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Lydia

(4,480 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Λυδία; Lydía). [German version] I. Geography Region in western Asia Minor; its southern border with Caria is formed by the Mes(s)ogis and the Maeander, its eastern border with Phrygia by the confluence of the Lycus [18] and the Maeander, the upper course of the Hermus [2] and the Dindymus mountains (modern Murat Dağı) and its northern border with Mysia by the Caicus [1]) and the Temnus (Demirci Dağı) and mountain ranges further west. Aeolis and Ionia are offshore in the west, sharing with L. the clim…

Stratoniceia

(611 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] City on the upper Caicus This item can be found on the following maps: Pergamum (Στρατονίκεια/ Stratoníkeia, Στρατονίκη/ Stratoníkē, Latin Stratonice). City on the upper Caïcus near modern Siledik. Possibly a Seleucid polis foundation (named after Stratonice [3]), from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC under Pergamum. It was probably here - not in S. [2] - that Aristonicus [4] was taken prisoner by Perperna [3] in 130 BC (Eutr. 4,20,2; Oros. 5,10,5). In the first half of the 2nd cent. AD, S. had sympolity (Sy…

Caystru pedion

(201 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] [1] River plain of the Caystrus (Καΰστρου/Καΰστριον πεδίον; Kaÿ́strou/ Kaÿ́strion pedion). River plain of the  Caystrus [1] from the plain of Kilbis on the upper course of the river (Κιλβιανὸν πεδίον, Str. 13,4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Assos) to the west; on its middle or rather lower course was the Ἄσιος λειμών ( Ásios leimṓn; ‘Asian meadow’) with flocks of wild geese, cranes, and swans (Hom. Il. 2,461; Cic. Orat. 163; Str. 14,1,45). Mount Tmolus afforded a view on the surrounding plains, including the Caystrou pedion (CP) (Str. 13,4,5…

Idrias

(134 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἰδριάς; Idriás). Mountainous region in Caria with the Marsyas valley east of Mylasa (Hdt. 5,118; Str. 14,5,23), with the like-named Carian city. Its allegedly older name, Chrysaoris (Steph. Byz. s.v. I.; s.v. Chrysaoris), is also attributed to the city of Stratoniceia and its countryside (Paus. 5,21,10), probably in the sense that I. lay in an area where the villages had joined together in the Carian league of Chrysaoreis around the sanctuary of Zeus Chrysaoreus; the city of Strat…

Lethaeus

(131 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ληθαῖος; Lēthaîos). [German version] [1] Tributary of the Peneius Left-hand tributary of the Peneius in north-west Thessalia, flows through Tricca (Paus. 14,139), modern Trikkalinos. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 121. [German version] [2] River in southern Crete River in southern Crete, which flows through Gortyn from north to south (Str. 10,4,11), modern Mitropolianos. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [3] Tributary of the Maiander Right-hand tributary of the Maeander (river god: coins o…

Curupedion

(72 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κούρου or Κόρου πεδίον). Plain in Lydia north of Magnesia on the Sipylos, east of the confluence of the Hyllus [4] and the Hermos [2] (Str. 13,4,5; 13), where Lysimachus was defeated in 281 BC by Seleucus (Porphyrius FGrH 260 F 3,8), and Antiochus [5] III was defeated in 190 BC by the Romans (Liv. 37,37-39). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography H. Bengtson, Griech. Gesch., 51977, 389, see n. 4, 481.

Silandus

(192 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Σίλανδος/ Sílandos). City in eastern Lydia, at a northern tributary of the Hermus [2] (e.g. river god Hermus in coin images). Under Domitianus [1] (AD 81-96) S. became a civitas , issuing coins (until Severus [2] Alexander); at the same time Mocadene was divided into the territories of the cities of S. and Temenothyrae, the two cities then being called mētropóleis. S. was near modern Kara Selendi (to the west of Selendi). Bishops of S. took part in the Councils of Nicaea in 325 and Cha…

Zephyrium

(770 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Et al.
(Ζεφύριον/ Zephýrion). Name used especially in the eastern Mediterranean region for foothills and the cities near them that are exposed to the west wind (Zephyrus). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Cape on the north eastern coast of Crete Cape on the north-eastern coast of Crete (Ptol. 3,17,5), probably modern Cape Agios Ioannis at the north-eastern end of the Gulf of Mirabello. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Cape on the south western coast of Cyprus (or Ζεφυρία/ Zephyría). Cape on the south-western coast of Cyprus. According to Ptol. 5…

