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Pelagianism

(1,893 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
1. Definition Pelagianism is an important theological trend that was an offshoot of a fourth-century ascetic movement (Asceticism 2). It takes its name from Pelagius (ca. 354-after 418), a British (Irish?) monk, who went to Rome in about 385. 2. Pelagius’s Teaching The preaching of Pelagius had a practical ascetic thrust. He attacked a Christianity that had no results. With his demand that the whole church should be holy,…

False Decretals

(631 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
The False Decretals (also known as Pseudoisidorian Decretals) are the most influential part of a comprehensive collection of church statutes that also includes the Collectio Hispana Gallica Augustodunensis, the Capitularies of Benedict the Levite, and the Capitula Angilramni. They had their origin in approximately 850 in the kingdom of the West Franks. Though naming Isidore Mercator of Seville as their author, they seem to have been written by clergy of the archbishopric of Reims. For their historical background we must look to the growing integration of the church in…

Siricius

(98 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] Siricius, Papst

Silverius

(119 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] Silverius, Papst 8.6.536 – 11.11.537 (Verzicht; gest. 2.12.537 Insel Ponza oder Palmaria im Golf von Gaeta, geb. Frosinone, Kampanien). Der LP berichtet, daß S. auf Druck des Ostgoten Theodahad zum Bf. erhoben wurde. Als die Byzantiner unter Belisar Rom belagerten, setzte sich S. für die kampflose Übergabe der Stadt ein, wurde jedoch wenig später seines Amtes enthoben. Über sein kirchl. Wirken sind nur Klerikerweihen bekannt. Heinrich Holze Bibliography LP 1, 1886, 290–295 RPR(J) 1, 21885, Nachdr. 1956, 115f. E. Caspar, Gesch. des Papsttums, Bd.2, 1933 J. Richa…

Pelagius I.

(170 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] Pelagius I., Papst 16.4.556 – 4.3.561, bereits als Diakon von großem Einfluß (röm. Apokrisiar in Konstantinopel), versuchte jedoch vergeblich, die Plünderung Roms durch die Goten (546) abzuwenden. Im Dreikapitel-Streit nahm P…

Loccum Abbey

(218 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] Loccum Abbey, a Cistercian monastery lying 50 km northwest of Hanover, founded in 1163 as a filiation of Volkenroda, Thuringia. It was granted papal exemption in 1183 and an imperial charter in 1152. Its imperial immediacy was confirmed in 1530. The monastery gradually made the transition to the Reformation in the late 16th century, although it retained its autonomy. In 1677, G.W. Molanus organized the hospice according to the principles of Protestant monasticism (

Marcellus I

(167 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (bishop of Rome May 27/Jun 26, 308 – Jan 16, 309). After a vacancy of several years caused by the persecutions, Marcellus succeeded Marcellinus. According to the Liber pontificalis he was of Roman origin. As bishop, Marcellus reorganized the Roman ¶ congregation, and made “25 titular churches in Rome in effect into parishes, because of the baptism and penance of many converts from the heathen, and beca…

Linus, Pope (Saint)

(225 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (2nd half of the 1st cent.). Since Irenaeus of Lyon, who refers to 2 Tim 4:21, Linus has been regarded as having been appointed by the apostles themselves as the first bishop of the Roman congregation (Iren. Haer. III 3.3; Eus…

Zosimus, Pope (Saint)

(123 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] Zosimus, of Greek descent, was pope from Mar 18, 417 to Dec 26, 418. His pontificate is controversial, because during the Pelagian controversy (Pelagius/Pelagians) he advocated rehabilitating Celestius, who had presented a confession of faith but was forced to retract his support by a synod in Carthage in 418. Zosimus also created unrest among the Gallic bishops, because in an effort to reinforce Roman primacy he bestowed metropolitan rights on the bishop of Arles. Heinrich Holze Bibliography Sources: CPL 1644–1647 CSEL 35/1, 99–117 LP 1, 223–224 RPR 1, 49–51 Mansi 4,…

Knipstro, Johannes

(191 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (May 1, 1497, Sandau, Altmark – Oct 4, 1556, Wolgast, Pomerania). As a Franciscan monk, Knipstro began his studies at Frankfurt an der Oder, but was then transferred to Pyritz (Pyrzyce), where he emerged in 1521 as one of the first Protestant propagandists in Pomerania. There followed stays in Stettin (Szczecin), Stargard, and Stralsund. In 1531 he was called to Greifswald to implement the Reformation. At the diet of Treptow (Trzebiatów) in1534, which resolved to introduce the Ref…

