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al-Kumayt b. Zayd al-Asadī

(1,700 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abū l-Mūstahill, ¶ poète arabe de Kūfa (60-126/680-743) qu’il ne faut pas confondre avec deux Asadites plus anciens et moins connus, al-Kumayt b. Maʿrūf et al-Kumayt b. T̲h̲aʿlaba (voir Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Ḏj̲amhara, II, 373; Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt, 163; al-Āmidī, Muʾtalif, n° 571; Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Iṣāba, nos 7498, 7499; etc.). Al-Kumayt s’initia à la poésie et à la langue des Bédouins de façon indirecte et rencontra des poètes tels qu’al-Farazdaḳ, Ruʾba b. al-ʿAd̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ ou le Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite al-Ṭirimmāḥ dont il partageait l’hostilité à l’égard…

Abū Dulāma

(395 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Zand b. al-Ḏj̲awn, esclave noir, client des Banū Asad à Kūfa. Il est déjà mentionné dans l’histoire du dernier calife umayyade, mais il apparaīt comme poète sous les ʿAbbāsides seulement, et joue le rôle d’un bouffon à la cour d’al-Saffāḥ et surtout à celles d’al-Manṣūr et d’al-Mahdī. On dit que son poème sur la mort d’Abū Muslim (137/754-5) fut la première de ses œuvres à lui faire un nom. Des échantillons de sa poésie le font apparaître comme un versificateur intelligent et spirituel, qui utilis…

Abū Ḍamḍam

(169 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, héros d’un recueil d’anecdotes cité déjà au Xe siècle. On lui fait tenir différents propos insensés, notamment des décisions ridicules concernant des questions judiciaires, pareilles à celles que plus tard on a attribuées à Ḳarāḳūs̲h̲. Cet Abū Ḍamḍam est peut-être identique au ¶ dévot qui, avant ou au temps de Muḥammad, offrait aux serviteurs de Dieu sa bonne réputation au lieu de l’impôt pour les pauvres; car ce renoncement formel au respect des hommes pourrait facilement être interprété comme une permission, voire un engagement à dém…

Ḏj̲urayd̲j̲

(201 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, saint dont la légende aurait été racontée par le Prophète lui-même, de sorte qu’elle a trouvé place dans le ḥadīt̲h̲. Les différentes versions présentent des divergences dans les détails, mais dans toutes se retrouve le trait suivant: le saint fut accusé, par une femme qui avait eu un enfant d’un autre, d’être le père de cet enfant; mais l’enfant, sur une question posée par le saint, nomma lui-même son vrai père, libérant ainsi le saint de tout soupçon. Ḏj̲urayd̲j̲ est la reproduction arabe de Gregorius, et une version dit avec raison qu’il a vécu dans la ¶ période sans prophètes ( fatra [ q.v.]…

Miʿrad̲j̲

(8,968 words)

Author(s): Schrieke, B. | Horovitz, J. | Bencheikh, J. E. | Knappert, J. | Robinson, B. W.
(a.) désigne à l’origine une échelle, puis une «montée» et particulièrement l’ascension du Prophète. 1. — Dans l’exégèse islamique et la tradition mystique du monde arabe. Le Ḳurʾān (LXXXI, 19-25 et LUI, 1-12) décrit une vision dans laquelle un messager divin apparaît à Muḥammad (LIII, 12-18) et parle d’une seconde mission du même genre; dans les deux cas, le Prophète voit une apparition céleste arriver de loin vers lui, mais rien n’indique que lui-même ait été enlevé au ciel. Tout autre est l’aventure à laquelle fait al…

Dabistān al-Mad̲h̲āhib

(369 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Massé, H.
, «L’école des religions», ouvrage persan qui décrit les diverses religions et en particulier la situation religieuse de l’Hindoustan au XIe/XVIIe s.; le plus complet en langue persane, postérieur au Bayān al-adyān (XIIe s.), précis mais sommaire, et à la Tabṣirat al-ʿawāmm (XIIIe s.), conçue du point de vue s̲h̲īʿite. Les sources du Dabistān sont tantôt les livres saints des diverses confessions religieuses, tantôt les renseignements oraux communiqués à l’auteur, tantôt enfin les observations personnelles de celui-ci. Dans maints chapitres, il a …

