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Tynnichos

(54 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Τύννιχος) aus Chalkis (Euboia). Chorlyriker des 7. Jh. v. Chr. (?), Komponist eines in Delphi vielgesungenen Paians (Plat. Ion 534d), den laut einer Anekdote sogar Aischylos allem, was er selbst hätte dichten können, voranstellte (Porph. de abstinentia animalium 2,18 p. 148 Nauck). Käppel, Lutz Bibliography…

Uranos

(367 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Οὐρανός, lat. Uranus). Göttliche Personifikation des Himmels, von Hesiod (theog. 126-128) als myth. Figur behandelt. U. wird von Gaia, der Erde, ohne zeugenden Vater geboren, ‘damit er sie völlig umhülle und den Göttern ein fester Sitz sei für ewig’ (ebd.). U. zeugt daraufhin mit Gaia die Uraniones (ebd. 424; 486), und zwar die Titanen, u. a. Kronos, den Vater des Zeus. U. ist damit Ahnherr der Götter (ebd. 44 f.; 105 f.). Auch Kyklopen und Hekatoncheires (ebd. 132-152) stammen vo…

Urmensch

(348 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] Die griech.-röm. Antike kannte einen U. im Sinne der jüd.-christl. Adam-und-Eva-Gesch. nicht. Einen ersten Ansatzpunkt liefert der bei Hes. erg. 109-200 überl. Weltaltermythos: Während des goldenen, silbernen, ehernen, heroischen und des (derzeitigen) eisernen Zeitalters habe es verschiedene Menschengeschlechter gegeben, die (bis auf das letzte) jeweils vom nächsten abgelöst wurden. Während die ersten beiden noch eher übermenschlich-utopische Züge tragen, erscheint das dritte Ges…

Typhoeus, Typhon

(471 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Τυφωεύς, Τυφών; auch Τυφάων/ Typháōn, Τυφώς/ Typhṓs). Riesiges myth. Ungeheuer, nach Hesiod Abkomme des Tartaros und der Gaia, mit hundert Drachenköpfen …

Thaletas

(127 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Θαλήτας, bei manchen Autoren fälschlich “Thales”: z. B. Paus, 1,14,4; Plut. Lykurgos 4), Chorlyriker des 7. Jh. v. Chr. aus Gortyn (Kreta). Er war in Sparta an verschiedenen musikalischen Reformen in der Generation nach Terpandros zusammen mit Xenodamos von Kythera, Xenokritos von Lokroi und anderen beteiligt (Plut. de musica 9,1134b-c). Wie diese war er Komponist von Paianen (Plut. l.c.) bzw. von hypor…

Xenodamos

(104 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Ξενόδαμος). Griech. Chorlyriker des 7. Jh. v. Chr. aus Kythera. Er war in Sparta an verschiedenen musikalischen Reformen in der Generation nach Terpandros zusammen mit Thaletas und Xenokritos [1] von Lokroi beteiligt (Plut. de musica 9,1134b-c). Wie diese war er Komponist von Paianen (Plut. ebd.), die in der Ant. auch als

Trophonios

(528 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Τροφώνιος, auch Τρεφώνιος/ Trephṓnios). Heros des boiotischen Lebadeia, Stiefsohn oder Bruder des Agamedes (Paus. 9,37,5; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 508); als Eltern werden genannt: Apollon und Epikaste (Paus. l.c.; schol. Aristoph. l.c.); Zeus und Iokaste (schol. Aristoph. l.c.); Valens/Ischys und Koronis [1] (Cic. nat. deor. 3,56); Erigonos (Hom. h. 3,296 f.; Paus. 9,37,4 f. etc.). Kinder: Alkandros [1] und Herkyra. Der Mythos kennt T. und Agamedes als berühmte Baumeister, und zwar des ersten Apollontempels von Delphoi (Hom. h. 3,295-297; Pind. fr. 2 f. u. a.), des Tempels des Poseidon Hippios in Mantineia (Paus. 8,10,2), des Thalamos der Alkmene in Thebai [2] (Paus. 9,11,1) sowie der Schatzhäuser des Hyrieus in Hyria (Paus. 9,37,5) und des Augeias in Elis. Hier bauen sie einen Stein so ins Schatzhaus ein, daß sie ihn später heimlich herausnehmen und Schätze stehlen können. Als Agamedes dabei in eine von Au…

Themis

(474 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Θέμις, wörtl. “Recht”, “hl. Satzung”). Griech. Göttin bzw. göttl. Personifikation des altgeheiligten Rechts (vgl. dagegen Dike [1]); sie steht für die traditionelle Ordnung der Dinge, sei es, daß diese auf menschlicher Konvention beruht (so z. B. Hom. Od. 14,56, wo es um die richtige Behandlung von Fremden geht), sei es auf der Natur selbst (so z. B. Hom. Od. 9,130 von der “Natur der Frau”). Wichtig ist sie im Zusammenhang der ordnungsgemäßen Einberufung von Versammlungen (vgl. Hom. Il. 20,4 f. etc.). Urspr. bedeutet th. verm. “was niedergelegt wurde”, im Myk. vielleicht das Wort für “Schulden” [1. 25 f., 106, 121]. Nach Hes. theog. 135 ist Th. Tochter des Uranos und der Gaia, von Zeus Mutter der Moirai, der Horai, der Eunomia, der Dike [1] und der Eirene [1]. Im ‘Prometheus des Aischylos ist sie mit Gaia/Gē gleichgesetzt und dort Mutter des Prometheus (Aischyl. Prom. 18; 209 f.; 874). Eng ist Th. mit Zeus als der obersten Rechtsinstanz verbunden (Hom. Od. 2,68; Hes. theo…

Uroboros

(177 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Οὐροβόρος). Schlange, die sich in den eigenen Schwanz beißt, als Symbol häufig von den ant. Alchemisten verwendet; sie erscheint aber auch mehrfach in den griech.-äg. Zauberpapyri (PGM 7, col. 17; vgl. PGM 1,145 f.; 12,203 f.; 12,274 f.; 36,184). Sie repräsentiert die Einheit aller Mächte und Vorgänge im Kosmos. Indem man eine Sache genau untersucht, erkennt man alles: Der Makrokosmos spiegelt sich im Mikrokosmos. Die Formel, die das Symbol erklärt, soll offenbar d…

Chaeremon

(133 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] A Stoic philosopher and Egyptian priest of the 1st century ce, Chaeremon was probably a grammar teacher in Alexandria before becoming the tutor of the later emperor Nero in 49 ce. Chaeremon is the author of a grammatical essay on hieroglyphs ( Hieroglyphica), of an astrological treatise, and of a stoicizing work on Egyptian history ( Aigyptiakḗ historía). The latter was less a historical account than a mytholo¶ …

