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Kindergeburtstag (Hinzugefügt 2017)

(1,026 words)

Author(s): Jarzebowski, Claudia
1. Christlicher Kulturkreis Kindergeburtstage wurden in der europ. Frühen Nz. erst seit dem beginnenden 18. Jh. in nennenswerter Form bedacht und gefeiert. Bis dahin galten die Geburt eines Kindes (Kindheit) und sein Überleben (Kindersterblichkeit) als gottgewollt. Kath. Auffassungen zufolge waren Kinder zudem mit der Erbsünde behaftet. Eine Feier im modernen Sinne verbot sich daher v. a. aus relig. Gründen. Hinzu kommt, dass die datumsgetreue Verzeic…

Incest

(1,127 words)

Author(s): Jarzebowski, Claudia
1. Concept The term incest generally denoted criminal relations between relatives. The definition narrowed to sexual relations only around 1600, before narrowing further to relations between blood relatives in the modern sense around 1800. Studies on the first centuries of the early modern period in particular show that legal and real-world positions regarding the legitimacy of such relations differed and relate to the wider context of the importance of kinship and material and emotional interests.Claudia Jarzebowski 2. Law Prohibitions of incest are recorded throughout…
Date: 2019-03-20

Childhood

(3,096 words)

Author(s): Jarzebowski, Claudia
1. Concept and researchHistorically, childhood  is open to description and study less as a biological fact than as a culture-specific social construction (Curriculum vitae). Experiences of being a chi…
Date: 2019-03-20

Circumcision

(903 words)

Author(s): Jarzebowski, Claudia
Circumcision (Hebrew berit milah, Arabic khitān) is an ancient ritual, the origins of which are unclear, but which was adopted into the traditions of Jewish and Islamic faith practices. The ritual applies solely to males. In Judaism, circumcision represents the bond between the tribal ancestor Abraham and God (Gn 17, 10). Circumcision symbolizes belonging to the tribe and hence to the Jewish community, that is, the People of Israel. It should be performed on the eighth day of life, even if that day is the  Shabbat (Gn 17, 12). From the start of the early modern period to t…
Date: 2019-03-20

Homosexuality

(2,564 words)

Author(s): Puff, Helmut | Jarzebowski, Claudia
1. Concept Recent studies in the history of male and female homosexuality contend that the now-usual identification of a certain form of erotic desire with a specific subjectivity cannot be said to be universally valid throughout history. ‘Homosexuality’ is thus a problematic concept, for it presupposes that modern notions of an identity-bound sexuality existed in premodern societies. In fact, premodern European cultures regarded same-gender sexual activity among women and men primarily as an accidental (i…
Date: 2019-03-20

Identity

(3,798 words)

Author(s): Jarzebowski, Claudia | Schmale, Wolfgang | Leppin, Volker
1. Introduction A universally valid definition of identity is as elusive for the early modern period as for the late. The concept derives from two distinct traditions of research. Anglophone social psychology characterizes identity as a characteristic of the modern individual [6], whereas German ethnology prefers the term Identität in clear rejection of the older and ideologically explosive term  Volksgeist (“folk spirit”) [2]. The concept of identity is disputed among historians [14]. From an actor-centered perspective in particular, doubts are articulated ov…
Date: 2019-03-20