ʿAbbāsa

(622 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, fille du calife al-Mahdī, sœur des califes Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd et al-Hādī; c’est à elle que la localité de Suwayḳat al-ʿAbbāsa est redevable de son nom. Elle eut trois maris successifs et tous les trois moururent avant elle, ce qui inspira à Abū Nuwās des vers satiriques, dans lesquels il conseillait au calife, comme moyen de faire périr un traître, de le marier avec ʿAbbāsa. Son nom est lié à l’histoire de la chute des Barmakides, à cause d’une intrigue amoureuse qu’on lui a prêtée avec D̲j̲aʿf…

Abū Maʿs̲h̲ar Nad̲j̲īḥ b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sindī

(231 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Rosenthal, F.
al-Madanī, esclave du Yémen, peut-être d’ascendance indienne, qui aspirait à l’affranchissement et vécut à Médine. Il était considéré comme un spécialiste de ḥadīt̲h̲ plutôt «faible», mais il est justement célèbre en tant qu’auteur d’un Kitāb al-Mag̲h̲āzi. De nombreux fragments de ce dernier ont été conservés par al-Wāḳidī et Ibn Saʿd. Parmi ses sources, il mentionne Nāfiʿ, le mawlā d’Ibn ʿUmar, Muḥ. b. Kaʿb al-Ḳuraẓī ainsi que d’autres savants de Médine. En 160/776-7, il quitta Médine et demeura à Bag̲h̲dād jusqu’à sa mort en ramaḍān (?) 170/787. Il …

Bak̲h̲tiyār Nāma

(580 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Massé, H.
, connu aussi sous le nom d’histoire des dix vizirs, imitation musulmane de l’histoire indienne de Sindbād ou des sept vizirs [voir Sindibād]. Comme son modèle, le livre consiste en un récit dans le cadre duquel ont été insérées d’autres histoires qui, ici, se rattachent étroitement au récit fondamental. Le sujet est bref; le fils du roi Āzādbak̲h̲t est abandonné sur la route, peu après sa naissance, par ses parents en fuite; trouvé et élevé par des brigands, il est finalement fait prisonnier par les soldats du roi. …

Kawt̲h̲ar

(570 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Gardet, L.
, mot qui se trouve employé une seule fois dans le Ḳurʾān (CVIII, 1): «Oui, nous t’avons donné al-kawt̲h̲ar» (et la brève sourate CVIII reçut le nom de sūrat al-kawt̲h̲ar). Le mot vient de la racine KT̲H̲R «être abondant», selon la forme fawʿal qui n’est pas rare (p. ex. nawfal; autres exemples dans Brockelmann, Grundriss Aer vergleichenden Grammatik, I, 34). Kawt̲h̲ar, qui se retrouve dans la poésie ancienne (v. citations dans Ibn His̲h̲ām, éd. Wüstenfeld, 261, et Nöldeke-Schwally, Geschichte des Qorāns, I, 92), signifie «abondance». Quelques anciens auteurs de tafsīr interprètent ka…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Salām

(644 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Juif de Médine, qui s’appela d’abord al-Ḥuṣayn, et qui appartenait aux Banū Ḳaynuḳāʿ. Lorsqu’il embrassa l’Islam, Muḥammad lui donna le nom de ʿAbd Allāh. D’après les uns, il aurait embrassé l’Islam peu de temps après l’arrivée de Muḥammad à Médine; d’autres prétendent au contraire que sa conversion eut lieu lorsque Muhammad se trouvait encore à la Mekke. On doit plutôt ajouter foi à une autre notice — peu fondée d’après les critiques musulmans, — selon laquelle il aurait embrassé l’Islam en l’an 8/ 629-30…

Abū l-Ḳāsim

(223 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, nom du parasite dévot que Muḥammad b. Aḥmad Abū l-Muṭahhar al-Azdī dépeint comme un type bag̲h̲dādien dans sa Ḥikāyat Abī l-Ḳāsim. Le livre fut probablement composé dans la première moitié du Ve/XIe siècle, et il repro- duit fidèlement les aventures d’une journée de son héros. Abū l-Ḳāsim se fait écouter, au moyen de pieuses expressions, d’une société assemblée à un repas somptueux, se moque du maître de la maison et de ses invités, et fait briller son éloquence dans une comparaison détaillée entre les avantages de Bag̲h̲dād…