Eudaimonia,

(644 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] from Greek εὐδαιμονία, meaning “happiness, bliss” (Lat. beatitudo). Originally a religious concept ( eudaímōn, “having a good daimon,” “blessed by God”; cf. Euripides, Orestes 667), it was often used in the sense of having great material wealth, and only entered the vocabulary of philosophical ethics in the 6th/5th century bce. The pre-Socratics were the first to strip the term of its material connotations and used the concept of eudaimonía to describe a good inner disposition of the human soul (cf. Democritus in: Vorsokratiker 68 B 77, …

Hesiod

(543 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] (c. 700 bce), the oldest Greek poet of whom there is authentic information concerning his person. His father, a merchant, was forced to leave the Aeolian city of Cyme and settled down in Boeotian Ascra (Hes. Erga kai hemerai [ Erga] 635–640). After his death, an inheritance dispute broke out between Hesiod and his brother Perses ( Erga 35–39). A first prize in a poetry contest in Chalcis is also documented ( Erga 650–659). Tradition attributes the following works to Hesiod's authorship: Theogonia ( Theogony), Erga kai hemerai ( Works and Days), and the Aspis ( Shield). Signi…

Daimon

(283 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] Greek δαίμων, may be etymologically related to δαίω “disperse” (i.e. the fateless?); originally “divine being, divine power” (= ϑεός, “god”) (Hom. Iliad 1.222 etc.), but already in Hes. Erga 121–126 it referred to the “soul of a deceased person.” The two concepts fuse in the image of daimons as punishing avengers (souls of the ¶ murdered execute vengeance as daimons). The concept of the “personal” daimon that influences the fate of the individual appeared from the 6th century bce (Theognis 161–164, Heraclitus 22 B 119 D.-K., Pindarus, Olympia 13.28, 105, Sophoc. Trachin…

Ezekiel the Tragedian

(263 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] was a Hellenistic Jew, presumably from Alexandria, who authored a Greek tragedy, Exagoge ( The Exodus, i.e. from Egypt) following Exod 1–15 (LXX) sometime after 240 bce but surely before 100 ce. The extant fragments (a total of 269 verses) represent the largest ¶ preserved portion of Greek tragedy after Euripides and, simultaneously, the largest preserved portion of Judeo-Hellenistic poetry. The following scenes have been preserved: 1. Moses reports about his fate to this poin…

Euripides

(423 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] (c. 485/484 bce, Salamis – 407/406, Pella). With Aeschylus and Sophocles, Euripides was the third great tragedian of classical Greece. Historically reliable information about his life is scanty. He was probably the son of a landowner and a mother from a distinguished family. In Athens he is said to have been a pupil of the Sophists Anaxagoras, Prodicus, and Protagoras, as well as being a friend of Socrates. He first appeared as a tragedian in 455 bce. He went on to produce 92 plays. In his old age, he finally left Athens for the co…

Pholus

(70 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φόλος, Latin Pholus). One of the Centaurs, son of Silenus (Silens) and a Nymph. When Heracles [1] is being entertained with wine by P., the other Centaurs attack them; Heracles repels them with poisoned arrows, by which P. is also wounded and he dies (Stesich. PMGF S 19 = 181 p. 162; Theoc. 7,149; Diod. Sic. 4,12,3ff.; Verg. G. 2,456; Verg. Aen. 8,294). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Mentes

(71 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέντης; Méntēs). [German version] [1] Ciconian leader in the Trojan War Mythical commander of the Cicones in the Trojan War. Apollo assumes his guise to spur Hector on to battle (Hom. Il. 17,13). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Prince of the Taphians in the Trojan War Mythical Prince of the Taphiae. Athena assumes his guise to appear to Telemachus (Hom. Od. 1,105; 1,180; Mentor [2]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Polytechnos

(103 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πολύτεχνος; Polýtechnos). In Antoninus Liberalis 11 (after Boeus, Ornithogonia) the husband of Aedon and father of Itys. In revenge for the violation of her sister Chelidonis by P., Aedon kills their son Itys and serves him for P. to eat. In the end all participants are turned into birds, P. into a woodpecker [1. 87-89]. This is probably the purest form of ancient bird tale, which ultimately found its canonical form with  Tereus, Procne and Philomele (Ov. Met. 6,412-674) [2. 115-119]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 M. Papathemopoulos (ed.), Antoninus Liberal…

Phobos

(122 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φόβος/ Phóbos, Latin Pavor ). Personification of terror, esp. terror in war (cf. Aesch. Sept. 45); therefore, along with his brother Deimos, son of Ares and Aphrodite (Hes. Sc. 195f., 463f.). The brothers are found in Homer in connection with their father's chariot (Hom. Il. 4,440f.; 13,299f.; 15,119f.); they appear on the shield of Agamemnon together with Gorgo [1] (Hom. Il. 11,36f.), P. alone appears on the aegis of Athena (Hom. Il. 5,739) and of Heracles [1] (He…

Thaletas

(134 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Θαλήτας/ Thalḗtas; in some authors wrongly Thales, e.g. Paus. 1,14,4; Plut. Lycurgus 4), choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC, from Gortyn (in Crete). Besides Xenodamus of Cythera, Xenocritus [1] of Locri and others, he was involved in various musical innovations in Sparta in the generation after Terpander (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like these, he composed paeans (Plut. loc.cit.) and hyporchḗmata (Schol. Pind. Pyth. 2,127). According to later authors of musical theory, he introduced paeonic and cretic rhythms to Sparta…

Manto

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μαντώ; Mantṓ). Daughter of Teiresias, from Thebes, like her father gifted as a seer, priestess of Apollo Ismenios (Eur. Phoen. 834ff.). When the Epigoni [2] conquer Thebes, M. is consecrated to Apollo at Delphi (Apollod. 3,85; Paus. 9,33,2; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,308). Diod. Sic. 4,66,5f. calls her Daphne [2], and describes her as an excellent poet, from whom even Homer took some verses. Later, M. participates in the founding of the colony of Colophon [1] in Asia Minor (with the or…

Orthopolis

(55 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀρθόπολις/ Orthópolis). Son of Plemnaeus, the mythical king of Sicyon (Paus. 2,5,8). Demeter, in disguise as a wet nurse, saved his life (cf  Demophon [1], Triptolemus). According to Euseb. Chronicon 394 he was the twelfth king of Sicyon. Augustinus (Civ. 18,8) dates his reign to the birth of Moses. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Munichus, Munitus

