (St. Petersburg: II) as professor of theology (dogmatics);…

Slavic Missions

(394 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] In the early 7th century, the Slavs, expanding to the west and south from their original homeland north of the Carpathians between the Vistula and the Dnieper, reached the boundaries of the Carolingian empire and crossed the boundaries of the Byzantine Empire; now a mission to them was recognized as an urgent necessity. The first success came among the Alpine Slavs (Slovenes): around the middle of the ¶ 8th century, Borut, duke of Carantania, had his son baptized. The new abbeys of Innichen and Kremsmünster were founded to support the Slavic missi…

Filipovcy

(88 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] is the name for the priestless Old Believers under the leadership of the monk Philipp (Fotiy Vasilyev) who separated themselves off in monasteries ¶ on the Vyg beginning in 1737 after taking up intercession for the tsar; in 1743, Philipp and about 70 followers burned themselves to death on the Kola Peninsula to avoid imminent arrest. Only small remnants of their communities exist today. Peter Hauptmann Bibliography P. Hauptmann, “Das russische Altgläubigentum 300 Jahre nach dem Tode des Protopopen Avvakum,” KO 29, 1986, 69–135, esp. 125–27.

Baltic Countries

(2,991 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] I. General – II. Non-Christian Religions – III. Christianity – IV. Religion, Society, and Culture in the Present I. General 1. The name Baltic derives from the term “mare Balticum,” commonly used for the Baltic Sea since the High Middle Ages. At first it applied only to later Estonia and Latvia as the Baltic provinces of the Russian empire, which had earlier simply been called Livonia after…

Hermogenes of Moscow (Saint)

(152 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (also Ermogen or Hermogenus; c. 1530 – Feb 17, 1612, Moscow). Already noted for his writings on religion as metropolitan of Kazan and Astrakhan, he was the author of 22 books. On Jun 2, 1606, after the death of Jove and the deposition of Ignatius, he became the third patriarch of Moscow (I) – as a friend of the tsar, Vasily Shuysky. After the tsar's abdication, Germogen refused to recognize Wladyslaw, the Pole elected tsar in 1610, unless he converted ¶ to Orthodoxy. The Poles thereupon had him deposed and incarcerated, but through his letters from prison – wh…

Lucaris, Cyril

(372 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (baptismal name, Constantinos; Nov 13, 1570, Herakleion, Crete – Jun 29, 1638, near Constantinople) was patriarch of Constantinople for five terms in office (brought about by depositions and reinstallations) between 1620 and 1638. He was a theologian open to Calvinism and controversial in Orthodoxy, and a martyr (strangled by a band of Janissaries). As the scion of a respected family of priests, he first worked, after studying in Venice and Padua, with his uncle Meletius Pegas, wh…

Meletius Syrigos

(152 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (baptismal name: Markos; 1585, Heraklion, Crete – Apr 13, 1663, Constantinople), archimandrite and protosynkellos, an important preacher and theologian. Prevented by his father's death from continuing his studies in Italy, Meletius served first on Crete as monk and priest. He was expelled because of his combative attitude, and went in 1627 to Alexandria, where his sermons made a great impression. Appointed by C. Lucaris to support him in Constantinople, in 1630 he was put in charg…

Gdańsk

(582 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Ger. Danzig). The earliest literary reference to the settlement west of the mouth of the Wisla (Vistula) under the name Gyddanizc relates to the year 997 when Adalbert of Prague baptized a local prince and “many heathen” there. After the region was incorporated into the Polish church organization, German Cistercians worked there beginning in 1175, and Dominicans, too, from 1227. Around 1190, the churches of Sw. Katarzyny (St. Catherine) was erected for the Slavic and St. Nikolai …

Pauli, Gregor

(157 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Grzegorz Paweł; c. 1526, Brzeziny – c. 1591, Raków), Polish theologian. After studies at Cracow, Königsberg (Kaliningrad), and Wittenberg, he turned from Lutheranism to Calvinism and finally became a radical Antitrinitarian. In 1551 he became a Reformed pastor in his place of birth; in 1556 he became one the seniors of the Reformed congregations of Lesser Poland and in 1558 a pastor in Krakow. In 1562 he began publishing attacks on the traditional doctrine of the Trinity. At the Diet of Piotrków in 1565, he broke with the Reformed ecclesia maior, thus becoming one of …

Smolich, Igor

(145 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Feb 9, 1898, Uman’ – Nov 2, 1970, Berlin), independent scholar who became the outstanding Russian church historian of the 20th century. After involvement in war and civil war and a stay in Constantinople, he was unable to resume his studies until 1923 in Berlin, initially at the Russisches Wissenschaftliches Institut, founded by émigrés, and then at the university, where he received his doctorate in 1934 with a dissertation on I. Kireyevsky. His subsequent research led to several…

Javorskij, Stefan

(158 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Semën Ivanovič; 1658, Javorov near Lemberg – Nov 24, 1722, Moscow). After studying in Polish Jesuit schools, he returned to Kiev in 1689 where he taught in the college and served as abbot. As metropolitan of Rjazan', he was appointed by Peter the ¶ Great administrator of the patriarchate in 1700 and president of the newly created Holy Synod in 1721, although he inwardly opposed Peter's reform plans. Thus, when Peter commissioned an expert's opinion on a union project by the Sorbonne in 1717, the elaboration by Javorskij's …