Dabistān al-Mad̲h̲āhib

(401 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Massé, H.
, “The school of religions”, a work in Persian describing the different religions of and in particular the religious situation in Hindustān in the 11th/17th century; it is the most complete account in the Persian language, later than the Bayān al-adyān (6th/12th century), which is accurate but concise, and than the Tabṣirat al-ʿawāmm (7th/13th century), written from the S̲h̲īʿite point of view. The sources of the Dabistān derive partly from the sacred books of the different religious persuasions, partly from verbal information given to th…

Abū Dulāma

(394 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Zand b. al-Ḏj̲awn , a black slave, client of the Banū Asad in Kūfa. He is already mentioned in the history of the last Umapyad caliph, but appears as a “poet” only under the ʿAbbāsids and plays the part of a court jester in the palace of al-Saffāḥ and especially in those of al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. His poem on the death of Abū Muslim (137/754-5) is said to have been the first of his works to make him a name. Examples of his poetry show him to have been a clever, witty versifica…

al-Kumayt b. Zayd al-Asadī

(1,820 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Mustahill , an Arab poet of Kūfa (60-126/680-743) who is not to be confused with two earlier and lesser known Asadīs, al-Kumayt b. Maʿrūf and al-Kumayt b. Thaʿlaba (see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Ḏj̲amhara . ii, 373; Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt ; al-Āmidī, Muʾtalif , no. 571; Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Iṣāba , nos. 7498 and 7499; etc.). Al-Kumayt applied himself in an indirect fashion to the poetry and the language of the Bedouins, and he was acquainted with poets such as al-Farazdak, Ru’ba b. al-ʿAd̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ and the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ī al-Ṭirimmāḥ, whose hostility towar…

Asīrgarh

(182 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, name of an ancient fortress situated in the district of Nīmar in the Central Provinces of British India; it stands on a projection of the Sātpurā Range. In 1600 it was wrested by Akbar from the last king of the Muḥammadan dynasty of Ḵh̲āndēs̲h̲; this event is also mentioned in an inscription which is set down to that period. Of the buildings, some of which were erected by Akbar’s successors, a mosque of the year 992 (1584) and still in a state of preservation is noteworthy from the fact that i…

Abū Maʿs̲h̲ar

(206 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Nad̲j̲īḥ b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, a slave, probably of Indian origin, who subsequently purchased his freedom and lived in Medina. He is especially famous as the author of a Kitāb al-mag̲h̲āzī, numerous fragments of which have been preserved by Wāḳidī and Ibn Saʿd. Amongst his authorities he mentions Nāfīʿ, the Mawlā of Ibn ʿOmar, Muḥammed b. Kaʿb al-Ḳuraẓī and other scholars of Medina. In the year 160 (776-777) he left Medina and remained till his death (170 = 786-787; Ramaḍān?) in Bagdad, where he enjoyed the favor of several members of the court o…

Umm al-Kitāb

(162 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the original copy of the Book with Allāh in heaven, from which the revelations of the Ḳurʾān come and from which Allāh “abrogates and confirms what He pleases” (Sūra xiii. 39). This original copy, called Aṣl al-Kitāb in Ḥadīt̲h̲. (e. g. Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, xxv. 26), is according to Sūra lxxxv. 21 written in a “carefully preserved table” ( fī lawḥ maḥfūẓ; cf. Enoch 93, 2; Book of Jubilees 5, 13; 16, 9; 32, 21). In the Medīna period Umm al-Kitāb is used in another sense: according to Sūra iii. 5, the book revealed by Allāh to Muḥammad, i. e. the Ḳurʾān, consists of verses “clearly expressed” ( āyāt muḥkam…

Barlaam and Josaphat

(379 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the story of the conversion of the Indian prince Josaphat by the ascetic Barlaam, which has been recognised by Felix Liebrccht as a Christian version of an episode in the life of the Buddha. The book, which owes its popularity and influence in the first place to the tales in it, is preserved in Greek, Arabic (several versions), Hebrew, Ethiopie, Armenian and Georgian as well as in many European editions. The Greek romance of Barlaam was probably composed in Palestine at the monastery of Saint Sabas in the first half of the viith century. On this Greek original is based a Christian Ara…