(137 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μούνυχος/ Moúnychos, Μούνιχος/ Moúnichos, also Μόνιχος/ Mónichos, Μούνιτος/ Moúnitos). [German version] [1] Hero of Attica Hero of Attica, son of Pantades, eponym of the harbour of Munichia in Piraeus (Eur. Hipp. 761-763). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Acamas and Priam's daughter Laodice [I1] M. (Munitus): son of Acamas and Priam's daughter Laodice [I 1], brought up by his grandmother Aethra; died of a snake bite after the fall of Troy (Euphorion fr. 58 Powell), perhaps identical with M. [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] King of the Molossians Later sour…

Pasithea

(86 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πασιθέα; Pasithéa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1] Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1] (Hes. Theog. 246). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] One of the Charites (Graces) One of the Charites (Graces), promised in marriage by Hera to Hypnos (Sleep) in exchange for putting Zeus to sleep (Hom. Il. 14,267ff.; Paus. 9,35,4); in Nonnus (Nonn. Dion. 15,91; 31,121; 31,186; 33,40; 47,278), daughter of Dionysus and Hera, wife of Hypnos (cf. also Catull. 63,43; Anth. Pal. 9,517). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Menesthius

(84 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μενέσθιος; Menésthios). [German version] [1] Boeotian at Troy Son of Areithous and Philomedusa, from Ame in Boeotia, killed in Paris in the Trojan War (Hom. Il. 7,9; Tzetz. ad Hom. Il. 132). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Myrmidonian, a general of Achilles Myrmidonian, one of Achilles's generals in the Trojan War, son of Polydora and the river god Spercheus or the giant Pelor (Hom. Il. 16,173; Str. 9,433; Apollod. 3,168 with various genealogical and matrimonial variations for Polydora). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Polyctor

(72 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολύκτωρ/ Polýktōr). [German version] [1] Inhabitant of Ithaca In Hom. Od. 17,207 an inhabitant of Ithaca who took part in the building of the city well. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Peisander, a suitor of Penelope Father of Peisander [4]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Myrmidon Myrmidon; in Hom. Il. 24,397 Hermes pretends in a conversation with  Priamus to be the latter's seventh son. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Nannacus

(67 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νάννακος/ Nánnakos, according to Steph. Byz. Ἀννακός/ Annakós). Mythological king of Phrygia who supposedly lived to be over 300 years old. He predicted the flood of Deucalion and prayed with his people to be spared. Numerous proverbs relating to his great age and his tearful pleading are associated with him (Zenob. 6,10; Macarius Chrysocephalus 2,23; 8,4; Apostolius 15,100; cf. already Herondas 3,10). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oenone

(198 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἰνώνη; Oinṓnē). [German version] [1] Poetic term for the island of Aegina Poetic term for the island of Aegina (Pind. N. 4,46; 5,16; 8,7; Pind. I. 5,34; cf. Ov. Met. 7,474). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nymph from the Troad Nymph from the Troad, daughter of the river god Cebren, sister of Asterope (Apollod. 3,154f.; according to Tzetz. on Lycophr. 57 daughter of Oeneus), mother of Corythus (Parthenius 34; Ov. Met. 7,361). Paris, exposed in the Idaean mountains, becomes her lover and spends his first love with her, but the…

Podaleirius

(210 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ποδαλείριος; Podaleírios). Son of Asclepius and Epione, brother of Machaon, and like him a heroic or divine physician (Hom. Il. 11,833; cf. ibid. 2,731). He is mentioned among the suitors of Helen [1]  (Apollod. 3,131). In the cyclic epics he heals Philoctetes (Apollod. epit. 4,8; cf. Soph. Phil. 1333), diagnoses the madness of Ajax [1] and is finally cast away in Caria, where he founds Syrnus (Apollod. epit. 6,2; 6,18; Paus. 3,26,10). Apart from that, like Asclepius's other child…

Nymphs

(305 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (νύμφαι/ nýmphai, lat. nymphae). Female nature daimones in human form. Νύμφη ( nýmphē) means ‘young woman’ or ‘bride’ (cf. lat. nubere: ‘to marry’), hence a ‘young woman of marriageable age’. In Homer the term is frequently used for human women (Hom. Il. 3,130; 9,536; Hom. Od. 5 passim), but the concept of nymphs as nature deities already exists as well (Hom. Il. 6,420; 20,8; 24,616 etc.). Nymphs are active wherever there is life in nature. Despite their divinity they are not immortal. They usually appear as groups, often a chain of dancers or t…

Proetus

(468 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Προῖτος/ Proîtos, Lat. Proetus). Mythical king of Argos (Hom. Il. 6,157; Pind. Nem. 10,77), or Tiryns (Apollod. 2,25; Schol. Eur. Or. 965), son of Tersander and father of Maera [1] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 170b), more commonly however son of Abas [1] and Aglaea (Schol. Eur. Or. 965; Paus. 2,16,2; Apollod. 2,24 f.). P.' conflict with his twin brother Acrisius originates as early as their time in the womb (Apollod. 2,24 f.) or after P. has seduced Acrisius' daughter Danae (Apollod. 2,34 f…

Prosymnus

(168 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πρόσυμνος/ Prós(h)ymnos; Prosumnus in Arnob. 5,28, wrongly Pól(h)ymnos in Paus. 2,37,5). Deity in the retinue of Dionysus. P. showed the god the entrance to the underworld at Lerna, when Dionysus wished to bring his mother Semele back from Hades (Paus. ibid.). The broader myth places P. in a homoerotic relationship with Dionysus: in Clem. Al. Protreptikos 2,34 (cf. Arnob. 5,28), P. promises to reveal the way if the god acquiesces to carnal pleasures. The latter agrees to do so on his re…

Phronime

(106 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φρονίμη; Phronímē). Daughter of Etearchus, the mythical king of Oaxus in Crete, and his first wife; mother of Battus [1], the mythical founder of Cyrene. Hdt. 4,154f. tells her story evidently according to a Cyrenian source: on the basis of a slander by his second wife, Etearchus hands his daughter over to the merchant Themison to be drowned. He does throw her into water in accordance with his promise, but pulls her out again. In Thera Polymnestus takes her as a concubine and fathers Battus with her. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography W. Aly, Volksmärchen, Sage und Novel…

Xenodamus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ξενόδαμος; Xenódamos). 7th century BC Greek choral lyric poet from Cythera. In the generation after Terpander, together with Thaletas and Xenocritus [1] of Locri he took part in various musical reforms in Sparta (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like the other two he was a composer of paeans (Plut. ibid.), which in Antiquity were also classified as Hyporchḗmata (Plut. loc.cit.; [1. 82],  cf. [2. 15-17; 3. 99-100; 4. 335]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992 2 Id., Bakchylides und das System der chorlyrischen Gattungen im 5. Jh. v. Chr., in: A.…

Pontos

(37 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πόντος; Póntos). Greek personification of the sea (cf. Oceanus, Uranus), born of Ge/Gaia without spouse (Hes. Theog. 132); with her, P. fathered Ceto, Eurybia, Nereus, Phorcys and Thaumas (ibid. 233-239). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oeneus