Poland

(3,123 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] I. General The name Poland derives from the name of one of the West Slavic tribes that joined together in the 9th and 10th centuries to form the Polish nation; it characterizes the members of this tribe as field-dwellers ( Polani or Poleni). The kingdom, founded by the Piast dynasty, was first called Polonia around the year 1000. Today the official name of the state is Rzeczpospolita Polska (Republic of Poland). ¶ Geographically, Poland is bounded by Germany to the west, by the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation to the north, …

Platon of Moscow

(164 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Petr Egorov, later Levšin; Jun 29, 1737, Chashnikovo near Moscow – Nov 11, 1812, Vifaniya near Sergiyev Posad), metropolitan of Moscow. After study at the Moscow academy, Platon taught there, and later at the seminary of Trinity St. Sergius Monastery. As its rector from 1761, and a gifted preacher, he made such a strong impression on Catherine II that she appointed him as her son’s tutor in religion. In 1766 he became archimandrite of the monastery, which he had already led from …

Radziwill

(362 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] 1. Nicholas the Red (Mikołai Rudy Radziwiłł; Apr 27, 1512 – Apr 27, 1584, Vilnius), high chancellor and high hetman of Lithuania, from 1566 (following his cousin Nicholas the Black [see 2 below]) voivode of Vilnius; he became a Calvinist c. 1564. His descendants remained faithful to the Reformed confession and, until the line failed in 1667, ensured the continuation of Reformed parishes on the Radziwill estates (of the Birse branch) in Lithuania. Peter Hauptmann Bibliography T. Nowakowski, Die Radziwills. Die Geschichte einer großen europäischen Familie, 1968, 79–…

Poznań, Bishopric

(313 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] The see of Poznań was erected in 968 as a missionary bishopric for all Poland, after the Piast duke Mieszko I began the process of Christianizing Poland with his baptism in 966. By 999/1000, however, it had already been superseded by the erection of the archiepiscopal see of Gniezno, to which it became suffragan at the beginning of the 11th century. From then on, it included the center of Great Poland and the southern part of Mazovia. In 1232 Bishop Paweł Grzymała was granted the …

Helmold of Bosau

(129 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1120 – post 1177). Helmold worked in eastern Holstein from 1143, after attending the cathedral school in Braunschweig, and as pastor in Bosau on the Plöner See (from 1156). Between 1163 and 1172, he composed, from the notes of Adam of Bremen, oral tradition and his own experience, his Chronica Slavorum which covered the time period up to 1170. In it, despite clear partisanship, he reports vividly and generally reliably the Christianization and Germanization of the Slavs settled east of the lower Elbe (Slavic missions). His wor…

Martin of Troppau (Polonus)

(92 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Martinus Polonus; before 1230, Troppau [today Opava] – Jun 12, 1278, Bologna). Initially a Dominican in Prague, Martin became papal chaplain and apostolic penitentiary in Rome; on May 21, 1278, he was consecrated archbishop of Gniezno in Viterbo. He is best known as a chronicler. His Chronicon pontificum et imperatorum (Chronicles: IV), replete with anecdotes and fables, was widely read; its many extensions and imitations gave rise to a genre of “Martin chronicles.” Peter Hauptmann Bibliography A.-D. v. den Brincken, LThK 3 VI, 1997, 1429 (bibl.).

Wends

(570 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] During the Middle Ages, the West Slavic tribes behind the original eastern boundary of Germany living between the Baltic and Upper Franconia along the Elbe and Salle, Havel, and Spree, and as far as the Main became known collectively as the Wends. The name comes from the name of the Veneti, an Illyrian tribe. It also served as a name for the Slovenes, especially the Slovene minorities in Austrian territories. Evangelism of the Wends proved uncommonly difficult. The Great Slav Risi…

Nino (Saint)

(151 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1st half of the 4th cent.), “enlightener” of Georgia. Tyrannius Rufinus tells in his church history of a female prisoner of war who, c. 330, converted the king and queen of Eastern Georgia to the Christian faith by her asceticism and miraculous cures, and persuaded them to invite Greek missionaries to their country (PL 21, 480–482). Not until local 10th-century sources, heavily embroidered with legend, does this woman appear under the name of Nino, probably a contracted form of “…

Innocent (Veniaminov), Saint

(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Aug 26, 1797, Anginskoye, near Irkutsk – Mar 31, 1879, Moscow). Born Ivan Popov, he was orphaned at an early age. At the seminary in Irkutsk, his patron Bishop Veniamin (Benjamin) of Irkutsk gave him the new patronymic Veniaminov. In 1840, when he was made a monk, his baptismal name was replaced by Innocent. In the same year, Innocent – who had been ordained to the priesthood in 1821 and had been working as a missionary in the Aleutians and Alaska since 1824 – was made bishop of Kamchatka. He took up residence as archbishop in 1852…

Vvedensky, Aleksandr Ivanovich

(168 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Aug 30, 1889, Vitebsk – Jul 25, 1946, Moscow), apologist and schismatic metropolitan. Originally a teacher and a military chaplain in World War I, in 1917 as archpriest of St. Petersburg and secretary of a leftist church organization he was already opposing the restoration of the Moscow patriarchate. When Patriarch Tikhon succumbed to house arrest, on May 18, 1923, Vvedensky and two ¶ other priests took over the patriarchal chancery, thus enabling the formation of the “supreme governing body” of the modernist “Living Church” movement. In rec…

Starets

(365 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (pl. startsy) is the Russian equivalent to the Greek word γέρων/ gérōn; it denotes an experienced (and therefore usually elderly) ascetic, whose spiritual direction younger ascetics as well as Christians living in the world accept without question. The roots this phenomenon go back to Eastern monasticism in the Early Church. St. Anthony is the prototypical starets, but this form of spiritual direction did not fully come into its own until the late 18th century in Russia, when Paisius Velichkovsky left Athos for Moldavia with 60 discip…