Tawrāt

(1,996 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Hebr. Tōrā, is in the Ḳurʾān of the Medīna period (cf. also an alleged verse of the Jewish poet Sammāk in Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 659) the name of a holy scripture revealed after the time of Ibrāhīm (iii. 58) and Isrāʾīl (= Jacob; iii. 87) and afterwards confirmed by ʿĪsā (iii. 44; v. 50; lxi. 6) which contains the ḥukm Allāh (v. 48). While obedience to it brings a reward in Paradise to the “people of the book” (v. 70), those who do not take upon themselves the tawrāt imposed upon them are “like asses who carry books” (lxii. 5). The Tawrāt also contains a prophecy of the coming of the Nabī al-ummī (vii. 156) i.…

Kumait

(917 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
b. Zaid, an Arab poet of the tribe of Asad, born in Kūfa about 60 and died in 126. Of his compositions, the most famous next to the Mud̲h̲ahhaba (see below) are the Hās̲h̲mīyāt so called because they sing the praises of the Banā Hās̲h̲im, the family of the Prophet. But not the whole of the Banū Hās̲h̲im are considered worthy of the honour and praise of the poet; besides Muḥammad we find only ʿAlī and his descendants. Verses i. 79 and ii. 105 sq. in which ʿAbbās and his sons are commemorated were perhaps only added in the ʿAbbāsid period. The Hās̲h̲imīyāt consist of four long and two short ḳaṣīda…

Zabūr

(843 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(a.), probably a loanword from the South, but already used by pre-Islāmic poets in the sense of “writ”; in this sense it is still found in al-Farazdaḳ, Naḳāʾiḍ, lxxv. 1. From the second Makkan period onwards, Muḥammad uses the plural zubur in order to denote the revealed books (Sūra xxvi. 196; iii. 181; xvi. 46; xxxv. 23) as well as the heavenly writings, in which human deeds are recorded (Sūra liv. 43, 52). The singular zabūr, on the other hand, occurs in the Ḳurʾān exclusively in connection with Dāwūd. In the early Sūra xvii. 57 Muḥ…

Ḏj̲urayd̲j̲

(201 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a saint whose story is said to have been related by the Prophet himself and has therefore found a place in the ḥadīt̲h̲ . The various versions differ in details one from another, but one motif is common to them all, that the saint is accused by a woman, who had had a child by another man, of being its father; but the child itself, on being asked by the saint, declares the real father’s name and thus clears the saint from suspicion. “D̲j̲urayd̲j̲” is the Arabic reproduction of Gregorius, and one version rightly states that he lived in the prophetless period ( fatra [ q.v.]) between Jesus and Muḥamm…

Kawt̲h̲war

(590 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Gardet, L.
, a word used only once in the Ḳurʾān (CVIII, 1: “Yes, we have given you al-kawt̲h̲ar” ); the short Sūra CVIII is given the name surāt al-kawt̲h̲ar . The word comes from the root K-T̲H̲-R “to be abundant” in the fawʿal formation, which is not rare ( e.g. nawfal: other examples in Brockelmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik , i, 34). The kawt̲h̲ar which occurs in ancient ¶ poetry (see quotations in Ibn His̲h̲ām, ed. Wüstenfeld, 261, and Nöldeke-Schwally, Geschichte des Qorāns , i, 92) means “abundance”. Some ancient writers of tafsīr interpret kawt̲h̲ar in Ḳ…

Kawt̲h̲ar

(471 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a word used in Sūra cviii. 1 after which this Sūra is called Sūrat al-Kawt̲h̲ar. Kawt̲h̲ar is a fawʿal form from kat̲h̲ara, of which other examples occur in Arabic (e. g. nawfal; further examples in Brockelmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik, i. 344). The word, which also occurs in the old poetry (e.g. the examples in Ibn His̲h̲ām, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 261, and Nöldeke-Schwally, Geschichte des Qorans, i. 92), means “abundance” and a whole series of Muslim authorities therefore explain al-Kawt̲h̲ar in Sūra cviii. I as al-k̲h̲air al-kat̲h̲īr (see Ibn His̲h̲ām, op. cit.; al-Ṭabar…