(116 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οἰνεύς/ Oineús). Mythological king of Calydon [3], son of Porthaon (Hom. Il. 14,115ff.) and Euryte (Apollod. 1,63; the whole family tree in Apollod. 1,64); children: Toxeus, Meleager [1], Deianira, Gorge (through the latter, O. was father of Tydeus). He was ousted by his brother Agrius [1]. Originally, O. may have been a wine god common to all Greeks, later replaced by Dionysus. He was often depicted in vase pictures as a wine god [1]. Numerous tragedians wrote (lost) tragedies entitled O. [2]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 E. Stasinopoulou-Kakarouga, s.v. O. …

Oebalus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἴβαλος/ Oíbalos, Latin Oebalus). [German version] [1] Spartan king Mythical king of Sparta, son of Cynortas or his son Perieres, husband of Perseus's daughter Gorgophone; she, or the Naiad Batea, is the mother of their children Tyndareos,  Hippocoon and Icarius [1] (various versions in Apollod. 3,116f.; Paus. 3,1,3ff.; schol. Eur. Or. 457 et al.) [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Italic hero Italic hero, son of king Telon of the Teleboae and the nymph Sebethis; mythical ruler of Capreae; ally of Turnus against Aeneas [1] (Verg. Aen. 7,733ff. w…

First man

(404 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] Graeco-Roman antiquity had no conception of a 'first man' in the sense of the Judaeo-Christian myth of Adam and Eve. The first point of comparison appears with the myth of the Ages of Man in Hes. Op. 109-200. According to this, there were various races of men during the Golden, Silver, Bronze, Heroic and (present) Iron Ages (Period, Era), each of which (except the last) was superseded by the next. While the first two demonstrated characteristics that were rather superhuman and uto…

Medusa

(31 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μέδουσα; Médousa). Mythological monster, one of the three Gorgons (see Gorgo [1]): M. is mortal, whereas her two sisters Sthenno and Euryale are immortal. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Naoclus

(24 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νάοκλος; Náoklos). Son of Codrus, led Athenian emigrants to Teos (Paus. 7,3,6). Str. 14,1,3 calls him Nauclus. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Lucretia

(223 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Wife of Numa Pompilius Wife of Numa Pompilius, mother of Pompilia, grandmother of Ancus Marcius [I 3] (Plut. Numa 21,2). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Collatinus Wife of Collatinus. Raped by the Roman prince Sex. Tarquinius, she commits her husband with L. Iunius [I 4] Brutus and P. Valerius to revenge and kills herself. This incident initiates the expulsion of the Tarquinians from Rome and with it the fall of rule by kings (Liv. 1,57-60 [1]; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,64,4-67,4; Ov. Fast.…

Pierus

(146 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πίερος; Píeros). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria (Pierides), son of Macedon [1] (Schol. Hom. Il. 14,226). His association with the Muses is evident from alternative genealogies: son of Linus (Suda s.v. Ὅμηρος; Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 47), father of Oeagrus and Calliope [1] (l.c.; Paus. 9,30,4; Suda l.c.). The first to write poetry to the Muses (Plut. De musica 3), he introduced the cult of the nine Muses to Thespiae (Thespia) (Paus. 9,2…

Ochimus

(55 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὄχιμος/ Ochimos). Mythological king of Rhodes, the oldest of the Heliadae. His brother Cercaphus married Cydippe [3], the daughter of O., although she was betrothed to another man, and the couple had to flee; following their return Cercaphus became O.'s successor (Hellanicus FGrH 140 F 37; Diod. Sic. 5,56f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Ariphron

(112 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] From Sicyon, choral lyricist (performance in Athens: 406/398 BC: IG II2 3092). Writer of a  paean to  Hygiea, famous up to the imperial period in many places. The poem, written in dactylo-epitrites pleaded for assistance from ‘Health’, personified as a deity (not yet genealogically connected with Apollo/Asclepius). It certainly belongs in the context of the Asclepius cult of Epidaurus and Athens [3]. Erroneously associated with  Licymnius [1; 2] by some researchers.  Choral lyrics Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 K. Keyßner, PhW 53, 1933, 1289-1296 2 U. v. Wi…

Nyctimene

(41 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νυκτιμένη/ Nyktiménē). Daughter of Epopeus, the mythological king of Lesbos; after seducing her father (or being raped by her father) she is transformed into an owl by Athena (Ov. Met. 2,590ff.; Hyg. Fab. 204; 253). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Pandocus

(74 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πάνδοκος; Pándokos). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, wounded by the Telamonian Aias [1] (Hom. Il. 11,490). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Palaestra Father of Palaestra who was loved by Hermes. P. lived at a crossroads and killed the wanderers staying with him, for which he was killed by Hermes at Palaestra's request. The guesthouses are called after him pandokeîa ('accepting everyone'; Serv. Aen. 8,138; EM 647,56). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Myscelus

(82 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μύσκελ[λ]ος/ Mýskel(l)os). Mythical founder of Croton. Son of Alemon of Rhypes in Achaea. According to Ov. Met. 15, 12-59, his foundation of Croton was connected with Heracles [1] (according to others, with the Delphic Apollo): after his home town indicted Myscelus because of his illegal plan to found a city, Heracles turned the black voting stones white at the ballot, thus enabling the foundation (variants in [1. 254f.]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Metamorphosen, vols. 14-15, 1986.

Menoetes

(54 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μενοίτης; Menoítēs). The mythical herdsman of Hades, who watches his herds on the island Erythea near the entrance of the Underworld. He reports Hercules's theft of one of his cattle to the neighbouring herdsman Geryoneus, but is killed by Hercules in a wrestling match (Apollod. 2,108; 125). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Uranus

(418 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οὐρανός, Lat. Uranus). Divine personification of the sky, treated by Hesiodus (Theog. 126-128) as a mythical figure. U. is born of Gaia, the earth, without the contribution of a father, 'so that he may wrap her up and the gods have a permanent seat in him' (ibid.). After that, U. begets the Uraniones with Gaia (ibid. 424; 486), namely the Titans, including Kronos, Zeus' father. As a result, U. is the progenitor of the gods (ibid. 44 f.; 105 f.). The Cyclopes and the Hekatoncheires …

Pleisthenes

(204 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πλεισθένης; Pleisthénēs). [German version] [1] Son of Pelops or Atreus, father of Agamemnon and Menelaus Mythical figure from the family of Pelops, often also named as the family's eponym (Aesch. Ag. 1569 etc.): either the son of Pelops and Hippodameia [1] (with Atreus, Thyestes and Pittheus as brothers; schol. Pind. O. 1,144), or the son of Atreus and Cleola born in exile in Macestus (Triphylia), father of Agamemnon and Menelaus [1] (schol. Eur. Or. 4), or husband of Aërope and father by her of Agamemnon and…

