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Seriphos

(224 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σέριφος/ Sériphos). Island of the western Cyclades (11 km in diameter, 75 km2 in area, with Mount Turlos at 486 m elevation; marble, granite, gneiss) with numerous bays and three islets (modern Bous, Piperi and Seriphopoulo). S. had been settled by the 3rd millennium BC (early Cycladic idols) and the Iones took possession of it in the historical period (Hdt. 8,48). S. resisted Persian demands for tribute and in 480 BC took part on the Greek side in the battle of Salamis [1] (Hdt. 8,46; 48;…

Orobiae

(77 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ὀρόβιαι/ Oróbiai). Coastal town north-west of Euboea, in antiquity always dependent on Histiaea, modern Rovies. Oracular centre of Apollo Selinountios. In 426 BC severely devastated by a violent earthquake and tsunami (Thuc. 3,89,2; Str. 9,2,13; 10,1,3; IG XII 9, 1186, 2; 1189,27 and 37). Natural catastrophes Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography F. Geyer, Topographie und Geschichte der Insel Euboia, 1903, 95f.  J. Schmidt, s.v. O., RE 18, 1133f.  E. Freund, s.v. O., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 496.

Sicinos

(211 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σίκινος; Síkinos). Island in the southern Cyclades (39 km2;  Scyl. 48;  Str. 10,5,1; Ptol. 3,15,31), rising to 552 m  (Agios Mamas), rich in marble and slate; no natural safe harbours, today also named Síkinos. Its poetic epithet Oinóē 'wine-bearing' (Apoll. Rhod. 1,620; Plin. HN 4,69; Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.) indicates viticulture. Already inhabited in the 3rd mill. BC (Early Cycladic ceramics), in the historical period it was settled by Ionians. In the 5th cent. BC S. probably capitulated to the Persians (Hdt. 8,46)…

Nisyrus

(274 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Νίσυρος/ Nísyros). Island west of Cnidus, belonging to the Dodecanese. Around 35 km2 and pentagonal in shape, between Cos, Telos and the western tip of the Reşadiye peninsula. Volcanic rocks, hot springs (Str. 10,5,16); the collapsed main crater is 692 m high. N. was dedicated to Poseidon. The settlements of Argus (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄργος/Á rgos), Gigantea and Hypaton (Γιγαντεα/ Gigantea and Υπατον/ Hypaton, IG XII 3,92,2f.), attested in literary sources, cannot be located archaeologically, but the eponymous main settlement of N. has been f…

Oene

(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Οἴνη/ Oínē, ethnikon Οἰναῖος/ Oinaîos; in literature also Οἰνόη/ Oinóē, Ath 1,30d; Steph. Byz. s.v. Οἰνόη, Str. 14,1,9). Main town on the island of Icarus [2], on its north coast, 2 km west of modern Evdilos. Cult site of Dionysus and Artemis Tauropolis (chief cult). Numerous inscriptions [1]. O. was a member of the Delian League, paying a tribute of between 4000 and 8000 drachmai (ATL 1, 360f.; 528; 2, 86f.; 3, 190; …

Poeeessa

(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ποιήεσσα/ Poiḗessa, Ποιᾶσσα/ Poiâssa, Ποιῆσσα/ Poiêssa). City in the southwest of Ceos [1] at modern Pisses. An acropolis and remains of walls lie on a steep cape. In the area early Cycladic pottery  (3rd millennium BC) has been found. Few remains survive (foundations, columns). Temples to Apollo Smintheus and  Athena Nedousia are recorded in Str. 10,5,6. To the northeast of P. a mighty Hellenistic watchtower has been found. In the Hellenistic Period P. was incorporated into the polis…