al-Zuhrī

(1,332 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Muḥammad b. Muslim b. ʿUbaid Allāh b. ʿAbd Allāh b. S̲h̲ihāb, known as Abū S̲h̲ihāb, a celebrated traditionist, was born probably in 50 (670) or 51 — according to others, 56, 57, 58 — and received his nisba as a member of the Meccan clan of Zuhra. His grandfather had fought at Badr on the side of the Ḳurais̲h̲ against Muḥammad and inflicted a wound on the Prophet at Uḥud; his father had been a partisan of ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubair but the son made his peace with the Umaiyads. When still quite a youth, he had paid his respects to Marwān ¶ (d. 65 = 684) (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahd̲h̲īb, ix. 445), and later went t…

al-Wāḳidī

(1,564 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿUmar, an Arab historian born in 130 in Medīna; according to Ag̲h̲ānī, vii. 189, his mother was a great-grand-daughter of Ṣāʾib who introduced music into Medīna. Al-Wāḳidī was so called after his grandfather al-Wāḳid, al-Aslamī as a mawlā of ʿAbd Allāh b. Buraida who belonged to the Medīnese family of Aslam. On the occasion of Hārūn’s pilgrimage in 170 (see Ṭabarī, iii. 605) he was recommended to him as the best authority on the holy places of his native town and acted as guide to th…

Nabī

(555 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(a.), prophet, borrowed from Hebr. nābi or Aram. nebīʾā, is found in the Ḳurʾān from the second Meccan period in the singular and plural nabīyūn; in the Medīna period we find also the broken plural anbiyāʾ. Lists of the nabīyūn are given in Sūra vi. 83 sqq.; iii. 34; iv. 161 sqq.; further information about them is given in several passages of Sūra xix. and in xvii. 57. The list consists exclusively of names from the Old and New Testaments (if we leave out Idrīs in Sūra xix. 57, whose name Muḥammad had however also learned from a Christian source; see above ii., p. 442-450; Horovitz, Koran. Unters., p…

ʿAbbāsa

(610 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, daughter of the caliph al-Mahdī, sister of the caliphs Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Hādī; it is to her that the locality Suwaiḳat al-ʿAbbāsa owes its name. She had three husbands in succession, who all predeceased her; that inspired Abū Nuwās to write some satirical verses, in which he recommended the caliph, should he want to have a traitor killed, to marry him to ʿAbbāsa. Her name is connected with the fall of the Barmakides through the amorous intrigue with Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥya ’l-Barmakī, with wh…

Wahb b. Munabbih

(1,615 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, a South Arabian story-teller ( ḳāṣṣ ak̲h̲bārī: Ḏh̲ahabī, in Z. D. M. G., xliv. 483) of Persian descent who was born in Ḏh̲imār, two days’ journey from Ṣanʿāʾ in 34 a. h. (no credence need be given to statements that he adopted Islām in 10 a. h.). Wahb is celebrated as an authority on the traditions of the Ahl al-Kitāb and like his brothers Hammām, G̲h̲ailān and Maʿḳil is classed among the tābiʿūn. The earliest sources know nothing of the story that before his conversion to Islām he belonged to the Ahl al-Kitāb (Fihrist, p. 22) or more precisely was a Jew (Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, ed.…

Assam

(233 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, name of a district in British India, which since 1905 has formed with 15 districts of northern and eastern Bengal the new province of “Eastern Bengal and Assam”. The district of Assam covers 61, 682 Eng. sq. mls., and lies between 22° 19′ and 28° 16′ N. Lat. and 89° 42′ and 97° 12′ E. Long. The population in 1901 amounted to 6, 126, 343 persons, of whom 1, 581, 317 were Muḥammadans, and of these 2724 called themselves S̲h̲īʿites. Almost three-fourths of the Muḥammadan population belong to the …

Miʿrād̲j̲

(2,838 words)

Author(s): HOROVITZ, J.
(a.), originally ladder, later “ascent”, especially Muḥammad’s ascension to heaven. In the Ḳurʾān, Sūra lxxxi. 19—25 and liii. I—12, a vision is described in which a heavenly messenger appears to Muḥammad and Sūra liii. 12-18 deals with a second message of a similar kind. In both cases the Prophet sees a heavenly figure approach him from the distance but there is no suggestion that he himself was carried off. It is otherwise with the experience alluded to in Sūra xvii. 1: “Praise him, who travel…