Cenobites

(120 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] The word “cenobites” is derived from Gk κοινός βίος/ koinós bíos and refers to the common life as the characteristic feature of the monastery, ¶ as opposed to the isolated life of anachorites. Pachomius is considered the founder of cenobitic monasticism; his…

Marcellinus

(207 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (bishop of Rome Jun 30, 295/296 – Oct 25, 304). His pontificate marks “a dark chapter in the history of the Roman church” (Caspar, 98). He is mentioned in 30th place in the

John Climacus (Saint)

(201 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (late 6th cent. – mid-7th cent. ce) was an anchorite for many years and abbot of St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai, St. Catherine's Monastery). His epithet comes from his major work, Κλίμαξ τοῦ παραδεῖσου/ Klímax toú parade ίsou (“Ladder to heaven”). In this tractate on the ascetic life, with which he became the spiritual teacher of Eastern monasticism, John offers a portrayal of the path that the monk must travel in pursuing perfection. Comparable to Jacob's Ladder, it leads in 30 stages from renunciation of the wor…

Pelagius I, Pope

(193 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (pontificate Apr 16, 556 – Mar 4, 561). Already an influential figure while still a deacon (Roman apocrisiary in Constantinople), in 546 he tried in vain to persuade the Goths not to sack Rome. In the Three Chapters Controversy, Pelagius took an equivocal position. Initially he spoke out against condemning them, but later, under pressure from the emperor, supported recognition of the imperial Council of Constantinople (IV, 2). As a result, Justinian I made him pope. The Liber pontificalis mentions a rumor that he was in part to blame for …

Silverius, Pope

(141 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] Jun 8, 536 – Nov 11, 537 (deposed; died Dec 2, 537, on the island of Ponza or Palmaria in the Gulf of Gaeta; born in Frozinone, Campania). The Liber pontificalis records that Silverius had been elevated to the episcopate at the instigation of Theodahad, Ostrogoth king of Italy. When the Byzantines under Belisarius laid siege to Rome, Silverius urged surrendering the city without resistance, but he was relieved of his office shortly afterwards. All that is known of his work as bishop of Rome comes from records of ordinations. Heinrich Holze Bibliography LP 1, 1886, 290–295 RPR…

Sternberg

(159 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (Mecklenburg). Sternberg is a town north of Schwerin where pogroms took place after Jews were charged with desecrating the host. After a hearing and trial, the accused were burnt at the stake, a prelude to the expulsion of all Jews from Mecklenburg. In the years that followed, the miraculous hosts in Sternberg made it a popular pilgrimage site. Duke Magnus unde…

Pontian, Pope (Saint)

(165 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (230 – Sep 28, 235). The theological significance of Pontian rests on his express approval of the condemnation of Origen by Bishop Demetrius of Alexandria. His episcopate fell in the period of the schism that had begun under Callistus I. During the persecution of Christians by Maximinus Thrax (235–238), both Pontian and his rival Hippolytus of Rome (217…

Slüter, Joachim

(190 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich

Hilarion of Gaza, Saint

(204 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (291–371), was a Palestinian monk, whose life is described by Jerome in the Vita Hilarionis (= VH; c. 390). According to this, Hilarion, who had acquired a philosophical education in Alexandria, was converted and became a student of Anthony, then settled in nearby Gaza as a hermit and performed miracles; he bec…

Bruno of Segni

(169 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (1040/1050, Asti – Jul 18, 1123, Segni, near Rome) was educated in the monastery of St. Perpetua near Asti and studied in Bologna. In 1073, he became a canon of the cathedral at Siena. In 1079, he debated with Berengar of Tours in …

Kammin

(203 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] is a city on the Dievenow in Pomerania; since 1176 an episcopal seat, first founded in Wolin in 1140 following the missionary journeys of Otto of Bamberg. The diocese received broad independence (Exemption) since it was subject to the Holy See in Rome, but not to the archdioceses of Gniezno or Magdeburg. In the 13th/14th centuries, the diocese, initially restricted to the territories subject to the dukes …

Vigilius, Pope

(178 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (Mar 29, 537 – Jun 7, 555), Roman deacon and apocrisiary in Constantinople, made pope after the conquest of Rome by Byzantine troops. His pontificate was dominated by the superior power of the Byzantine hierarchy. While Vigilius asserted papal supremacy over the Western churches (correspondence with Arles), in the Three Chapters Controversy he had to submit to Justinian I. Initially he refused to assent to the edict of 544, but he abandoned his resistance at the Counc…