Sciathos

(174 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σκίαθος/ Skíathos). Westernmost of the northern Sporades (45 km2, length 11 km, maximum elevation 435 m; Hdt. 7,176,1; 179; 183,1 f.; 8,7,1; 92,1; Scyl. 58; Scymn. 580 ff.; Mela 2,106; Plin. HN 4,72; Ptol. 3,13,47), today also S. The island was settled in the 8th cent. BC by settlers from Chalcis [1]; Palaesciathos was laid out at that time (not located, recorded until the 5th/4th cent. BC). In the 6th/5th cents. BC, the polis of S. was founded on the east coast with a strategically imp…

Rheneia

(330 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ῥήνεια/ Rhḗneia, Ῥήναια/ Rhḗnaia, Ῥήνη/ Rhḗnē; Latin Rhene, Plin. HN 4,67). An island of the Cyclades, consisting of two parts linked by a narrow isthmus (16 km2 in all, highest point 150 m). At its narrowest point R., present-day Megali Dilos, is 600 m from the neighbouring island of Delos to the east. The ancient polis of R. with its small territory lay on the west coast of the northern area. In 543 BC, Peisistratus [4] had graves transferred from Delos to R., inasfar as they were in sight of the temple of Apollo (Hdt. 1,64; Thuc. …

Thasos

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Θάσος/ Thásos). [German version] I. Geography Island in the northern Aegean (Aegean Sea); 398 km2, up to 1203 m high, 10 km south-south-west of the mouth of the Nestus [1], separated from the Macedonian mainland by a c. 7 km wide strait, with no particularly deeply carved bays; predominantly marble with deposits of gneiss and mica schist, occasional granite (north-east, south-west); lush vegetation (includin…

Telethrion

(99 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τελέθριον; Teléthrion). Mountains in the north of Euboea [1], to the southeast of a line from Oreos (modern Pyrgos) to Histiaea (Str. 10,1,3 f.), modern Galitsades (predominantly slate and sandstone, up to 977 m elevation: Profitis Elias); the location of the T. at Oechalia [4] (Steph. Byz. s. v. T.) is incorrect. T was famous for its medicinal herbs (Plin. HN 25,94; Theophr. Hist. pl. 4,5,2; 9,15,4; 9,15,8; 9,20,5). A particular region of T. was called Drymós ('oak forest': Str. loc.cit.). Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography K. Fiehn, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 397  Philip…

Saronikos Kolpos

(103 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σαρωνικὸς κόλπος/ Sarōnikòs kólpos, πέλαγος/ pélagos, πόντος/ póntos, or πόρος/ póros; also κόλπος Αργείας/ kólpos Argeías, Ptol. 3,16,12, or Σαλαμινιακὸν πέλαγος/ Salaminiakòn pélagos, Str. 8,2,2), modern 'Gulf of Aegina'. Named after the mythical king Saron of Troezen, a generally shallow gulf of the Aegean Sea (Paus. 2,30,7; 2,32,10, cf. 2,34,2; Str. 2,5,21) between Attica in the northeast, Argolis in the southwest and the Isthmus of Corinth in the northwest, with many islands (e.g., Aegina, Salami…

Teutlussa

(71 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τεύτλουσσα/ Teútloussa, Τευτλοῦσσα/ Teutloûssa; Teutloessa, Τευτλόεσσα; modern Sesklion). Island on the coast of Caria (Cares). In the winter of 412/1 BC the Athenians, defeated by a Spartan fleet 1 km to the north at Syme, sought shelter there (Thuc. 8,42,4; Steph. Byz. s. v. T.). Plin. HN 5,133 locates T. incorrectly at Rhodes. Limited traces of settlement survive. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography G. Susini, Supplemento epigrafico, in: ASAA 41/42, 1963/1964, 203-292, here 260.