Aleksei

(189 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1293, Moscow – Feb 12, 1378, Moscow), Metropolitan of Moscow, was a monk in the Epiphany monastery in Moscow at the age of 20 and was already involved in the administration of the Russian Metropolitanate at the age of 26. His appointment as “Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia” was by his Greek predecessor, Feognost, in 1353 in Constantinople…

Ermland

(293 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Polish: Warmia), as one of the four bishoprics established by the Orders of Germany in 1243 in Prussia and incorporated into the archdiocese of Riga in 1245/1246, initially encompassed the region between the River Elbing and Passarge and between Pregel and Angerapp. But only the region in which the bishop was also the ruler, comprising a third of the diocese, wa…

Kartachev, Anton Vladimirovich

(171 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1875, Sep 10 – 1960, Paris) was one of the most prominent lay theologians of Russia in the 20th century. He lectured in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) until 1917, where he also chaired the Society for Philosophy of Religion, and was from 1925 at the theological institute of St. Serge in Paris (of which he was a cofounder), where he taught church history as well as Old Testament. In 1959, he was able to publish his main work in two volumes, Očerki po istorii Russkoj Cerkvi, sketches of the history of the Russian Church. Appointed chief procurator of the Holy Synod by…

Stanislaus of Cracow, Saint

(178 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1036–1040, Szczepanów – Apr 11, 1079, Cracow), martyr bishop and patron saint of Poland. Initially a parish priest in Czembocz, as bishop of Cracow (from 1072) he came into bitter conflict with King Boleslav II, which cost ¶ him his life. Church tradition has it that he was slain by the king himself during mass in the Church of St. Michael because he had rebuked the king for his immoral way of life, but the alternative tradition is more believable – that he was condemned to death as a traitor for his political opposition and was gruesomely executed by truncatio membrorum. His…

Palaeologus, Jacob

(170 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1520, Chios island – 1585, Rome), radical Antitrinitarian who claimed to be descended from the last imperial dynasty of the Byzantine Empire. In trouble with the Inquisition as a Dominican friar in Italy, he was able to flee in 1559. He was in Prague in 1570/1571, in Krakow in 1571/1572, and in Klausenburg from 1572 to 1574. In 1573, he traveled to Turkey and twice to Poland. In 1575, Palaeologus lived in Alzen near Sibiu (Ger. Hermannstadt), Romania, then in Poland and Moravi…

Kettler, Gotthard

(188 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Goddert; c. 1517, near Lippstadt – 1587, Kurland) was the last grand master of the Teutonic Order in Livonia. Following the collapse of the order state, he accepted Polish suzerainty and became the first duke of Kurland in 1562, a part of the territory that had previously belonged to the order and for which the capital Mitau (Jelgava) was eventually built in the vicinity of an old castle. Marrying Anna of Mecklenburg in 1566, he established a dynasty which lasted until 1737. Kurl…

Gorazd, Saint

(175 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Matěj Pavlík; May 26, 1879, Hrubá Vrbka, near Hodonín – Sept 4, 1942. Prague). Gorazd, bishop of Moravia and Silesia, was the founder of Czech Orthodoxy. Having been a Roman Catholic chaplain in ¶ Kromeríz, in 1920 he joined the Czechoslovakian Church, which had broken its ties with Rome. In 1921 he was sent to Belgrade to be consecrated bishop by the Serbian patriarch, thus securing apostolic succession. As this went together with a sincere conversion to Orthodoxy, in 1924 he broke with the Czechoslovakian Churc…

Kulm

(195 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Polish Chełmno), a city founded on the lower course of the Weichsel River in 1232 and a bishop's seat from 1243. The cathedral chapter established there by Bishop Heidenreich in 1251 was incorporated into the Teutonic order (Orders of Germany) from 1264 to 1466. Originally suffragan to the archbishopric of Riga, the diocese was integrated into the ecclesial province of Gniezno (Gnesen) in 1466. Bishop Johannes Dantiscus (1530–1538) and S. Hosius (1549–1551) succesfully warded off…

Bryanchaninov, Ignaty, Saint

(169 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Dimitrii Aleksandrovich; Feb 5, 1807, Pokrovskoe, near Gryazovets – Apr 30, 1867, Nikolo-Babaev, near Kostroma) was a Russian ascetic, spiritual writer, and bishop. In 1827, when the aristocratic graduate of the St. Petersburg Engineering School was released from military service for medical reasons, he struck up an acquaintance with the monk…

Rustaveli, Shota

(166 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (12th/13th cent.), has a place in world literature as the greatest Georgian poet, earned by his Vephistqaosani (“The Knight in the Panther’s/Tiger’s Skin”), an epic poem of 1669 four-line stanzas. Hundreds of legends, stage plays, and stories about his life and work bear witness to the central place he holds in the Georgians’ sense of identity. But regarding his life and person – like Homer’s – we have no reliable sources. The territorial epithet tells us little, since there are many places in Ge…

Stancarus, Franciscus

(155 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1501, Mantua – Nov 12, 1574, Sopnica, near Sandomierz), Hebraist, physician, and theologian, whose contentiousness triggered violent disputes wherever his unsettled life took him. Probably of Jewish descent and initially a priest or monk, after studying in Basel and in southern Germany he was appointed professor of Hebrew in Vienna in 1544 and in Cracow in 1549. Called to the University of Königsberg (Kaliningrad), he left after three months because of a clash with A. Osiander…