Dilāwar K̲h̲ān

(177 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a name of ʿAmīd S̲h̲āh Dāʾūd (a descendant of S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn G̲h̲ōrī), who was appointed governor of Mālwa by Muḥammad S̲h̲āh IV. of Dihlī (792—795 a. h.). In 801 he received his suzerain Maḥmūd II. of Dihlī, who had fled before Tīmūr, with due honour in Dhār, but in 804 he made himself independent of Dihlī. He thus became the founder of the first independent Muḥammadan dynasty of Mālwa, which became extinct with his grandson in 839. He reigned as king in Dhār from 804—808, but does not seem to have struck coins in his…

Bak̲h̲tiyār Nāmah

(457 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, also known as the History of the Ten Viziers, a Muḥammadan imitation of the originally Indian story of Sindbad or the Seven Viziers. Like its prototype it consists of a single narrative which forms a framework into which a number of other stories, which in this case are closely connected with the main story, are inserted. The story may be briefly told: the son of king Azādbak̲h̲t is abandoned by his parents on their flight, soon after his birth, found and brought up by robbers and with them ultimately taken prisoner by the king. ¶ The latter, being pleased with him, takes him, under the…

Abū Dulāma

(319 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Zand b. al-Ḏj̲awn, a black slave, client of the Banū Asad in Kūfa. He is already mentioned in the history of the last Umaiyad caliph, but appears as a ,,poet" only under the ʿAbbāsides and plays the part of a court jester in the palace of al-Saffāḥ and especially in those of al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. His poem on the death of Abū Muslim (137 == 754-755) is said to have been the first of his works which made his name. Examples of his poetry show him to us as a clever, witty versificator, who readily seizes upon low expressions …

Amīr K̲h̲ān

(188 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, was the first Nawāb of Tonk, of Afg̲h̲ān origin, and was born in Rohilkand in 1182 (1768—1769). In his twentieth year he began an adventurous life as leader of a band of brigands, entered the service of the rulers of Malwa, Bhopal, Indore and Ḏj̲apur and caused great mischief in Central India by his ravages and plundering. Finally driven into a corner by the English, he concluded a treaty with them in 1817, binding himself to disband his troops, in return for which he was confirmed in possessi…

Daibul

(309 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(Dēwal), a commercial town and seaport in Sind, mentioned even in Sāsānian history; the Arabs on the occasion of the first Arab expedition (154) to India won a victory at Daibul and it was finally conquered by Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim in 934. The Arab geographers, some of whom had personal acquaintance with Daibul, describe its situation (not far from the month of the Mihrān) and emphasise its importance as a commercial harbour; in Muḳaddasī’s time the merchants spoke Sindī and Arabic. Yāḳūt gives t…

Attock

(89 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(Atak), capital of the district of the same name, founded in 1894, in the Rawalpindi division of the Punjab (Pund̲j̲āb). The district, which has an area of 4022 square miles, had 464,430 inhabitants in 1901 of whom over 90% were Muḥammadans. The fort of Attock which stands on the Indus was built by Akbar in 991 (1583) who called it Atak-Banāras. (J. Horovitz) Bibliography Imperial Gazetteer - VI, 131—138 (new edition) Cunningham in the Archaeological Survey of India II, 93 Elliot, History of India, Index s. v. Atak-Bcnares.

ʿAbd Allāh

(581 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
b. Salām, a Jew from Medina, originally called al-Ḥuṣain and belonged to the Banū Ḳainuḳāʿ. Muḥammed gave him the name of ʿAbd Allāh when he embraced Islām. This conversion is said to have taken place immediately after Muḥammed’s arrival at Medina, but according to others, when Muḥammed was still in Mecca. Another account which makes him accept Islām in the year 8 (629-630) is worthy of more credence — though Mohammedan critics think it badly accredited, — for his name is sought in vain in the battles which Muḥammed had to wage in Medina. The few unimportant mentions in the Mag̲h̲āzī may well …

Awrangābād

(164 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, chief town of the division of the same name in Haidarabad (Deccan) situated between 19° 53′ n. and 75° 20′ L. and the second largest town in that state, having in 1901 36, 837 inhabitants. The town founded in 1610 by Malik Ambar, minister of the ruler of Aḥmadnagar, was originally called Fathnagar and did not receive its present name till 1653 when Awrangzēb was Governor of the Deccan. When Āsaf Ḏj̲āh declared himself independent as first Niẓām, Awrangābād was added to his territory. The town …