Syros

(192 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σῦρος/ Sŷros). Island of many bays among the Cyclades (86 km2, rising to 432 m; Scyl. 58; Str. 10,5,3; 8; Mela 2,111; Plin. HN 4,67; Ptol. 3,15,30), still S. today. The island was settled by the 3rd millennium BC (early Cycladic necropolis on the northeastern coast at modern Chalandriani, settlement with fortification wall on the Kastri hill). Around 1000 BC it was colonised by Iones from Attica (Schol. Dionys. Per. 525). Hom. Od. 15,412 notes two cities on S., the earlier of which can pr…

Peparethos

(336 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Πεπάρεθος; Pepárethos). Island of the Cyclades (today counted among the northern Sporades) off the Thessalian coast (96 km2, 20 km long, up to 8 km wide; Str. 2,5,21; Ptol. 3,12,44; Plin. HN 4,72), with a main town of the same name, modern Skopelos. The central range of hills, Megalovuno, with the Hypselon (688 m), runs from north west to south east. Along the west coast there are cliffs and numerous islets. According to mythology, P. was settled by the Cretans (Diod. 5,79,2; Scymn. 579ff.); the…

Siphnos

(345 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σίφνος; Síphnos). Island in the western Cyclades (89 km2; Str. 10,5,3; Ptol. 3,15,30; Plin. HN 4,66; 36,159), rising to 696 m (Prophitis Elias), with many bays especially in the south and west; rich in slate and marble, it also produced gold, silver, iron and lead; still known as S. today. Poetic epithets: Merópē or Meropía and Acis (Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.; Plin. HN 4,42). Traces of settlement from the 3rd millennium onwards; silver and galenite were mined in the early Cycladic period (early Cycladic settlement south of Apollonia, for…

Scandea

(149 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Σκάνδεια/ Skándeia). Port settlement, 10 stadia to the east of the city of Cythera (Paus. 3,23,1) in the southeast of the island of Cythera, modern Kastri on the bay of Avlemonas. Settlement from the Early Helladic on; first mentioned in Hom. Il. 10,268. On a steep rock above S., there was an acropolis with a temple of Aphrodite Ourania. In 424 BC the Athenians conquered S., which had been occupied by the Spartans shortly before (Thuc. 4,…

Telos

(238 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Island (Τῆλος/ Têlos). Island to the northwest of Rhodes with deeply incised bays, 16 km in length, up to 9 km in width, 63 km2 in area, rising to 651 m in height, predominantly of slate and limestone formations with broad tuff valleys in between; originally named Agathoussa (Hesych. s. v. Ἀγάθουσσα, Steph. Byz. s. v. T.). Settled in the 3rd millennium BC (settlement remains at Kastello near Livadia in the south) and in the Minoan period (17th/16th cent. BC, at Megalo Chorio in the north). Settled c. 1000 BC by the Dorieis, in the 7th cent. BC linked polit…

Pholegandros

(136 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Φολέγανδρος; Pholégandros). Island in the southern Cyclades (33 km2, 19 km long, up to 4 km wide) to the southeast of Melos (Strab. 10,5,1; 5,3; Plin. HN 4,68; Ptol. 3,15,31), named after a son of Minos (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.), today once again called P.; its highest elevation is Hagios Eleutherios (411 m). P. was settled as early as the Cretan-Mycenaean Period, later it was Doric. P. was a member of the Delian League (tribute 1000 drachmai: ATL 1,434f.; 2,83). The ancient city of P. was above modern P. on the southeastern coast (graves, marble spolia and walls from the …

Nea

(100 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Νέα/ Néa, Νέαι/ Néai). Small island between Lemnos and the Hellespontus (Plin. HN 2,202), considered part of the Thermaios Kolpos in Plin. HN 4,72 and of Thracia in Anth. Pal. 15,25,25; probably not the same as the Byzantine N., modern Hagios Eustratios (30 km southeast of Lemnos), but rather submerged, apart from the meagre remains of the rocky reef of Charos east of Lemnos. Sacred to Athena. According to  Steph. Byz. s.v. Νέαι, Philoctetes was bitten by the serpent here (but acc. Paus. 8,33,4 on the submerged Chryse). Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography J. Koder, Ai…