Olomouc

(420 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Olmütz) is a city on the middle reach of the March river (Morava; Czech Republic) with 106,000 inhabitants (1989). First mentioned in records in 1055, Olomouc developed from a settlement at the foot of the Fürstenberg, subsequently in the center of the city. The cathedral of St. Wenceslas was erected on the site of an old castle complex between 1107 and 1131, rebuilt in the 13th and 14th centuries, and again between 1883 and 1890. As a bishop’s seat from 1063 (until 1344 under Mainz, and from 1344 to 1421 under Prague), and an archbishop’s seat from 1777 (with suf-¶ fragans in …

Old Calendarians

(179 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Palaiohemerologites) is the name given to the opponents of change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian system in the Church of Greece from Mar 10 to 23, 1924, which happened under state pressure. They understand themselves, however, as the “true Orthodox Christians” who stand for the maintenance of tradition in its entirety. Individual circles quickly grew into a church organization which since 1932 worships in its own buildings, and since the accession of three bishops in 1…

Kondakov, Nikodim Pavlovič

(142 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Nov 1, 1844, Khalan, near Kursk – Feb 17, 1925, Prague), pioneer Russian art historian and student of iconography. Kondakov began to teach at the university in Odessa in 1871, went to St. Petersburg in 1888, to Sofia in 1920, and finally to Charles University in Prague in 1922. Of his three-volume iconography of the Theotokos ( Ikonografiia Bogomateri), he was able to publish the first two volumes in 1914/1915 while he was still in St. Petersburg; the third remained in manuscript, kept in the Vatican Library. His incomplete magnum opus on Russian icons ( Russkaia ikona) was…

Alexander Nevski

(144 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (May 30, 1220, Jaroslav – Nov 14, 1263, Gorodok) was Prince of Novgorod from 1236 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1252; he defeated the Swedes on the Neva in 1240 (whence his nickname) and the Knights of the Teutonic Order on the ice of Lake Peipus; in contrast, he submitted to the Tatars whom he saw as less of a threat to Russian Orthodox identity than the Latin West. He died as a monk and has been venerated as a saint since as early as the 14th century. Peter the Great transported his remains to the Lavra in St. Petersburg, which was named after Alexander in 1724. Peter Hauptmann Bibl…

Ruarus, Martin

(140 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1589, Krempe, Holstein – 1657, Danzig [Gdańsk]), polymath adherent of Socinianism (Socinians). While Ruarus was studying at Altdorf, the physician E. Soner won him to the Socinian cause. After traveling through Denmark, Holland, England, France, and Italy, in 1621/1622 he served as rector of the academy of the Polish Brethren in Raków, near Sandomierz; after further travels, he settled in Danzig in 1631. Coupled with these travels, his extensive correspondence served to propagand…

Platon

(150 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Platon, Metropolit von Moskau (Petr Egorov, später Levsˇin; 29.6.1737 Cˇasˇnikovo bei Moskau – 11.11.1812 Vifanija bei Sergiev Posad). Nach dem Studium an der Moskauer Akademie lehrte er zunächst dort, später am Seminar der Troice Sergieva Lavra. Als dessen Rektor seit 1761 beeindruckte er Katharina II. so stark, daß sie den begabten Prediger zum Religionslehrer ihres Sohnes berief. 1766 wurde er Archimandrit der Lavra, die er schon seit 1763 in Stellvertretung geleitet hatte. De…

Slawophile

(246 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] nennt man jene Vertreter des russ. Geisteslebens seit Beginn des 19.Jh., die der slaw. Eigenart ihres Volkes unter dem Einfluß der Romantik entscheidende Zukunftsbedeutung beilegen. Sie stehen damit im Gegensatz zu den sog. »Westlern«, die Rußland unbedingt das Erbe der westeur. Aufklärung aufdrängen wollten. Die von P. Tschaadaev in seinen »Philos. Briefen« (seit 1836) aufgeworfene Frage nach dem Verhältnis Rußlands zu Europa wurde als schicksalhaft empfunden. Die von den ältere…

Paläologus

(144 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Paläologus, Jakob (um 1520 Insel Chios – 1585 Rom), radikaler Antitrinitarier, der sich als Abkömmling der letzten byz. Kaiserdynastie ausgab. In Italien als Dominikaner in Schwierigkeiten mit der Inquisition geraten, konnte er um 1559 fliehen. 1570/71 hielt er sich in Prag auf, 1571/72 in Krakau, 1572–1574 in Klausenburg. 1573 reiste er in die Türkei und zweimal nach Polen. 1575 lebte P. in Alzen bei Hermannstadt, danach in Polen und Mähren. 1581 durch den Bf. von Olmütz der Inqu…

Talinn

(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] was originally the name of the fortress and episcopal see founded to replace the Estonian fortress of Lyndanisse taken by the Danish king Valdemar II in 1219. In 1227 it was taken over by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword; this led c. 1230 to the founding of a German city based on an earlier trading post. Once more left to the Danes in 1238, Talinn was bought back by the Teutonic Order in 1346. The bishops of Talinn, never having had their own territory, were suffragan to the arc…

Peter the Great

(276 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (May 30/Jun 9, 1672, Moscow – Jan 28/Feb 8, 1725, St. Petersburg), tsar of Russia since 1682, proclaimed emperor of all Russia in 1721. Initially he had to share rule with his half brother Ivan V (1666–1696) and allow his half sister Sofia to act as regent until 1689. After that he largely left the reins of government in the hands of his mother; only after her death in 1694 did he fully take up his role. His victory over Sweden in the Great Northern War (1700–1721) gave Russia acc…