Typhoeus, Typhon

(499 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τυφωεύς/ Typhōeús, Τυφῶν/ Typhôn; also Τυφάων/ Typháōn, Τυφώς/ Typhṓs). Gigantic mythical monster, according to Hesiod the offspring of Tartaros and Gaia, with a hundred dragons' heads (spitting fire) and serpents' feet (for pictorial representations, see [1]), set up by Gaia as a rival ruler to Zeus after the fall of the Titans but defeated by him and cast into the underworld. From then on, he causes storms and volcanic eruptions (Hes. Theog. 820-880). His union with Echidna produces more monster progeny: Orthus, Cerberus, Hydra [1], Chimaera and others ( ibid. 306-…

Polyphemus

(485 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολύφημος/ Polýphēmos, Latin Polyphemus). [German version] [1] Lapith, Argonaut who fought agains the centaurs A Lapith (Lapithae) from Larisa in Thessaly, son of Elatus [2] and Hippea (the daughter of Anthippus), brother of Caeneus. P. fought against the centaurs (Hom. Il. 1,264) and was one of the Argonauts (Apoll. Rhod. 1,40-44). Having stayed behind in Mysia with Heracles [1] in search of Hylas, he founded Cius und fell in battle against the Chalybes (Apoll. Rhod. l.c. und 1,1240 ff.; Apollod. 1,113 und 117). In Euphorion he is the son of Poseidon and lover of Hyl…

Metis

(354 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μῆτις/ mêtis, literally ‘cleverness’, ‘clever advice’). M. first appears as an attribute of Zeus ( Mētíeta‘ gifted with wisdom’, e.g. Hom. Il. 1,175 etc.) and is personified as a goddess for the first time in Hes. Theog. 358 as one of the daughters of Oceanus. She becomes the first wife of Zeus (ibid. 886ff.). But Gaia and Uranus warn Zeus that M. will bear dangerously clever children and advise him to swallow her. By doing this he prevents the birth of a son, but not the birth of Athena, who u…

Nicodamas

(40 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νικοδάμας/ Nikodámas). A pygmy, husband of Oenoe [1] who refused to worship Artemis and Hera and as a punishment was turned into a crane (Antoninus Liberalis 16). She was also called Gerana (Ath. 9,393e). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Orbona

(73 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] Roman goddess. Her name is derived from orbus ('childless') and explained as an evil power that robs parents of their children. To appease her, a sanctuary was dedicated to her near the temple of the Lares (Cic. Nat. D. 3,63; Plin. HN 2,16; Tert. Ad nat. 2,15,2). According to Arnob. 4,7, she was the goddess of parents who have lost their children. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography Latte, 53  Radke, 240f.

Peitho

(235 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πειθώ; Peithṓ). Greek personification of 'persuasion', especially of erotic persuasion, hence a frequent epithet of Aphrodite. Daughter of Oceanus, spouse of Phoroneus or of Argus [I 1] (Hes. Theog. 349; schol. Eur. Phoen. 1116; schol. Eur. Or. 1239). Although unknown in Homer's work, P. appears in Hesiod's writings (Hes. Erg. 73; Hes. Theog. 573) during the making of Pandora together with the Charites. Sappho fr. 200 V. makes her one of the Charites, Aeschylus makes her daughter …

Trophonius

(575 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τροφώνιος/ Trophṓnios, or Τρεφώνιος/ Trephṓnios). Hero of the Boeotian Lebadia, stepson or brother of Agamedes (Paus. 9,37,5; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 508). The following are mentioned as parents: Apollo and Epicaste (Paus. loc. cit.; schol. Aristoph. loc .cit.), Zeus and Iocaste (schol. Aristoph. loc. cit.), Valens/Ischys and Coronis [1] (Cic. Nat. D. 3,56), Erigonus (Hom. h. 3,296 f.; Paus. 9,37,4 f., etc.). Children: Alcander [1] and Hercyra. In the myth, T. and Agamedes are the famous builders of Delphi's first temple of Apollo  (Hom. h. 3,2…

Pandemos

(92 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πάνδημος/ Pándēmos). Epiclesis of Aphrodite (B. 2). The cult of Aphrodite P. is said to have been founded by Theseus in Athens (Paus. 1,14,7; 1,23,3). Plato interprets Aphrodite P. as 'common' love as opposed to the 'higher' love of Aphrodite Urania ('the heavenly one') (Pl. Symp. 180d). However, this is historically incorrect, as Paus. 1,22,3 shows. He interprets P. correctly as the Aphrodite 'common to the entire united (Attic) people'. Thus, the Aphrodite called P. symbolised the political unity of Attica (cf. [1]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 Simon, GG, …

Peisidice

(103 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πεισιδίκη; Peisidíkē). [German version] [1] Name of various mythical figures Name of various mythical figures: daughter of Aeolus [1], wife of Myrmidon (Apollod. 1,51f.), daughter of Nestor [1] ( ibid. 1,94), daughter of Pelias ( ibid. 1,95; Hyg. Fab. 24). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of King Lepethymnus of Methymna Daughter of King Lepethymnus of Methymna; love prompted her to betray her home city to its besieger, Achilles [1], but she was stoned to death for this on his orders (Parthenius 21). The same story is also told o…

Ocyr(r)hoe

(141 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ὠκυρ(ρ)όη; Ōkyr(r)hóē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus Daughter of Oceanus (Hes. Theog. 360). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Playmate of Persephone Playmate of  Persephone (Hom. H. 5,420). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Samian nymph Samian nymph, daughter of the river god Imbrasus and of Chesias; loved by Apollo, who pursues her and turns the ship onto which she escapes into a rock and its helmsman Pompilus into the fish of that name (Hellenistic erotic story, Apoll. Rhod. in Athen. 7,283d-e; (Ps.-)Ov. Halieutica 101). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Mynes

(84 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μύνης; Mýnēs). [German version] [1] Ruler of a city in the Troad Mythological ruler of a city in the Troad, during the destruction of which the husband of Briseis was killed by  Achilles (Hom. Il. 19,296). He is probably identical with the son of Euenus, the brother of Epistrophus (Hom. Il. 2,692). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Progenitor of the Attic dynasty Mythological progenitor of the Attic dynasty, father of Pedias, the wife of king Cranaus (Apollod. 3,186). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Rhea Silvia

(341 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (also Rea Silvia). Poetically also Ilía (for identity of both: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,76,3 i.a.). Mother of Romulus [1] and Remus. She is mentioned for the first time in Naevius (cf. Serv. Aen. 1,273; 6,777) and in Ennius (Ann. 29,34-50), apparently as the daughter of Aeneas [1]. Later sources, however, identify her as the daughter of Numitor and thereby move the founding of Rome several generations away from Aeneas and the ruin of Troy. The main version of the myth is essentially to be found in…

Oeleus

(84 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (ᾨλεύς/ Ōileús). Mythological king of Locris [1], son of Hodoedocus and Agrianome or Laonome, the daughter of Perseon; also son of Apollo (Hyg. Fab. 161); son of Eriopis, father, by her, of 'Little' Ajax [2], also father of Medon (illegitimate, by Rhene). He was one of the Argonauts (Hom. Il. 2,726-728; 13,694-696, Apoll. Rhod. 1,74-76; Hes. Cat. 82). For the original form of the name (ιλεύς) and its meaning see [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W.A. Oldfather, s.v. O., RE 17, 2175-2187.