Calynda

(248 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Delian League (τὰ Κάλυνδα; tà Kálynda). Settlement on the south-western coast of Asia Minor, taken as being part of Caria as well as Lycia, 60 stades inland from the coast on the Axon (modern Kargın çayı) east of the  Indus [2] (Hdt. 1,172; Str. 14,2,2; Plin. HN 5,103; Ptol. 5,3,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. C.). In 480 BC, it was under the rule of  Damasithymus (Hdt. 8,87f.), in the middle of the 5th cent. a member of the  Delian League (as Klaÿnda); Ptolemaic in the 3rd cent. In 166 BC, C. was subordinate to  Caunus [2…

Myndus

(497 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μύνδος; Mýndos). City in southwestern Asia Minor on the western coast of the peninsula stretching from  Halicarnassus to M., modern Gümüşlük. Its predecessor was a fortified highland settlement of the Leleges (Old ‘M.’, Plin. HN 5,107) on Mount Boz (3.5 km to the south). In the 5th cent. BC, M. was a member of the Delian League. In about 360, the town was abandoned or relocated to a harbour protected by foothills. The refoundation, probably under  Maussollus, was simultaneously connected with a synoikismós of six settlements around Halicar…

Larisa

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Et al.
(Λάρισα; Λάρισσα; Lárisa, Lárissa). Name of numerous locations in Greece and Asia Minor, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. [German version] [1] Acropolis of Argos The 289-m high acropolis of Argos with Mycenaean remains (not precisely identified) [1]. The temple of Zeus Larisaios and Athena Polias under the large Venetian castle has been excavated. References: Str. 8,6,7; Paus. 2,24,1; 3f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λάρισαι πόλεις. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. Vassilatos, Larissa. The Acropolis of Argos, 1994. [German version] [2] City in Achaea Phthiotis Important city in Achaea Phthi…

Massabatae

(68 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μασσαβάται/ Massabátai, Μεσσαβάται/ Messabátai, Latin Messabatae). Inhabitants of the region of Massabatice (Μασσαβατική/ Massabatikḗ, Μεσ(σ)αβατική/ Mes(s)abatikḗ), which was named after them, in southern Media or northern Elymaeis (Str. 11,13,6; 16,1,18; Plin. HN 6,134), or - less likely - south of the Elymaeis region in the northernmost part of Persis (Ptol. 6,4,3; cf. Plin. HN 6,135). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography R. N. Frye, The History of Ancient Iran, 1984, 89.

Maeonia

(372 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαιονία; Maionía, Latin Maeonia). [German version] [1] Area in Lydia Area in Lydia around the Gygaia Limne, at the foot of Tmolus (Hom. Il. 3,401, cf. 2,864ff.; 10,431); primarily understood as the oldest country or tribal name (Μηίονες/ Mēíones, Hdt. 1,7; 7,74; Diod. Sic. 4,31,5; Dion. Hal. 1,27,1; Plin. HN 5,110). Originally, M. comprised the Catacecaumene [1] (Str. 12,8,13; 13,4,11) with the border region of Phrygia (Plin. HN 5,146; Ptol. 5,2,16), the valley of the Cogamus river (modern Alaşehir Çayı), the area around Sardes (Pl…

Caunus

(821 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Καῦνος; Kaûnos). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Carian town C. [2] Eponym of the Carian town C. [2], who gains contours chiefly in connection with his twin sister  Byblis. The myths depict various constellations of their incestuous relationship (Parthenius 11). Walde, Christine (Basle) Bibliography S. Jackson, Apollonius of Rhodes: the Cleite and Byblis Suicides, in: SIFC 14, 1997, 48-54. [German version] [2] Coastal town in the border areas between Caria and Lycia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia | Pergamum | Pe…

Sebastopolis

(180 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Σεβαστόπολις; Sebastópolis). [German version] [1] City in Caria City in the mountainous country of southeastern Caria between Tabae and Themisonium on the road from Heraclea [6] and Apollonia Salbace to Cibyra, at modern Kızılca. The original place name is unknown; in the Imperial period the city was renamed S. and is recorded in inscriptions and on coins (HN 624; [1. 150 f.]). In literature it is first mentioned in the early Byzantine period (Hierocles, Synékdēmos 689). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 F. Imhoof-Blumer, Kleinasiatische Münzen, 1901/2. L. Bürchner,…