Siricius, Pope

(98 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (384–399) came forward as an opponent of the ascetic circles associated with Jerome and Paulinus of Nola. In his letters, he gave advice on questions of the life of the church and dealing with heretics. His pontificate marked the beginning of the tradition of the papal decretals as an independent legal source alongside synodal decisions. Heinrich Holze Bibliography PL 13, 1131–1196; 67, 231–238 RPR( J) 1, 21885, repr. 1956, 40–42 LP 1, 1886, 216f. E. Caspar, Geschichte des Papsttums, vol. I, 1930 F.R. Gahbauer, BBKL X, 1995, 530/531…

Mecklenburg

(1,228 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] Situated between the Elbe and the Recknitz, Mecklenburg takes its name from the residence of the Obodrite princes in Michelenburg near Wismar. Originally settled by Germanic tribes, it was resettled during the migration period after 600 by West Slavic tribes (Obodrites, Lutycy, Wilcy), which already under Charlemagne and Otto I had come under the sway of the Frankish and then the German empire. As the Slavic rebellion in 983 shows, initial missionary efforts met with resistance. T…

Pelagius II, Pope

(139 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (pontificate 579–590), of Gothic ancestry. His pontificate was dominated by conflicts ¶ with the Lombards, against whom he sought an alliance with the Franks when help from the emperor was not forthcoming. Of his actions, the Liber pontificalis records that he donated his own house for the care of the poor and earned respect for building several churches. He tried in vain to end the schism of Aquileia, a product of the still smoldering Three Chapters Controversy. Relations with the Byzantine church…

Dorotheus of Gaza

(185 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (500/510, Antioch – 560/580, near Gaza) lived for years in a monastery near Gaza, where he was a student of Barsanuphius and John the Prophet. In 540 he founded his own monastery. His writings include works of spiritual instruction, several letters, a vita, and a collection of aphorisms. Building on Evagrius Ponticus, Basil the Great, and John Chrysostom, Dorotheus developed a cenobitic spirituality rooted in baptism. Under the guidance of a spiritual leader, …

Zephyrin, Saint

(200 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] Zephyrin, Saint, bishop of Rome 198–217, 14th name in the earliest Roman episcopal list. The Liber pontificalis states that he issued directives regarding the eucharistic liturgy and the ordination of clergy. Zephyrin is a controversial figure on account of his theology, which tended toward modalism. Hippolytus of Rome calls him a “simple man without education,” who (influenced by his colleague and successor Callistus I) stated his creed: “I know that there is one God, Jesus Christ; nor except him do I know any other that is begotten and amenable to suffering” (Hipp.

Mark, Pope (Saint)

(170 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (bishop of Rome from Jan 18 to Oct 7, 336). When Miltiades was pope, Mark (then a deacon) probably held a leadership position alongside the bishop in the Roman church (Eus. Hist. eccl. X 5.18). There is no evidence of how he reacted to the conflicts over the Nicene Creed (Synod of Tyre in 335; banishment of Athanasius to Trier 335/337). Of Mark th…

Cassian, John (Saint)

(395 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (360, Dobruja – 430/435, Marseille). Born in a Christian home, Cassian undertook a pilgrimage to Palestine and Egypt, where for more than a decade he was a student of the monastic fathers. During the Origenistic controversies he left Egypt c. 399/400, went to Constantinople and John Chrysostom, went to Rome after the latter's banishment, and ultimately settled in southern Gaul, where in 415 he founded a monastery and a convent. With his writings, in which he reflected on the experiences of ascetic life, he became the teacher of western monasticism (Benedict, Rule of). In D…

Pelagius II.

(135 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] Pelagius II., Papst 579–590, von gotischer Herkunft. Sein Pontifikat war geprägt von den Auseinandersetzungen mit den Langobarden, gegen die er wegen ausbleibender kaiserlicher Hilfe die Franken als Bündnispartner zu gewinnen suchte. Über sein Wirken berichtet der Liber pontificalis, er habe sein eigenes Haus für die Armenversorgung gestiftet und sich um den Bau mehrerer Kirchen verdient gemacht. Das Schisma von Aquileia, das um den noch immer schwelenden Dreikapitel-Streit entsta…

Zephyrin

(179 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] Zephyrin, Bf. von Rom 198–217, wird in der ältesten röm. Bischofsliste an 14. Stelle genannt. Der Liber pontificalis berichtet, er habe Anweisungen zur Liturgie der Eucharistiefeier sowie zur Ordination der Geistlichen erlassen. Z. ist umstritten wegen seiner zum Modalismus…