Naubolus

(88 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ναύβολος; Naúbolos). [German version] [1] King of Tanagra Mythical king of Tanagra, son of Ornytus and Perinice, father of the Argonaut Iphitus (Apoll. Rhod. 1,207f.; cf. Hom. Il. 2,518; partly divergent Hyg. Fab. 14). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Of Argus, father of an Argonaut N. of Argos, grandson of Proetus, great-grandson of Nauplius [2], father of the Argonaut Clytoneus (Apoll. Rhod. 1,135). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Father of the Phaeacian Euryalus Father of the Phaeacian Euryalus (Hom. Od. 8,116). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Plexippus

(57 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πλήξιππος/ Plḗxippos). Son of Thestius, brother of Althaea; participant in the Calydonian Hunt; P. is killed by his nephew  Meleager [1], because he intended to steal from  Atalante the pelt of the Calydonian boar, which Meleager had given her (Apollod. 1,62; Ov. Met. 8,305; 434; 440; Hyg. Fab. 173; 174; 244). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Tynnichus

(63 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τύννιχος; Týnnichos) from Chalcis (Euboea). Choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC (?), composer of a paean often sung in Delphi (Plat. Ion 534d), which, according to an anecdote, even Aeschylus placed above everything he could have written himself (Porph. De abstinentia animalium 2,18 p. 148 Nauck). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 359  I. Rutherford, Pindar's Paeans, 2001, 28.

Molus

(71 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μόλος/ Mólos). Mythical Cretan, son or brother of Deucalion, uncle or brother of Adomenes, father of Meriones (Hom. Il. 10,269; Apollod. 3,17; Diod. Sic. 5,79). There is a report about a Cretan festival in Plut. De def. or. 14, in which a headless doll called M. makes an appearance: this doll symbolises M.'s beheading as a punishment for ravishing a nymph. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography Nilsson, Feste, 440, 468f.

Ophion

(131 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ὀφίων/ Ophíōn). [German version] [1] First ruler of the world also Ophioneus (Pherecydes of Syrus 7 B 4 Diels/ Kranz). First ruler of the world, overthrown by Kronos (Apoll. Rhod. 1,503-506), husband of Eurynome [1], referred to by schol. Lycophr. 1191 as a Titan, considered by Nonn. Dion. 41,352 to be identical with Uranus. The idea of a serpent ( óphis) as ruler of the world may be derived from Orphic (Orphism) or near eastern beliefs [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Giant in the shape of a serpent Giant in the shape of a serpent, defeated by Zeus in a battle against …

Ocnus

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὄκνος/ Óknos, Latin Ocnus). 'One who hesitates', 'one who wavers': character punished in the Underworld; he is forced to twist a rope forever, which is then devoured by a donkey standing behind him (cf. Danaids, Sisyphus, Tantalus; Prop. 4,3,21f.). According to Paus. 10,29,1f., O. was a symbol of a hard-working man whose wasteful wife kept using up what he had earned. Other versions: O. sits helpless before a donkey that has stumbled, as its load of wood falls to the ground (Apul. M…

Opora

(130 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀπώρα/ Opṓra). Goddess of rich harvests, especially of the wine harvest and its season. She, together with Theoria ('festive delegation'), accompanies Eirene [1] ('peace') in Aristoph. Pax 523, 706ff. The Attic comic writers Alexis (PCG II fr. 169f.) and Amphis (PCG II fr. 47) both wrote a work called O.: Sirius the star comes to earth and falls in love with O. When he is unable to win her, his amorous passion becomes so great that the people turn to the gods for help. The north wind Boreas orders his sons to obtain O. for Sir…

Peirithous

(396 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πειρίθοος, -θους/ Peiríthoos, - thous; Περίθοος, -θους/ Períthoos, - thous; Latin Pirithous, Perithous etc.). Thessalian, later also Attic hero, king of the Lapithae, son of Zeus (Hom. Il. 2,741; 14,317f.; cf. Hom. Od. 11,631; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 134; Pl. Resp. 391c-d) or Ixion (Ephorus FGrH 70 F 23; Diod. Sic. 4,63,1; 4,69,3; Ov. Met. 8,403f., 567, 613; 12,210, 338; Apollod. 1,68) and Dia [3], brother of Clymene [6], husband of Hippodamia [2], father of Polypoetes [1] (Hom. Il. 2,740-742; 1…

Mermerus

(102 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέρμερος; Mérmeros). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, killed by Antilochus (Hom. Il. 14,513). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of the mythical King Ilus of Ephyre Father of a mythical king, Ilius of Ephyre in Thesprotia, visited by Odysseus (Hom. Od. 1,259f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] A son of Jason [1] and Medea One of the two sons of Jason [1] and Medea. He and his brother Pheres are killed by their mother in revenge on Jason (Eur. Med.). According to Paus. 2,3,7, he is killed by a lioness during a hunt on Corfu. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Melicertes

(104 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μελικέρτης; Melikértēs). Mythical son of Athamas and Ino. Threatened by Athamas, Ino jumps with M. from a cliff into the sea (Eur. Med. 1284 ff.; Ov. Met. 4,48 1 ff.; schol. Lycophr. 229). She becomes Leucothea, M. Palaemon. Sisyphos, king of Corinth, finds his body at the Isthmus of Corinth and buries him. Leucothea and Palaemon are henceforth regarded as saviours for those in distress at sea. In Corinth, M./Palaemon was worshipped in cult; the Isthmian Games ( Isthmia) were supposedly founded for him (Paus. 2,1,3). It is doubtful whether M. is the Greek form of Melqart. Kä…

Maneros

(102 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μανερῶς; Manerôs Hdt. 2,79; Μανέρως; Manérōs Plut. Is. 17,367 etc.). According to Hdt. l.c. M. is the only son of the first king of Egypt who, after his early death, is honoured by a dirge ‘M., which is said to correspond to the Greek Linus song. M. means either Egyptian mniw-r‘gooseherd (Cerny) or r jmntt r jmntt‘westward! westward! (Lloyd), a cry heard at funerals. It is not clear which Egyptian name or which sequence of Egyptian words was garbled to form Greek M. [1. 338]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 A. B. Lloyd, Herodotus, Book 2. Commentary 1-98, 1976.

