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Herbart, Johann Friedrich

(1,197 words)

Author(s): Helmer, Karl
[German Version] I. Life – II. Work – III. Impact (May 4, 1776, Oldenburg – Aug 14, 1841, Göttingen), philosopher and educationalist. I. Life After his initial schooling with a tutor and attendance of the Latin School in Oldenburg, Herbart began studying philosophy and law in Jena in 1794. He enjoyed the table fellowship of J.G. Fichte and joined the Bund der Freien Männer (Union of free men). In 1797, he accepted a tutor position in Bern, visited J.H. Pestalozzi and witnessed experimental teaching. A private schola…

Rhetoric

(4,336 words)

Author(s): Schirren, Thomas | Mitchell, Margaret M. | Ueding, Gert | Zachhuber, Johannes | Helmer, Karl | Et al.
[German Version] I. Antiquity 1. Greek. The expression ῥητορικὴ τέχνη/ rhētorikḗ téchnē was coined by the Sophistic school, which created the theoretical foundation for a form of communication thought of – especially in the Greek world – as an agon: the appearance of one or more communicators before the public, engaging in a linguistic contest. The cultural background of such performance events ¶ (Speech act) was the literary agon and the forensic contest, already mentioned by Homer ( Il. 18.497–508). It was the particular achievement of the Greek Enlightenment of the 5th…

Rhetorik

(4,079 words)

Author(s): Schirren, Thomas | Mitchell, Margaret M. | Ueding, Gert | Zachhuber, Johannes | Helmer, Karl | Et al.
[English Version] I. Antike 1.Griechisch Der Begriff ρ῾ητορικη` τε´χn̆η/rhētorikē´ téchnē ist eine Schöpfung der Sophistik, die damit die theoretische Grundlage für eine zumal im griech. Kulturraum als Agon verstandene Kommunikationsform schuf, nämlich das Auftreten eines oder mehrerer sprachlich agierender Kommunikatoren vor einem Publikum. Kulturelle Voraussetzungen solcher Performanzereignisse (Sprechakt/Sprechhandlung) bilden der Agon von Dichtern, aber auch der Rechtsstreit, der schon bei Homer (…