Tenedos

(321 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Τένεδος; Ténedos). Island in the north east of the Aegean Sea (Ptol. 5,2,27; Dionys. Per. 135; Hierocles Synékdēmos 686,8), 5 km off the coast of Troas, 20 km south west of the Hellespont and therefore always of strategic importance; made up of limestone, slate, trachite with Neogene deposits; 10 km long, 5 km wide, 41 km2 in area, rising to 191 m in the northeast, present day Bozcaada. Various earlier names for T. are documented: C…

Myrtoon pelagos

(143 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Μυρτῷον πέλαγος; Myrtȏion pélagos, Latin mare Myrtoum). Part of the Aegean between the Peloponnese and the Cyclades; accounts of its size vary from one author to another, generally it includes the Saronic Gulf (Saronikos Kolpos); the term came into use at the end of the Roman Republic (cf. Hor. Carm. 1,1,14; Ov. Epist. 16,208). Its etymology is uncertain; most likely it was derived from the island of Myrto south of Euboea (Plin. HN 4,51) and referred initially only to the sea in that v…

Myonnesus

(58 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Μυόννησος; Myónnēsos). Small island shaped like a mouse (μῦς/ mŷs Greek = ‘mouse’, hence the name) in the Diaulos Oreon (straits between Euboea and the coast of Achaea Phthiotis), south west of Antron, modern Agios Nikolaos (Str. 9,5,14). Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenistische Thessalien, 1924, 182  Id., s.v. M. (1), RE 16, 1080.

Oche

(43 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ὄχη/ Ochē). Highest mountain to the south of Euboea (1347 m), with three main peaks; famous in the Imperial period for the marble of Carystus [1] (Str. 10,1,3; 1,6; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κάρυστος; Eust. 2,54,43ff.; Hsch. s.v. Ὀχή). Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)

Pharmacussae

(67 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Φαρμακοῦσσαι; Pharmakoûssai). Two small islands in the sound of Salamis off the coast of Attica (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.); the grave of Circe could be seen on the larger island (Str. 9,1,13), present-day Hagios Georgios in the Bay of Paloukia; the smaller island is the rocky reef Tes Panagias, near Perama [1. 566f.]. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, s.v. Psyttaleia, RE Suppl. 14, 566-571.

Therasia

(112 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Θηρασία; Thērasía). Island (9 km2, up to 295 m elevation;  Str. 1,3,16; 10,5,1; Plin.  HN 2,202; 4,70; Ptol. 3,15,28;  Just. Epit. 30,4,1; Steph. Byz. s. v. T.) in the group around Thera; with the main island to the east and Aspronisi it is part of the original volcano. In the south of T. a prehistoric settlement, buried by the volcanic eruption, was found showing a close relationship (comparable layout, pottery, artefacts) to Acrotiri on Thera. In the historical period settled by Do…

Tamynae

(168 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τάμυναι/ Támynai, also Ταμῦναι/ Tamŷnai). Township in the territory of Eretria [1] (Str. 10,1,10) about 14 km to the north of Porthmus [2] at modern Avlonari, settled from the Early Helladic until the Roman Imperial period (remains of the city wall and a 4th cent. BC Doric temple). The assumption that the Persians landed at T. in 490 BC (textual conjecture on Hdt. 6,101) is untenable. Inscriptions of the 3rd cent. BC record T. as a demos of Eretria (cf. IG XII 9, 191). In the conflicts between Athens and Philippus [4] II over influence on Euboea [1], Ph…

Pordoselene

(162 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Πορδοσελήνη/ Pordoselḗnē). City on the island of the same name (Skyl. 97) in the Hecatonnesi or near them (cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. Σελήνης πόλις; Str. 13,2,5), in the late and post-Hellenistic Period Poroselene (Ποροσελήνη, Paus. 3,25,7; Ptol. 5,2,5; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.), today probably Alibey or Alibey Adası  ( c. 14 km2), off the coast of Asia Minor near Ayvalık, now joined to the mainland by a causeway. P. was settled by Aeolians. In 425/4 and 421/0 the city is entered in lists of tribute quotas as a member of the Delian League …