Phaeaces

(445 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φαίακες/ Phaíakes, Latin Phaeaces, the Phaeacians). Mythical seafaring people, ruled by King Alcinous [1] (together with 12 other 'kings') and his wife Arete [1]. The P. live on the island of Scheria, to which they were led by Nausithous [1] from Hyperea (Hom. Od. 6,5; 7,58). There are comprehensive accounts of the P. in Hom. Od. books 6-8 and 13. The P. receive Odysseus as their guest after the king's daughter Nausicaa discovers him shipwrecked on the beach. They entertain him lavi…

Nanas, Nanus

(113 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Νάνας/ Nánas, Νάνος/ Nános). [German version] [1] Mythical leader of the Pelasgians Mythical leader of the Pelasgians at the time of their emigration to Italia (Hellanicus FGrH 323a F 4; Hdt. 1,57). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Epithet of Odysseus There was a prophecy that Odysseus as N. would conclude a brotherhood in arms with Aeneas [1] in Italia (Lykophr. 1242ff.; cf. Dion. Hal. Ant. 1,72,2; 12,16). On Odysseus's Italian journey cf. Hom. Od. 11,119ff.; Hes. Theog. 1105 with comm. West. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] King of the Segobrigii Mythical king of the…

Polypoetes

(129 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολυποίτης/ Polypoítēs). [German version] [1] Participant in the Trojan War Son of Peirithous and Hippodamia [2], takes part in the Trojan War with 40 ships, mostly mentioned together with Leonteus [1] (Hom. Il. 2,740 ff.; 12,182 ff.; 23,836 ff.; cf. Apollod. 3,130; Apollod. epit. 3,14). According to Quint. Smyrn. 12,318, he was one of the heroes inside the Trojan Horse. After the war, he goes to Colophon with Calchas (Apollod. epit. 6,2) and founds Aspendus (Eust. ad Hom. Il. 2,740). He was depicted together with Acamas in Polygnotus' [1] painting in the léschē

Nausithous

(143 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ναυσίθοος; Nausíthoos). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and Periboea Son of Poseidon and Periboea, grandson of Eurymedon [1], king of the Phaeaces. He and his people flee from the  Cyclopes to the island of Drepane or Scheria. There he becomes the father of Alcinous [1] and Rhexenor. When Heracles [1] comes to him after having killed his own children, he purifies him (Hom. Od. 6,1-11; 7,56-63; Apoll. Rhod. 4,539-550). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Odysseus and Calypso Son of Odysseus and  Calypso (Hes. theog. 1017f.) or Circe (Hyg. Fab. 125). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Ocrisia

(133 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀκρησία/ Okrēsía; Ocresia). Aristocratic young woman from the town of Corniculum, which had been conquered by the Romans; mother of the Roman king Servius Tullius, whom she conceived from a phallus that had miraculously appeared from the fireside of Tarquinius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,2; Plut. De fortuna Romanorum 10,323a-d; Ov. Fast. 6,627-636; Plin. HN 36,204; Arnob. 5,18). In Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,1 and Liv. 1,39,5 this myth is rationalized: O. conceived her son before the town …

Nysus

(44 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νύσος/ Nýsos). Male counterpart of Nysa [1]. He is the tutor of Dionysus. He exercises power in Thebes during the latter's campaign to India, but it is seized back again on his return (Hyg. Fab. 131, 167, 179). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Themis

(512 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Θέμις/ Thémis, literally 'law, sacred ordinance'). Greek goddess and divine personification of sacred ancient law (cf., in contrast, Dike [1]). She stands for the traditional order of things, be it based on human convention (as in Hom. Od. 14,56 about the correct treatment of strangers) or on nature itself (as in Hom. Od. 9,130 about the 'nature of woman'). She plays an important role in the orderly call for assemblies (cf. Hom. Il. 20,4 f. etc.). Originally, themis probably referred to 'what was laid down', in Mycenaean perhaps the word for 'debt' [1. 25 f., 106, 121]. A…

Merops

(177 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέροψ/Mérops). [German version] [1] Mythical king of the Meropians Mythical king of the Meropians on the island of Cos (Q. Smyrn. 8,6,71). From grief and longing for his spouse Echemeia, who had been sent to Hades, he is transformed into an eagle by Hera, and finally catasterized (Hyg. Astr. 2,16). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Eumelus Father of Eumelus [2] (Antoninus Liberalis 15; Agron [1]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Mythical king of the Ethiopians Mythical king of the Ethiopians, husband of Clymene [1] (Ov. Met. 1,755f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Pronuba

(37 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] Epiclesis of Juno (Verg. Aen. 4,166), referring to her identity as goddess of wedding (cf. Juno Iuga); Juno P. was called upon when reading auspices and at the actual espousal. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Philodamus

(244 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φιλόδαμος; Philódamos). Choral lyricist from Scarpheia. He wrote a paean to Dionysus, recorded on an inscription, and performed in 340/339 BC at the theoxenia (sacred meal) in Delphi. In return, he and his family received a wealth of privileges in Delphi, where the poem appears to have played an important role in the new definition of Dionysus as a 'second Apollo'. By progressive stages the portrayal of Dionysus resembles the traditional picture of Apollo: the story of his birth m…

Phlegyas

(116 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φλεγύας; Phlegýas). Eponym of the Phlegyans, a mythical people in Thessalia (Hom. Il. 13,302), also localized in Boeotia, Phocis or Epidaurus (Erythraean Paean [1. 372-374]). Son of Ares and Dotis, father of Ixion (Eur. TrGF fr. 424) and Coronis [1], mother of Asclepius (H. Hom. 16; Pind. Pyth. 3,8-11; Isyllos IG IV2 1, 128,37-56 = Paean 40 E Käppel [1. 382]). The Phlegyans were a people of brigands (H. Hom. 3,278), and P. himself set fire to the temple of Apollo in Delphi, thus becoming one of the penitents in the Underworld (…

Mixoparthenos

(41 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μ(ε)ιξοπάρθενος; M(e)ixopárthenos). Mythical mixed creature: half girl, half snake, identical to Echidna. Apart from that, M. is also used as an epithet of the Sphinx (Eur. Phoen. 1023; Hdt. 4,9,1) and Scylla (Lykophr. 669). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Mantius