Belaya Krinica

(123 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] From 1846, when the converted metropolitan Ambrosios of Sarajevo ordained the first bishops for the Old Believers in Belaya Krinica, Bukovina, this religious community became an important center for the Old Believer groups that retained the priesthood (Old Believers, Russian). Their congregations have since been under the “hierarchy of the Agr…

Klemme, Pankratius

(161 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1475, Hirschberg in Silesia – Sep 20/21, 1546, Gdańsk [Danzig]). After entering the Dominican monastery in Gdańsk, Klemme worked at the Johanneskirche from 1498, first as cantor and then, after returning from studies in southern Germany, where he was won over to the Reformation, as preacher from 1526. In the fall of 1529, he continued his preaching at St. Marien, where, in 1536, the council established an independent pastorate for him alongside the still Catholic pastorate. In…

Rej, Mikolaj

(149 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Feb 4, 1505, Żórawno near Halicz – Oct 4, 1569, Rejowiec near Lublin), member of the landed nobility who, as a versatile and prolific poet, became the “father of Polish literature.” A staunch supporter of the Reformation, he published his extensive Postilla in 1557. The work was reissued many times and was also translated into Lithuanian and Ruthene. It is permeated with praise of simple trust in God. He had already published his Polish translation of the Psalms in 1546. His last prose work, The Mirror ( Zwierciadło, 1568), was the most highly regarded by his conte…

Lviv

(173 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Ukrainian L'viv, Polish Lwów, Russ. L'vov, Ger. Lemberg). The variety of names borne by this city of some 733,000 (2001) in the heart of Galicia bears witness to its mixture of nationalities. Founded c. 1250 by the Galician prince Daniel and his son Leo, it was incorporated into Poland in 1366, fell to Austria in 1772, became Polish once more in 1919, Soviet in 1939, came under the German General Government in 1941, and in 1944 was restored to the Ukraine (until 1991 part of the …

Knöpken, Andreas

(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (also: Knopken; c. 1468, near Küstrin – Feb 18, 1539, Riga). Having studied in Ingolstadt (?) and Frankfurt an der Oder, Knöpken taught – as assistant to J. Bugenhagen, under whose influence he turned from Erasmus to Luther, – at the municipal school in Treptow an der Rega until 1517 and again from 1519 to 1521. From 1517 onward, he was chaplain at St. Petri in Riga and from 1522 Protestant preacher there. Having successfully participated in a disputation at Pentecost, 1522, he wa…

Silesia

(1,125 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Polish Śląsk, Ger. Schlesien). The name of this historical region has survived all political, ethnic, and religious mutations. Derivation from the Silingi, a Vandalic people, appears dubious; more likely it goes back to a Slavonic root (cf. Old Polish ślęcgnącć, “wet”). As a region, Silesia has an area of almost 40,000 km2 on both sides of the upper and middle Oder; shaped somewhat like an oak leaf, it is bordered to the southwest by the Sudetes and to the south by the western Beskids. Western Slavs began entering Silesia in the mid- 6th century; at the end of t…

Philipponen

(88 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] was the name given to Russian Old Believers who emigrated between 1830 and 1840 to East Prussia and founded a number of villages in the Masurian region, of which Wojnowo (Eckertsdorf) with its monastery is the most important. They came ¶ from Poland, where they were considered Filipovcy, although they belonged to the less radical tendency of the Fedoseevcy. Between 1838 and 1968 their number declined from 829 to 412. Peter Hauptmann Bibliography E. Przekop, “Die Geschichte der Altgläubigen in den Masuren,” OS 27, 1978, 105–127.

Macarius of Moscow (Saint)

(192 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Makarij, birth name: Mikhail; c. 1482, Moscow – Dec 31, 1563, Moscow) was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church on Jun 6, 1988 at its Millennium Council in Sergiyev Posad. Having become a monk of Paphnutius Monastery in Borovsk at an early age and abbot of Luzhetsky Monastery in Mozhaysk in 1523, he remained deeply committed to the spirit of Joseph of Volokolamsk's monasticism as archbishop of Novgorod and Pskov (from 1526) and as metropolitan of Moscow (from 1542). He effecte…

Lay Theology, Russian

(358 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] The expression Russian lay theology is really inadequate to describe a phenomenon that is unique to Russian Orthodoxy. It is neither a theology by and for laity as such nor a theology contrary to the doctrinal decisions reached by episcopal synods. It is in fact antonymic to the Russian scholastic theology that in the 19th century was still strongly shaped by the doctrinal content and ways of thinking of Western Scholasticism and was felt to be cut off from reality. There was a desire…

Avvakum

(194 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1620, Grigorovo beyond the Kudma – Apr 14, 1682, Pústozersk), spokesman for the Russian Old Believers. Was designated protopope (archpriest) for Jur'evec – Povolžskij in 1652, and after 1653 moved to the forefront of the opposition against the cultic reforms of Patriarch Nikon with the consequence that he was immediately dispatched to Siberia until 1663. Excommunicated in 1666, from 1667 onwards he was held prisoner on the lower reaches of the Pechora. There he carried on with the fight until his death – he was burned at the stake – by composing his own vita ( Zhitiye…

Vladimir, Saint

(176 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 960 – Jul 15, 1015, Berestovo), prince of Kiev. As the youngest son of Prince Sviatoslav of Kiev, Vladimir received the principality of Novgorod in 969 but had to give it up in 977 as he fled from his two elder brothers. After winning it back with the help of Varangian mercenaries, he advanced against Kiev, which fell into his hands in 980 without a fight. As autocrat of the Kievan kingdom, he decided the urgent question of a religious reorientation in favor of his grandmother…