Tawaddud

(627 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the heroine of a story which is preserved in the 1001 Nights as well as in an independent form. Tawaddud (as a personal name not found elsewhere in Arabic literature — however frequent it is as a nomen verbi — is of similar formation to Tamannī, Tad̲j̲annī and similar women’s names) is the slave of a merchant who has fallen into poverty and, following her advice, offers her for sale to the caliph Hārūn to free him from his difficulties. Hārūn declares himself ready to pay the high price demanded on condition she shows by an examination tha…

Amritsar

(158 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, capital of the division of the Pand̲j̲āb (Punjab), which bears the same name. Population: 162 429 in 1901, of whom 77 795 were Muḥammedans, and 17 860 Sikhs. It owes its foundation to Rām Dās, the fourth gurū of the Sikhs (1574), whose successor Arjun (Ard̲j̲un) completed the ‘golden temple’ (Darbār Ṣāḥib) of the Sikhs, which stands on an island in the ‘sacred tank’ (Amrita saras), whence the name of the town is probably derived. The successors of Arjun were obliged to leave the town; and the …

Ḏj̲uraid̲j̲

(198 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a saint, whose story is said to have been related by the Prophet himself and has ¶ therefore found a place in the Ḥadīt̲h̲. The various versions differ in details from one another, but one motif is common to them all, viz. that the saint is accused by a woman, who had had a child by another man, of being the father, but the child itself on being asked by the saint, declares the real father’s name and thus cleares the saint from suspicion. “Ḏj̲uraid̲j̲” is the Arabic reproduction of Gregorius and one version rightly states that he lived in the period without a prophet ( fatra) between Jesus and Muḥa…

Aladdin

(62 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(=ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn) is the hero of the tale of the magic lamp, which for the first time is found in Galland’s translation of the Arabian Nights’ Entertainments. The Arabian original was discovered again by Zotenberg and published in 1888. (J. Horovitz) Bibliography Notices et Extraits des manuscr. de la Biblioth. Nation, xxviii. Chauvin, Bibliographic des ouvrages arabes v. 55 et seq.

Abū Ḍamḍam

(195 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the hero of a collection of anecdotes, which is quoted as early as in the tenth century. He is made to say all sorts of foolish maxims, and especially to give ridiculous decisions on legal questions, similarly to Ḳarāḳūs̲h̲ later. This Abū Ḍamḍam is perhaps identical with the pious man, who, in or before Muḥammed’s time, in lieu of paying the poor-rate offered his good name to the servants of God; for this express renunciation of the respect of mankind could easily be understood as a permissio…

Dabistān

(282 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the title of a Persian work, which describes the various religions with special reference to religious conditions in India in the xith (xviith) century. It is based partly on the sacred books of the various creeds, and partly on oral statements of their adherents or the author’s own observations; the older Muḥammadan literature on the subject has also been used in many chapters. The religion of the Parsis is first discussed with special thoroughness; uext follows that of the Hindus and after very short chapters on t…

Abu ’l-Ḳāsim

(238 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the name of a canting parasite, whom Muḥammed b. Aḥmed Abu ’l-Muṭahhar al-Azdī depicts in his Ḥīkāyat Abi’l-Ḳāsim al-Bag̲h̲dādĪ as a Bagdad type. The book was probably written in the first half of the fifteenth century and purports to relate faithfully a day in the life of its her̄o. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim by means of his pious language gets a hearing in a society of people at a banquet, rails at the guests and the host and gives vent to his eloquence in a detailed comparison of the advantages of Bagdad and Iṣpahan. The n…

Awrangābād Saiyid

(72 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a small town in the Bulands̲h̲ahr district of the United Provinces, founded in 1704 by Saiyid ʿAbd-al-ʿAzīz, a descendant of Saiyid Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Ḥusain of Buk̲h̲ārā, and still belonging to his descendants. It is called Awrangābād Saiyid (of the Saiyid) to distinguish it from another Awrangābād (A. Chandokh). Number of inhabitants (in 1901) 5916. (J. Horovitz) Bibliography District Gazetteer of the United Provinces, V. Bulands̲h̲ahr (Allāhābād, 1903), p. 191. ¶

ʿAbbāsa

(588 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, daughter of the caliph al-Mahdī, sister of the caliphs Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Hādī; it is to her that the locality Suwayḳat al-ʿAbbāsa owes its name. She had three husbands in succession, who all predeceased her; this inspired Abū Nuwās to write some satirical verses, in which he recommanded the caliph, should he want to have a traitor killed, to marry him to ʿAbbāsa. Her name is connected with the fall of the Barmakids through the amorous intrigue with Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥyā al-Barmakī, with whi…