(46 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μάντιος; Mántios). Son of the seer Melampus, brother of Antiphates, father of Cleitus [1] and of the seer Polypheides (Hom. Od. 15,242ff.), according to Paus. 6,17,6 also of Oïcles (who in Hom. ibid. is his nephew), grandfather of Theoclymenus. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Nasamon

(40 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νασάμων; Nasámōn). Son of Amphithemis (Garamas according to Apoll. Rhod. 4,1492) and the nymph Tritonis, great-grandson of Minos. N. was the progenitor and eponym of the Nasamones in Libya (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1322). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Orsilochus

(97 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ὀρσίλοχος/ Orsílochos). [German version] [1] King of Pherae Mythical king of Pherae, son of the river god Alpheius and Telegone, father of Diocles [2]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Fought at Troy Son of Diocles [2], fought at Troy and was killed by Aeneas [1] (Hom. Il. 5,541ff.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan, killed by Teucer Trojan killed by Teucer (Hom. Il. 8,274). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Trojan in the entourage of Aeneas Trojan in the entourage of Aeneas [1], killed by Camilla (Verg. Aen. 11,636, 690, 694). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Onocentaur

(128 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (masc.) or onocentaura (fem.) (Ὀνοκένταυρος/ Onokéntauros, Ὀνοκένταυρα/ Onokéntaura). Mythological monster. The word is first found in the LXX, in which the name O. is used for the Hebrew word for 'jackal' (Is 13:22; 34:14). The Biblical explanation appears to consider the O. to be a demon (Theodoretus of Cyrus, Commentary on Is 13:22). In Greek and Latin non-Christian literature it is first found in Ael. NH 17,9: there its face is human, as are its body from the chest to the loins and i…

Phylacus

(188 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φύλακος; Phýlakos). [German version] [1] Mythical founder and eponym of Phylacia Mythical founder and eponym of Phylacia (in Attica), also of Phylace [1]. Son of Deïon(eus) [1] and Diomede, the daughter of Xuthus (Apollod. 1,51; 86), father of Iphiclus (Hom. Il. 2,705; 13,698) and Alcimede (Apoll. Rhod. 1,47). P. caused the infertility of his son by threatening him with a knife bloody from castrating rams. After Melampus [1] heals Iphiclus in the course of his brother Bias [1]'s battle for Iphiclus's oxen…

Meilichus

(30 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μείλιχος; Meílichos). Mythical king of Spain, son of a satyr and the nymph Myrice; with horns on his head was (Sil. Pun. 3,103-105). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Dionysodotus

(35 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] From Sparta, presumably 6th cent. BC. Author of  paeans, which were performed at the Gymnopaedia together with the songs of  Thaletas and  Alcman (Sosibius FGrHist 595 F 5). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oicles

(69 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀϊκλῆς/ Oïklês, Οἰκλῆς/ Oiklês). Mythical seer from Argus, grandson of Melampus [1], son of Antiphates or Mantius, husband of Hypermestra [2], father of Amphiaraus and Iphianira (cf. Hom. Od. 15,241ff.; Pind. Pyth. 8,39; Diod. Sic. 4,68,4f.). O. took part in Heracles' [1] campaign against Troy (Apollod. 2,134; Hom. Od. 15,243); his grave is supposed to have been in Arcadia (Paus. 8,36,6; Apollod. 3,87). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Periphas

(113 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Περίφας; Períphas). [German version] [1] Hero at Troy, killed by Ares Mythical hero at Troy, from Aetolia, killed by Ares (Hom. Il. 5,842. 847). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus Mythical hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus [1] (Verg. Aen. 2,476). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan Trojan, herald of Anchises, in whose shape Apollo roused Aeneas [1] to battle (Hom. Il. 17,323). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Archaic Attic king before even Cecrops Mythical archaic king of Attica, before even Cecrops; venerate…

Isyllus

(277 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἴσυλλος; Ísyllos) from Epidaurus, son of Socrates. Around 300 BC, poet of a consecutive series of poems (in trochaic tetrametres, dactylic hexametres, ionics, elegiac distichs), extant as inscriptions, for the cult of  Asclepius of  Epidaurus (IG IV 12 128 = [1. 380-383]). In these, I. creates on the one hand a specific Epidaurian mythology of Asclepius, which relocates the roots of the god to the healing sanctuary that had been of increasing importance since the 5th cent. BC. The traditional myth, on the other hand…

Periclymenus

(108 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Περικλύμενος/ Periklýmenos, Latin Periclymenus). [German version] [1] Epithet of Pluto Epithet of Pluto (Hesych. s.v. Π.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Poseidon Son of Poseidon. In the war of the Seven against Thebes he kills Parthenopaeus (Eur. Phoen. 1156ff.; Apollod. 3,75). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Son of Neleus and Chloris Son of Neleus [1] and Chloris [4] (Hom. Od. 11,281ff.). Took part in the campaign of the Argonautai (Apoll. Rhod. 1,56ff.). Despite his ability to change form he was killed by  Heracles [1] …

Phocus

(169 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φῶκος; Phôkos). [German version] [1] Mythical hero of Aegina Mythical hero of Aegina, son of Aeacus and the Nereid Psamathe; the latter had attempted in vain to stop Aeacus from raping her by turning herself into a seal ( phṓkē): hence the name P. for the child of this union (Hes. Theog. 1004f., Apollod. 3,158 and 160; Pind. Nem. 5,12). In Phocis P. marries the princess Asterodia and gives his name to this region (Apollod. 1,86). P. is ultimately killed by his step-brothers Peleus and Telamon, and he is buried in Aegina (Paus. 2,29,…

Salmoneus

(238 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμωνεύς/ Salmōneús). Son of Aeolus [1], brother of Athamas, Sisyphus and Cretheus. S. had delusions of grandeur and endeavoured to have himself worshipped as Zeus, driving around on a chariot drawn by horses, producing artificial lightning flashes and making bronzen cauldrons resound to give the impression of thunder. Zeus flung him into Tartarus. S.' daughter Tyro distanced herself from her father, was spared and married Cretheus (Hes. fr. 10a, 25-27 M.-W.; fr. 30,1-30 M.-W.; A…

Peneleus

(105 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πηνέλεως/ Pēnéleōs, Lat. Peneleus). Son of Hippalcimus and Asterope (Hyg. Fab. 97), Argonaut and suitor of Helena [1] (Apollod. 1,113; 3,130), leader of the Boeotians in the Trojan War (Hom. Il. 2,494). There, he kills Ilioneus and Lycon (Hom. Il. 11,487ff.; 16,335ff.), is wounded by Polydamas [1] (Hom. Il. 17,597-600) and finally, in the Posthomerica , is killed by Eurypylus [1] (Paus. 9,5,15); in a different version, P. survives to become one of the warriors inside the Trojan Horse (Tryphiodorus 180) or to take part as a fighter in…
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