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Judaism

(6,576 words)

Author(s): Hoffmann, Philippe (Paris) | Hoffmann, Christhard (Bergen, Norwegen RWG) | Mendels, Doron (Jerusalem RWG)
Hoffmann, Philippe (Paris) I. Anti-Semitism (CT) [German version] A. Subject Area (CT) The application of "anti-Semitism", a term coined in 1879 by a political and social movement as an ideological self-reference, to the ancient world is problematic, in that it suggests a false identity between ancient and modern animosity toward Jews. However, it has established itself as a collective term referring to “alle(r) judenfeindlichen Äußerungen, Strömungen und Bewegungen in der Geschichte” ("all anti-Jewish utte…

Categories

(1,231 words)

Author(s): Hoffmann, Philippe (Paris)
(κατηγορίαι; katēgoríai, Lat. praedicamenta). [German version] A. Definition ‘Category’ is a universal term: categories are conceived partly as ‘classes’ or genres of object, partly as concepts or meanings, and partly as universal ‘predicates’ (basic forms of statement; Greek κατηγορίαι).  Aristotle, the Stoics and  Neoplatonism (Plotinus and the commentators on Aristotle) developed various doctrines concerning categories, relating to various disciplines (grammar and logic, semantics and predication theory, physics and ontology, also psychology). Hoffmann, Philippe (Paris) [German version] B. Aristotle and the Stoics Full lists of the ten Aristotelian categories exist only in two texts (Aristot. Cat. 4,1b 25-2a 4, and Top. 1,9,103b 20-39). They are associated with a doctrine of the homonymy of all that exists, and give expression to the manifold meaning of ‘existence’ (for Aristotle, ‘existence’ does not represent a genre). The term concerns ‘[syntactically] disjoint’ expressions signifying: substance (οὐσία, τί ἐστι; ousía, tí esti), quantity (ποσόν; posón), quality (ποιόν; poión), relati…

Severianus

(267 words)

Author(s): Hoffmann, Philippe (Paris) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Gabala/Syria, c. 400 The bishop of Gabala (present-day Ǧabla) in Syria who appeared from AD 401 as a preacher in  Constantinopolis. His name is primarily tied to the acrimonious conflict with Iohannes [4] Chrysostomus after the latter was nominated as ec…