Oros

(95 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ὄρος). Highest point on the island of Aegina (532 m), modern-day Hagios Elias; cone of volcanic origin on the southern part of the island. Fortified settlement at the summit dating from the Mycenaean period, since the Geometric period a cultic site dedicated to Zeus Hellanios, including an altar and a shrine that continued to be enlarged well into the Hellenistic era: on the north slope a terrace with building remains and inscriptions. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography G. Welter, Aigina, 1938, 26f., 91f., 102  J. Schmidt, s.v. O., RE 18, 1175-77  Philippson/Kirst…

Styra

(174 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League | Aegean Koine (Στύρα/ Stýra). Port in the southwest of Euboea [1], 4 km to the west of modern S. facing the island of Aegilia, probably founded by Dryopes (Hom. Il. 2,539; Hdt. 8,46; Paus. 4,34,11). S. capitulated to the Persians in 490 BC, fought at Salamis [1] on the Greek side in 480 BC (Hdt. 8,1; 8,46; 9,28; Paus. 5,23,2) and was a member of the Delian League (cf. ATL 1, 414 f.). Partially destroyed by Athens in the Lam…

Scyros

(208 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σκῦρος; Skŷros). Infertile island (limestone, slate, the Breccia marble popular in the Roman Imperial period) with many bays, to the east of Euboea [1] (202 km2; Str. 2,5,21; 9,5,16; Ptol. 3,13,47; Plin. HN 4,69; 72), rising in the south to 792 m, surrounded by several islets. The island was settled from the Mesolithic onwards (e.g. finds on Achilli Bay), in the Neolithic it was a staging post for trade in obsidian from Melos to the northern Aegaean (Aigaion Pelagos). The ancient polis of S., on the sit…

Phanae

(168 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Φάναι; Phánai). [German version] [1] Southern tip of the island of Chios The c. 300 m high southern tip of the island of Chios (Thuc. 8,24,3; Str. 14,1,35; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; Liv. 44,28,7; Ptol. 5,2,19), modern Akron Masticho. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) [German version] [2] Port on the southwestern coast of Chios Port on the southwestern coast of Chios about 10 km from P. [1] (Str. 14,1,35), modern Káto Phana. Area famous for viticulture (Verg. G. 2,98 and Serv. Georg. z.St.); palm grove (Str. l.c.). In the bay of P. great fleets were harboured…

Syme

(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σύμη/ Sýmē). Island (58 km2, up to 617 m elevation, barren limestone) with many bays, surrounded by islets, off the Carian coast, 24 km to the north of Rhodes (Hom. Il. 2,671 ff.; Hdt. 1,174; Str. 14,2,14; Diod. Sic. 5,53; Ptol. 5,2,32; Plin. HN 5,133), today again called S. Few traces of prehistoric and Mycenaean settlement, settled by Cares and in c. 1000 BC by Dorieis. The polis of S. was at modern S. on the Bay of Aegialus in the northeast (remains of city wall and harbour, Athena sanctuary). From 434/3 BC on, S. was a member of t…

Ogylus

(34 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ὤγυλος; Ṓ gylos). Island between the Peloponnese and Crete (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὤγυλος); identification uncertain, most plausibly Cythera or Anticythera. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography J. Schmidt, s.v. Ogylos, RE 17, 2078-2080.

Tenos

(639 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τῆνος/ Tênos). Island in the northern Cyclades; 27 km in length, up to 12 km wide, area of 195 km2; numerous coastal bluffs, a few open bays, primarily slate along with marble and granite; in the east, up to 714 m high (Tsiknias, probably the ancient Gyraíē pétrē, Hom. Od. 4,500; 4,507; Lycoph. Alexandra 390 ff.); it still bears the same name. T. was not very fertile, but the cultivation of garlic on T. was proverbial (Aristoph. Plut. 718); there were many snakes and scorpions (ibid.). Epithets for T. were h ydroûssa ('abundant in water') and o phioûssa ('abundant in sn…