Sozzini

(144 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Sozzini, Fausto (5.12.1539 Siena – 3.3.1604 Lucławice bei Krakau), ordnete und prägte als führender Denker der antitrinitarischen Bewegung (Antitrinitarier, Sozinianer) seiner Zeit deren Kirchen in Polen und teilweise auch in Siebenbürgen. Der 1562–1574 als Jurist am Hofe der Medici in Florenz tätige Patrizier hatte sich, durch seinen an der kirchl. Trinitätslehre zweifelnden Onkel Lelio S. dazu angeregt, 1572–1578 hauptsächlich in Basel theol. Studien gewidmet und durch erste Sch…

Ruar(us)

(132 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Ruar(us), Martin (1589 Krempe, Holstein – 1657 Danzig), vielseitig gebildeter Anhänger des Sozinianismus, für den ihn während seines Studiums in Altdorf der Mediziner E. Soner gewonnen hatte, wirkte nach Reisen durch Dänemark, Holland, England, Frankreich und Italien 1621/22 als Rektor des Gymnasiums der Polnischen Brüder in Raków bei Sandomierz, um sich nach abermaligen Reisen 1631 in Danzig niederzulassen. Neben dieser Reisetätigkeit diente v.a. sein umfangreicher Briefwechsel d…

Rej

(127 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Rej, Nikolaus (Mikołaj, 4.2.1505 Żórawno bei Halicz – 4.10.1569 Rejowiec bei Lublin), Landedelmann, der als vielseitiger und fruchtbarer Dichter zum »Vater der polnischen Lit.« geworden ist. Als überzeugter Anhänger der Reformation veröff. er 1557 seine umfangreiche »Postilla«, die wiederholt aufgelegt und auch ins Litauische und Ruthenische übers. wurde. Sie ist durchzogen vom Lob des schlichten Gottvertrauens. Bereits 1546 hatte er seine Übers. der Psalmen ins Polnische herausge…

Wilna

(203 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Vilnius), Hauptstadt der Republik Litauen (baltische Länder) mit 578 000 Einwohnern (2001), im Südosten des Landes an der Mündung der Vilnia in den Neris, einen Nebenfluß der Memel, gelegen. Ihre älteste urkundliche Erwähnung findet sich in einem Brief des Großfürsten Gediminas von 1323. Als sich Großfürst Jogaila 1387 taufen und eine Kathedrale errichten ließ, gewährte er W. auch das Magdeburger Stadtrecht. Wie die Personalunion Litauens mit Polen von 1385 den Aufstieg, so zog …

Wachtang Gorgasal

(142 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Wachtang Gorgasal, (Vahtang Gorgasali; 1. Hälfte des 5.Jh. – 502), König von Iberien (Ostgeorgien). Sein Beiname bedeutet »Wolfskopf« und leitet sich von seiner Helmzier her. Die seit seiner Thronbesteigung um 446 verfolgten Ziele einer Stärkung seiner Zentralgewalt und ihrer Ausdehnung auf ganz Georgien sowie dessen Lösung aus der Abhängigkeit vom pers. Sasanidenreich waren 483 vorübergehend erreicht. Gleichzeitig setzte er beim Patriarchen von Antiochien die Weihe seines Kandid…

Radziwill

(344 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] 1.? Nikolaus?V. , genannt »der Rote« (Mikołaj Rudy Radziwiłł; 27.4.1512 – 27.4.1584, Wilna), Großkanzler und Großhetman von Litauen, seit 1566 (als Nachfolger seines Vetters Nikolaus des Schwarzen [2.]) Woiwode von Wilna, trat um 1564 zum Calvinismus über. Seine Nachkommen blieben dem ref. Bekenntnis treu und sicherten bis zu ihrem Aussterben 1667 den Fortbestand der ref. Gemeinden auf den »Radziwillschen Gütern« (des Birsener Zweiges) in Litauen. Peter Hauptmann Bibliography T. Nowakowski, Die R.s. Die Gesch. einer großen eur. Familie, 1968, 79–81. 2.? Nik…

Starec

(348 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Pl. Starcy), bez. als russ. Äquivalent des griech. Wortes γε´ρωn̆/gérōn einen erfahrenen und insofern meist schon älteren Asketen, dessen seelsorgerlicher Führung sich neben jüngeren Asketen auch in der Welt lebende Christen vorbehaltlos unterwerfen. Als dt. Übers. des Begriffs in dieser Eingrenzung empfiehlt sich daher wohl am ehesten »Altvater«. Der Ursprung dieser Erscheinung liegt schon im altkirchl. Mönchtum des Ostens. Antonius d.Gr. ist das Urbild eines S. schlechthin. Doch ihre w…

Peter

(230 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] der Große (30.5./9.6.1672 Moskau – 28.1./8.2.1725 St. Petersburg), seit 1682 Zar von Rußland, seit 1721 allruss. Kaiser, mußte anfangs die Herrschaft mit seinem Halbbruder Ivan V. (1666–1696) teilen und bis 1689 die Regentschaft seiner Halbschwester Sofija ertragen. Danach überließ er seiner Mutter noch weitgehend die Regierungsgeschäfte, um sie erst nach ihrem Tode 1694 entschlossen anzupacken. Durch den Sieg über Schweden im Nordischen Krieg (1700–1721), der den Zugang zur Ostse…