Euromus

(375 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Persian Wars | Education / Culture (Εὔρωμος; Eurōmos). Town in the Carian interior (Str. 14,1,8; 2,22; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; Plin. HN 5,109), 22 km south of the former Gulf of Latmia (the modern Bafa or Çamiçi gölü), 3 km south of Selimiye at the northern end of the Mylasa plateau; today's Ayaklı. In the 5th cent. as H(K)yromos a member of the  Delian League. The town was probably not called E., often also Eúropos, until after the 4th cent. BC. Sympolitically linked with its περιπόλιοι ( peripólioi, ‘neighbouring towns’…

Hermus

(350 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ἑρμός; Hermós). [German version] [1] Att. asty deme of the phyle Acamantis Attic asty deme of the phyle Acamantis, with two bouleutaí. Position: on the ‘Sacred Road’ to Eleusis at the entrance to the pass near modern Daphni, modern Chaidari; there is the tomb of Pythionice, the wife of Harpalus (Plut. Phoc. 22,2; Paus. 1,37,5; [1]). Near Daphni there are funerary inscriptions of Hermeioi: IG II2 6072. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις. Ἀττικά, 1974, 468 with n. 6. W. Kolbe, s.v. H., RE VIII 1, 903 Traill, Attica, 47, 69, 110 no. 5…

Nysa

(1,207 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Νῦσα/ Nûsa). [German version] [1] Wet nurse of Dionysus Wet nurse of Dionysus (Terpander in Lydus, Mens. 4,51) with cult in Athens (IG III 320, 351). Hom. Il. 6,132f. already knew of companions of N. Three Nysai meet on a vase by Sophilus (about 580). They appear in the sky as a group of stars called Hyades. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography T. Ganschow, s.v. Nysa, LIMC 8.1, 902-907; 8.2, 598f. [German version] [2] In Homer, the toponym N. refers to a mythical place In Homer, the toponym N. refers to the mythical place (mountain) where Dionysus was born or spent his childhood (Νυσήϊον/ Nysḗïon, …

Attaleia

(445 words)

Author(s): Martini, Wolfram (Gießen) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ἀττάλεια; Attáleia). [German version] [1] The modern Antalya This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Zenobia | Asia Minor | Limes | Lycii, Lycia | Pergamum | Pompeius The modern Antalya; harbour town, located on a rocky ridge on the coast of  Pamphylia, founded in around 150 BC by  Attalus [5] II (Str. 14,4,1), and visited by Pompey on his flight in 48 BC (Plut. Pompeius 76; cf. Ptol. 5,5,2; Acta Apostolorum 14,25). Remains of the Attalid town walls, Hadrian's gate, to mark the emperor's visit in AD 130, and a monumental mausoleum (circular building on a cubic base). Martini…

Termera

(276 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Τέρμερα/ Térmera). City of the Leleges in Caria (Cares IV.) on the southwestern coast of the Halicarnassus peninsula (Str. 14,2,18; incorrect location: Plin. HN 5,107) at modern Asarlık. The Lelegean bandit Termerus is named as eponymous founder (Schol. Eur. Rhes. 509; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.); his ravaging and his removal by Heracles [1] (Plut. Theseus 11) are the origin of the expression 'Termeran evil', when an evil-doer is given a …

Hyllus

(747 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ὕλλος; Hýllos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Deianira Son of  Heracles and  Deianira; brother of Macaria. Ctesippus, Glenos and Oneites (Hes. fr. 25,19 M-W; Apollod. 2,165 Wagner) or Gleneus and Odites (Diod. Sic. 4,37,1) have been named as his brothers and Euaichme (Hes. fr. 251b M-W) as his daughter. Heracles asks him to burn his body on a pyre on Mount Oeta and to marry Iole (Soph. Trach. 1179-1258; (Ps.-)Sen. Hercules Oetaeus 1481-1491). After his father's death, he and the other Heraclid…

Sardis

(3,784 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Writing | Theatre | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Rome | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources (Σάρδεις/ Sárdeis, Lat. Sardis). [German version] I. Location and name City set at the opening of the valley of the Pactolus into that of the Hermus [2] as it broadens into the Sardian Plain. Centre of th…

Caprus

(135 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
(Κάπρος; Kápros). [German version] [1] River is eastern Caria River in the upper catchment area of the  Maeander in eastern Caria, modern Başlı Çay; it passes  Laodicea [4] closely to the east (Plin. HN 5,105) and discharges perennially into the Lycus, which runs about 1.5 km below the town in a north-westerly direction towards the Maeander (Str. 12,8,16; Plin. HN 2,225). Coins of the town depict a river god with the C. legend. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography G. E. Bean, Kleinasien 3, 1974, 259, 263 Magie 2, 785; 986 Miller, 726 Ramsay 1, 35. [German version] [2] Eastern tributar…