Psyttalea

(130 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ψυττάλεια; Psyttáleia). Rocky island in the strait between Salamis [1] and the Piraeus bay (1,5 km long, 400 m wide, 51 m high), modern Psyttalia. The uninhabited island was consecrated to Pan (Aesch. Pers. 447 ff.; Paus. 1,36,2). On the eve of the battle of Salamis in 480 BC, Xerxes disembarked troops there, which were defeated by the Greeks (under Aristides [1]?); foundation remains of a triumphal monument are still extant. Cf. Plut. Aristides 9; Hdt. 8,76,1; 95; Aristodemus FGrH 104 F 1; Str. 9,1,14; Plin. HN 4,62; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ψυττάλεια. Külzer, Andreas (Vien…

Sporades

(276 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σποράδες/ Sporádes, 'the scattered'). Collective term, varying in detail, for the Aegean islands not reckoned as Cyclades (schol. Dionys. Per. 132; 530; Eust. in Dionys. Per. 530; Mela 2,111; Plin. HN 4,68-71; Aristot. Mund. 3,393). The name appears to have first been coined by Hellenistic geographers; there is no evidence for it yet in the 4th cent. BC (e.g. in Ps.-Scyl. 48; 58; 96-99). After its introduction it was inconsistently applied; the boundary with the Cyclades fluctuate…

Thermaios Kolpos

(118 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Θερμαῖος κόλπος/ Thermaîos kólpos). Bay, still named after the city of Therme, between Thessaly (Thessalians) and Chalcidice, significant for connecting the Macedonian interior with the Aegean Sea (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 146; Hdt. 7,121-123; 8,127; IG I2 302,68; Mela 2,2,35; and Plin. HN 4,36 and 4,72: Thermaicus and Thermaeus sinus respectively). Scyl. 66 and Mela loc.cit. locate the bay at the mouth of the Peneius. The inner corner of the bay, which curves to the northeast, was a favourite geographical point of orientation used to …

Thera

(1,249 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Külzer
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Θήρα/ Thḗra). [German version] I. Geography An island (73 km2) of the southern Cyclades with a city of the same name (Str. 10,5,1; Paus. 3,1,8), formerly Santorini (from Italian Santa Irene), now Thira, together with the smaller islands Therasia and Aspronisi a group of islands that most likely formed around 1628 BC (dendro-dating) in the wake of a powerful volcanic eruption; Palaia Kaim…

Patmos

(312 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Πάτμος/ Pátmos). With an area of 34 km2, P. is the smallest and northernmost island of the Sporades (today's Dodecanes), being of volcanic origin, to the southwest of the island of Samos. Outer perimeter: irregular, approximately semicircular, open to the east (remains of a crater rim), maximum length of 12 km, width of 300-5000 m, highest elevation is Prophetis Elias in the SE (269 m); the island consists of four main parts with each being connected by a low isthmus, the widest of whi…

Phylakopi

(175 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology (Φυλακοπή/ Phylakopḗ, modern place name). Site of prehistorical settlement on the steep eastern coast of the island of Melos, one of the most important bronze age towns of the Aegean, significant for its obsidian trade. Three phases of settlement have been determined: phase 1 (24th-21st cent. BC), an extensive settlement, barely urban, probably destroyed by earthquakes; phase 2 (2000-1600 BC), fortified, to some ext…

Zarax

(331 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Ζάραξ/ Zárax). [German version] [1] City on the eastern coast of the Parnon This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea City of Laconian períoikoi on a bay (modern Limin Ierakas, Kastri or Ieraka) on the eastern coast of the Parnon, modern Ierax. Remains of ancient city walls on the northern side of the entrance to the harbour. Z. had an extremely advantageous maritime location (natural harbour) but lacked both good connections with the Laconian inland plain and drinking wa…

Salamis

(1,094 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Σαλαμίς/ Salamís). [German version] [1] Largest island in the Saronic Gulf This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture Largest island (93 km2) in the Saronic Gulf (Saronikos Kolpos), with a deeply punctuated coastline, 0.5 km from the coast of Attica at the nearest point; three main mountainous massifs with hilly valleys between them; the highest elevations (366 m) are on the central massif (modern Mavrovouni). The island was original…