Vigilius

(170 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] Vigilius, Papst 29.3.537 – 7.6.555, röm. Diakon und Apokrisiar in Konstantinopel, wurde nach der Eroberung Roms durch oström. Truppen zum Papst erhoben. Sein Pontifikat war von der Übermacht der byz. Kirchenherrschaft bestimmt. Wä…

Rupert

(286 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] von Deutz (1075/1080 vermutlich Umgebung von Lüttich – 1129 Deutz), monastischer Theologe aus dem Benediktinerkloster St. Laurentius bei Lüttich. Im Investiturstreit wurde R. wegen …

Zosimus

(116 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] Zosimus, Papst 18.3.417 – 26.12.418, von griech. Herkunft. Sein Pontifikat ist umstritten, weil er sich im pelagianischen Streit (Pelagius) für die Rehabilitierung des Caelestius, der ihm ein Glaubensbekenntnis vorgelegt hatte, einsetzte, von der Synode in Karthago 418 aber zum Widerruf gezwungen wurde…

Sternberg

(152 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] (Mecklenburg). Kleinstadt nördlich von Schwerin, in der es 1492 zu Judenverfolgungen kam, nachdem der Vorwurf der Hostienschändung laut geworden war. Nach Verhör und Prozeß wurden die Beschuldigten verbrannt, was den Auftakt zur Vertreibung aller Juden aus Mecklenburg bildete. In den folgenden Jahren entwickelte sich S. wegen seiner wundertätigen Hostien zu einem vielbesuchten Wallfahrtso…

Rupert of Deutz

(310 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (1075/1080, probably near Liège – 1129, Deutz), monastic theologian from the Benedictine abbey of St. Lawrence near Liège. Rupert’s criticism of the simony of Bishop Otbert of Liège during the Investiture Controversy led to his banishment for several years, an exile lamented in his Carmina de sancto Laurentio. In 1108/1109 he was ordained to the priesthood. A few years later, he wrote De divinis officiis, a meditation on the church year, which drew criticism from William of Saint-Thierry on account of its eucharistic doctrine. His De voluntate Dei, a treatise on evi…

Persecutions of Christians

(4,158 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro | Holze, Heinrich | Hummel, Karl-Joseph | Gensichen, Hans-Werner | Pointer, Richard W.
[German Version] I. Early Church During the period of the Early Church, the Roman state took violent measures against confessing adherents of Christianity, on the basis of a negative view of Christian congregations as groups of conspirators, since they refused to recognize the Roman gods or participate in the emperor cult. As a rule, adherence to Christianity was determined by judicial proceedings, the nature of which is quite clear from the Acts of the Martyrs. Additional sources include both pagan …

Sin, Guilt, and Forgiveness

(17,599 words)

Author(s): Krötke, Wolf | Hock, Klaus | Grund, Alexandra | Metzner, Rainer | Holze, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology Sin is a human breach of relationship with God. The term is emptied of content if it is used only for moral lapses. Only if a moral transgression in the mundane world is understood as a dimension of human alienation from God can it properly be called sin. The fundamental act of sin is unfaith (Unbelief ). In unfaith we close our eyes to the fact that we owe our existence to God and that he turns to us in love. We resist the idea that he determines our lives totally. T…

Sünde/Schuld und Vergebung

(16,230 words)

Author(s): Krötke, Wolf | Hock, Klaus | Grund, Alexandra | Metzner, Rainer | Holze, Heinrich | Et al.
[English Version] I. BegrifflichkeitSünde (S.) ist der Bruch des Gottesverhältnisses durch den Menschen. Dieser Begriff wird entleert, wenn er nur auf moralische Verfehlungen angewandt wird. Nur sofern ein innerweltl. moralisches Fehlverhalten als Dimension der Abwendung des Menschen von Gott begriffen wird, kann es mit Recht S. genannt werden. Der Grundakt der S. ist der Unglaube. Im Unglauben verschließen sich Menschen dagegen, daß sie Gott ihr Dasein verdanken und er sich ihnen zuwendet. Sie we…

Confession (of Faith)

(12,201 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Kreuzer, Siegfried | Reumann, John | Staats, Reinhart | Holze, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Bible – III. Church History – IV. Systematics – V. Practical Theology – VI. Law – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religions The term confession refers to various phenomena, including the confession of faith and of sin. A confession of faith can be understood as an officially sanctioned, formulaic summary of the central doctrines of a religious or a confessional community (“denomination”). Recited in cultic procedures and/or in everyday piety, i…
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