Rakówer Katechismus

(146 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] ist zur gängigen Bez. für die wichtigste Lehrschrift der antitrinitarischen Kirche (Antitrinitarier) der Polnischen Brüder geworden, weil Valentin Schmalz, Johannes Völkel und Hieronymus Moskoszowski, die diesen Katechismus unter Verwendung von Vorarbeiten F. Sozzinis verfaßten, an ihrem 1603 im Städtchen Raków bei Sandomierz gegründeten Gymnasium als Lehrer wirkten und der R.K. dort auch 1605 in polnischer, 1608 in dt. und 1609 in lat. Sprache gedr. wurde. Die Theol. des R.K. is…

Smolitsch

(135 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Smolitsch,  Igor (9.2.1898 Uman' – 2.11.1970 Berlin), der als Privatgelehrter zum bedeutendsten russ. Kirchenhistoriker des 20.Jh. wurde, konnte sein Studium nach Teilnahme am Krieg und Bürgerkrieg sowie einem Zwischenaufenthalt in Konstantinopel erst 1923 in Berlin aufnehmen, und zwar zunächst an dem von Emigranten ins Leben gerufenen »Russ. Wiss. Institut«, anschließend an der Universität, wo er 1934 mit einer Diss. über I. Kireevskij zum Dr. phil. promoviert wurde. Aus den ansc…

Stanislaus

(146 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Stanislaus, der Heilige (um 1036–1040 Szczepanów – 11.4.1079 Krakau), Märtyrerbischof und Patron Polens. Zunächst Pfarrer in Czembocz, geriet er als Bf. von Krakau (seit 1072) in heftigen Streit mit König Bolesław II. Śmiały, der ihn das Leben kostete. Gegenüber der kirchlicherseits gepflegten Überlieferung, derzufolge er während einer Messe in der Michaelskirche vom König selbst erschlagen wurde, weil er dessen Lebenswandel gerügt hatte, verdient die andere, wonach er wegen polit.…

Posen

(240 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Poznan´), Bistum. 968 als Missionsbistum für ganz Polen gegründet, nachdem der Piastenherzog Mieszko I. mit seiner Taufe 966 die Christianisierung Polens eingeleitet hatte, verlor P. schon 999/1000 seinen Vorrang infolge der Gründung des Erzbistums Gnesen (Gniezno), dem es Anfang des 11.Jh. als Suffraganbistum eingegliedert wurde. Es umfaßte fortan die Mitte Großpolens und den Süden Masowiens. Zwar erlangte Bf. Paweł Grzymała 1232 das sog. »Große Privileg« für P., doch erst 1821 …

Soner

(142 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Sohner), Ernst (Dezember 1572 Nürnberg – 28.9.1612 Altdorf bei Nürnberg), seit 1603 Stadtphysikus in Nürnberg, seit 1605 Prof. für Medizin an der reichsstädtischen Akademie in Altdorf und 1607/08 deren Rektor, war auf einer Bildungsreise 1598 in Leyden durch Andreas Wojdowski und Christoph Ostorodt für die theol. Lehrmeinungen ihres Meisters F. Sozzini gewonnen worden, für die er dann in Altdorf im vertrauten Kreise warb. Dabei ließ er solche Vorsicht walten, daß man zu seinen Le…

Narrheit

(273 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Narrheit, heilige. Als solche bez. man in der Ostkirche in Anlehnung an 1Kor 4,10ff. die asketische Praxis, durch vorgetäuschten Verlust des Verstandes sich Mißhandlungen und der Vereinsamung mitten in der Welt auszusetzen und so vor der Gefahr einer Bewunderung durch die Menge zu bewahren. Sie setzt eine christl. Umwelt ebenso voraus wie das Fehlen von Institutionen für Geisteskranke. Die hl.N. begegnet erstmals im 4.Jh. bei einer Nonne in Ägypten, dann zuweilen im Vorderen Orien…

Rustaweli

(145 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Rustaweli, Schota (Šota Rust[a]veli; 12./13.Jh.), ist mit seinem Versepos aus 1669 vierzeiligen Strophen »Vephistqaosani« (»Der Mann/Recke im Panther-/Tigerfell«) als größter georgischer Dichter in die Weltlit. eingegangen. Hunderte von Legenden, Bühnenstücken, Gedichten und Erzählungen um sein Leben und Werk belegen seine feste Verankerung im Bewußtsein der Georgier. Doch über seine Lebensumstände ist – wie bei Homer – nichts Sicheres überliefert. Die Herkunftsbez. besagt wenig, …

Vladimir

(153 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (der Heilige; um 960 – 15.7.1015 Berestovo), Fürst von Kiev. Als jüngster Sohn des Kiever Fürsten Svjatoslav erhielt er 969 das Teilfürstentum Novgorod, mußte es aber 977 auf der Flucht vor zwei älteren Brüdern verlassen. Nachdem er es mit Hilfe warägischer Söldner zurückgewonnen hatte, zog er gegen Kiev, das ihm 980 kampflos in die Hände fiel. Als Alleinherrscher des Kiever Reiches entschied er die unaufschiebbar gewordene Frage einer rel. Neuorientierung im Sinne seiner in Kons…

Olmütz

(340 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Olomouc), Stadt an der mittleren March (Morava; Tschechische Republik) mit 106 000 Einwohnern (1989). O. hat sich aus einer 1055 erstmals erwähnten Siedlung am Fuße des mitten im späteren Stadtgebiet gelegenen »Fürstenbergs« entwickelt. Dort wurde anstelle einer alten Burganlage 1107–1131 der im 13./14.Jh. und nochmals 1883–1890 umgestaltete St.-Wenzels-Dom errichtet. Als Sitz eines Bischofs seit 1063 (bis 1344 Mainz und 1344–1421 Prag unterstellt) und eines Erzbischofs seit 177…