Samothrace

(1,617 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Peloponnesian War | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Σαμοθράκη; Samothrákē). [German version] I. Geography and history Island (178 km2, with Mount Phengari, 1161 m) in the northern Aegean Sea, 30 km out from the Tracian coast, rich in water, with a narrow and flat beach and lacking in natural harbours. There are isolated traces of Neolithic settlements (near Karyotai and Mikro Vuni), in the Bronze Age it was occupied by Thracians. In c. 700 BC, S. was settled by Greek colonists, probably by Aeolis [1] of Lesbos, who fou…

Porthmus

(253 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Πορθμός/ Porthmós, 'ferry place'). [German version] [1] Narrows of Salamis and ferry place of the same name there Narrows of Salamis and ferry place of the same name there (Hdt. 8,76,91; Aeschin. 3,158). Boundary stones from the ferry harbour have been found in Piraeus (πορθμείων ὅρμου ὅρος/ porthmeíōn hórmou hóros, IG I3 1104 [1. 446]). The Herakleion of the Salaminii at P. (SEG 21, 527 Z. 10 f., 16) is not identical with the one in Sunium (SEG 21, 527 Z. 84, 94 f.), hence P. does not describe the narrows at Puntazeza in the Sunium dḗmos. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 W. Judeich, Top…

Oenussae

(160 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Οἰνοῦσσαι/ Oinoûssai). [German version] [1] Group of three islands on the southwest tip of the Messenic peninsula off the coast of Methone [1] Group of three islands on the southwest tip of the Messenic peninsula off the coast of Methone [1]: present-day Sapientza, Schiza and Hagia Mariani. The first two have been inhabited since the Hellenistic period. Traces of a Roman settlement were found in Sapientza. References: Paus. 4,34,12; Plin. HN. 4,55; Mela 2,110. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography E. Kirsten, F. Bölte, s.v. O., RE 17, 2281f. [German version] [2] Gro…

Myrina

(670 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μύρινα; Mýrina). [German version] [1] Amazon Amazon (Dionysius Chalcidensis FHG 4 F 2), daughter of Cretheus, wife of Thoas (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,601); eponym of the city of the same name (M. [3]) on Lemnos (Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 138c). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Teucer Daughter of Teucer, wife of Dardanus [1], first mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,814; her burial mound was displayed outside Troy as Batieia (Strab. 12,8,6). She was regarded as an Amazon in ancient times. Extensive raids are mentioned in Diod. 3,54f. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] City in southw…

Oechalia

(347 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Οἰχαλία; Oichalía). [German version] [1] Mythical place in Homer, Catalogue of the Pylians Mythical place in Homer, in the Catalogue of the Pylians (Hom. Il. 2,594ff.). According to the narrative context, O. must be located in north western Messenia. It was from O. that the Thracian singer Thamyris came to Dorium, where the Muses robbed him of his gift of song. Homer's interpreters equate O. with Andania (Str. 8,3,6; 8,4,5; Plin. HN 4,15; Paus. 4,2,2f.). Pherecydes (FGrH 3 F 82a) assumed that O. was 'somewh…

Schoenus

(232 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Σχοινοῦς/ Schoinoûs, literally '(bul)rushes'). [German version] [1] River in Boeotia River in the area of Thebes in Boeotia (Σχοινεύς/ Schoineús in Steph. Byz. s. v. Σχοινοῦς/ Schoinoûs; Stat. Theb. 7,268; Nonnus, Dion. 13,63; Nic. Ther. 889) which flowed through the region or town of Schoenus (about 9 km from Thebae; modern Muriki) (Str. 9,2,22 or Hom. Il. 2,497) and into Trephia Limne (modern Lake Paralimni). According to  Steph. Byz. loc.cit., S. was derived from one of the sons of the Theban hero Athamas. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 229-232. [German version] […

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …
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