Abu ’l-Ḳāsim

(234 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the name of a canting parasite, whom Muḥammed b. Aḥmed Abu ’l-Muṭahhar al-Azdī depicts in his Ḥīkāyat Abi ’l-Ḳāsim al-Bag̲h̲dādī as a Bag̲h̲dād type. The book was probably written in the first half of the fifth century and purports to relate faithfully a day in the life of its hero. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim by means of his pious eloquence gets a hearing in a society of people at a banquet, rails at the guests and the host and shows his linguistic skill in a detailed comparison of the advantages of Bag̲h…

Abū Ḍamḍam

(181 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the hero of a collection of anecdotes, cited already in the 10th century. All kinds of foolish remarks are attributed to him, and more particularly comical decisions on questions of law, similar to those later attributed to Ḳarākūs̲h̲. This Abū Ḍamḍam is probably identical with the devotee who, before or during the lifetime of Muḥammad, offered up his good name in place of the poortax to the servants of God; for this express sacrifice of the respect of his fellowmen may easily be interpreted a…

Bak̲h̲tiyār-nāma

(619 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Massé, H.
, also known as the History of the ten Viziers, Muslim imitation of the Indian history of Sindbād or of the seven viziers [see Sindibād ]. Like its prototype, the book consists of a story in the framework of which other taies are inserted, which are here closely connected with the basic story. The subject is brief; the son of King Āzādbak̲h̲t is abandoned on the road, shortly after his birth, by his parents, who are fleeing; found and brought up by brigands, in the end he is taken prisoner by the k…

Abū Maʿs̲h̲ar Nad̲j̲īḥ b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sindī

(234 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | Rosenthal, F.
al-Madanī , a slave from the Yaman, possibly of Indian parentage, who purchased his freedom and lived in Medina. He was considered a rather "weak" ḥadīt̲h̲ scholar, but he is deservedly famous as the author of a Kitāb al-Mag̲h̲āzī. Numerous fragments of it have been preserved by al-Wāḳidī and Ibn Saʿd. Among his authorities he mentions Nāfiʿ, the mawlā of Ibn ʿUmar, Muḥammad b. Kaʿb al-Ḳurazī, and other scholars of Medina. In the year 160/776-7, he left Medina and remained in Bag̲h̲dād until his death in Ramaḍān (?) 170/787. There…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Salām

(566 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a Jew of Medīna, belonging to the Banū Ḳaynuḳāʿ and originally called al-Ḥusayn (on the name Salām, see Ibn Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Dahs̲h̲a, Tuḥfa , ed. Mann, 69). Muḥammad gave him the name of ʿAbd Allāh when he embraced Islam. This conversion is said to have taken place immediately after Muḥammad’s arrival at Medīna, or, according to others, when Muḥammad was still in Mecca. Another account which makes him accept Islam in the year 8/629-30 is worthy of more credence—though Muslim critics think it badly a…

Zabūr

(1,345 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J. | , Firestone, R.
(a.), a term found in pre-Islamic poetry referring to a written text, and in the Ḳurʾān referring to divine scripture, in some contexts specifically to a scripture of David [see dāwūd ], probably the Psalms. The Arabic root z-b-r is associated with “stone” ( ḥid̲j̲āra ), and verbal forms from it convey such meanings as stoning, lining a well with stones or setting stones in walls according to an overlapping pattern (an unrelated word is zubra , said to designate a piece of iron). A further range of meanings associated with the root conveys the sens…

Miʿrād̲j̲

(9,119 words)

Author(s): Schrieke, B. | Horovitz, J. | Bencheikh, J.E. | Knappert, J. | Robinson, B.W.
(a.), originally designates “a ladder”, and then “an ascent”, and in particular, the Prophet’s ascension to Heaven. 1. In Islamic exegesis and in the popular and mystical tradition of the Arab world. The Ḳurʾān (LXXXI, 19-25, LIII, 1-21) describes a vision in which a divine messenger appears to Muḥammad, and LIII, 12-18, treats of a second mission of a similar kind. In both cases, the Prophet sees a heavenly figure approach him from the distance, but there is no suggestion that he himself was carried away to Heaven. However, i…
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