Warschau

(229 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Warszawa), die Hauptstadt Polens mit 1,65 Mio. Einwohnern (1998), geht auf eine Handelssiedlung am linken Weichselufer aus dem 11./12.Jh. zurück, die 1413 die Kulmer Stadtrechte erhielt und 1406–1526 Residenz der masowischen Piastenherzöge war. Nach deren Aussterben wurde W. der Krone Polens eingegliedert, 1529 erstmals und seit 1569 regelmäßig Tagungsort des Sejm, worauf der Hofsitz der Könige 1596 von Krakau nach W. verlegt wurde. Im 16. – 18.Jh. entwickelte sich W. zu einem e…

Schlesien

(965 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (polnisch Śla[c_bottom_right]sk, lat. Silesia). Diese Gebietsbez. hat sich ungeachtet aller polit., ethnischen und konfessionellen Veränderungen behauptet. Ihre Herleitung vom Vandalenstamm der Silingen erscheint zweifelhaft. Eher geht sie auf eine slaw. Wurzel (wie etwa altpolnisch śle[c_bottom]cgna[c_bottom_right]cć, »naß«) zurück. Als Landschaft umfaßt Sch. beiderseits der oberen und mittleren Oder eine wie ein Eichenblatt geformte, im Südwesten von den Sudeten und im Süden von den westlichen Beskiden begrenzte Fläche von nahezu 40 000 km2. Mit…

Nikon

(248 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Nikon, Patriarch von Moskau (urspr. Nikita Minicˇ; 24.5.1605 Vel'demanovo bei Nizˇnij Novgorod – 17.8.1681 Jaroslavl'). Zunächst Weltpriester, wurde er nach dem Tod seiner drei Kinder und dem Klostereintritt seiner Frau im russ. Norden unter dem Namen Nikon 1635 Mönch in einer Einsiedelei und 1642 Abt eines Einödklosters. Als solcher begegnete er 1646 dem 17jährigen Zaren Aleksej Michajlovicˇ, den er so stark beeindruckte, daß er ihn zum Archimandriten des Moskauer Neuen Heilandsklo…

Polentz

(170 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Polentz, Georg v. (1478 aus meißnischem Adel – 28.4.1550 Balga am Frischen Haff), Bf. von Samland (seit 1519). Nach Studien in Leipzig und Italien stand er zunächst als Jurist in päpstl. und kaiserlichen Diensten, bevor er 1511 in den Deutschen Orden eintrat und 1516 Hauskomtur in Königsberg wurde. 1522–1525 regierte er als Stellvertreter des Hochmeisters das Ordensland Preußen. Seit 1522 für die Reformation gewonnen, trat er 1525 die Stiftslande seines Bistums an Herzog Albrecht d…

Stancarus

(149 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Stancarus,  Franciscus (um 1501 Mantua – 12.11.1574 Stopnica bei Sandomierz), Hebraist, Mediziner und Theologe, dessen Streitsucht überall, wohin ihn sein unstetes Leben führte, heftige Auseinandersetzungen auslöste. Wohl jüd. Abkunft und zunächst Priester oder Mönch, wurde er nach Studien in Basel und Süddeutschland 1544 in Wien und 1549 in Krakau Prof. für Hebraistik. Im Mai 1551 an die Universität Königsberg berufen, verließ er diese bereits nach einem Vierteljahr wieder, weil …

Slavophile

(285 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] Slavophiles are exponents of Russian intellectual and spiritual life; under the influence of Romanticism, since the early 19th century they have assigned the unique character of the Slavic people a critical role in deciding the future. They are opposed to the so-called “Westerners” who would unconditionally impose the heritage of the Western European Enlightenment. The question of Russia’s relationship to Europe was raised by P.Y. Chaadayev in his “Philosophical Letters,” which be…

Anthony (Khrapovitsky)

(109 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Antonij; Mar 17, 1863, Vatagino – Aug 10, 1936, Belgrade) was a towering figure both as theologian (rector of the Spiritual Academies of Moscow [1890] and Kazan'; harsh critic of the Western theology of satisfaction) and as hierarch (1900 bishop of Ufa; 1902 bishop of Zhytomyr; 1914 archbishop of Kharkov; 1981 Metropolitan of Kiev). At the election of the Moscow Patriarch in 1917 he assembled the most votes, but fate decided otherwise. Forced to flee in the civil war, after 1920 he led the Russian Orthodox Church in exile. Peter Hauptmann Bibliography Manuil (Lemeshevsk…

Mogila, Petr

(279 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Petro Mohyla; Petrus Mogilas; Petru Movilă; Dec 21/31, 1596, Suceava – Dec 22, 1646/ Jan 1, 1647, Kiev), metropolitan of Kiev (from 1633) and abbot of the Cave Monastery there (from 1627). He had become a monk there in 1625, after having had to abandon his attempts to regain rule over Moldavia, lost in 1607 by his father, Prince Simion Movilă. As the son of a Moldavian prince he had connections in Poland-Lithuania that favored his rise. With the confirmation by Vladislav IV of hi…

Vakhtang Gorgasal

(151 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1st half of the 5th cent. – 502), king of Iberia (East Georgia). His byname, which means “wolf ’s head,” relates to the decoration on his helmet. After his accession c. 446, he pursued the goals of strengthening his royal authority, extending it throughout Georgia, and freeing Georgia from dependence on the Persian Sassanian Empire. He achieved these goals temporarily in 483. At the same time, he persuaded the patriarch of Antioch to consecrate his candidate Peter as catholicos a…
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