Mes(s)ogis

(88 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μεσ(σ)ωγίς; Mes(s)ōgís). Central range of a chain of mountains stretching westwards from near Celaenae in southwestern Phrygia to the Mycale, and reaching heights of over 1,600 m (Strab. 13,4,12f.), modern Aydın Mountains, the watershed between the Cayster and the Maeander [2], originally the frontier between Lydia and Caria (Ptol. 5,2,15). The best wines of the M. was said to be from grapes grow on Mount Aroma (Strab. 14,1,47; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄρωμα). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography J. Keil, s.v. M., RE 15, 1100ff. Magie, 783.

Icarian Sea

(235 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἰκάριος πόντος; Ikários póntos). Southeastern part of the Aegean Sea, from Samos to Mykonos (Plin. HN 4,51) respectively from Icarus, with Corassiae (Corseae, modern Fourni) and Samos, via Patmos, Leros and Kalymnos to Kos (Str. 10,5,13). References: Hom. Il. 2,145 (Ἰκάριος πόντος); Sen. Hercules Oetaeus 694; Auson. epist. 23 ( Icarius pontus); Ov. Fast. 4,283; 566; Plin. HN 4,68; 6,215 ( Icarium); Hdt. 6,96; Str. 2,5,21; Ptol. 5,2,1-6; 17,2; Diod. Sic. 4,77,6 (Ἰκάριον πέλαγος); Claud. in Eutropium 2,265 ( Icarium pelagus). The Icarian Sea (IS) breaks on the …

Telmissus

(205 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τελμισσός/ Telmissós; by-form Τελμεσσός/ Telmessós: Syll.3 1047,7 f.). City in Caria (Cares) at modern Gürece, about 11 km (Polemon FHG 3, 128 Fr. 35) to the west of Halicarnassus, for the expansion of which T. had to relinquish part of its population c. 361 BC (Callisthenes FGrH 124 F 25; Plin. HN 5,107). With its Apollo sanctuary, still famous in the Roman Imperial period (HN 619), T. formed the League of the Telmisseis [1. 377-380]. At the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC T. was entirely absorbed into Halicarnassus. On…

Cyme

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κύμη; Kýmē). [German version] [1] Settlement on Euboea This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine C. on  Euboea. The exact location of the ancient settlement is unknown; it should be looked for near what is today the town of C., commonly Kumi, on the east coast of Euboea, possibly about 5 km north at the monastery of Sotiros (17th cent.) where there is also a Venetian fortress. Recently the remains of an Early Helladic settlement were found near Murteri south of C. whose inhabitants already traded…

Castabos

(208 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κάσταβος; Kástabos). Site in the north-west of the Carian Chersonesus (Bozburun Yarımadası) in the hinterland of the Bay of Bybassus (the modern Hisarönü), to the east above ancient Bybassus (the modern Hisarönü) in the Rhodian  Peraea. On the Pazarlık, a ridge of the Eren Dağı, remains of an Ionic peripteros ( c. 300 BC), a small theatre and further structures belonging to the much-visited sanctuary of  Hemithea (Diod. Sic. 5,62 f.), a goddess of healing whose originally Carian cult, traceable back to the end of the 7th cent. BC…

Alinda

(318 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Ἄλινδα/ Álinda). City in northern Caria (Cares; Ptol. 5,2,20). In the Delian League in the middle of the 5th cent. BC (ATL 1, 467 f.); in 341/40 the only fortress remaining to the princess Ada, which in 334 BC she handed over to Alexander [4] the Great, only to receive it back by adopting him (Arr. Anab. 1,23,8; Diod. 17,24,2). After that A. was for a short time renamed Alexandria on the Latmus [1]; the city is supposed to have…

Loryma

(161 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Λώρυμα; Lṓryma). Town on the south coast of Caria (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 247), east of the southern tip of Boz Burun in the heart of the peraea of Rhodes, belonged to Kasara (modern Asardibi), modern Bozuk Kale (‘castle ruin’). On the headland (Str. 14,2,4; 2,14; Larumna, Mela 1,84; Plin. HN 5,104; Ptol. 5,2,8; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.) over the approach to the bay lie the ruins of a Rhodian fortress (3rd/2nd cent. BC); on the southeastern side, rock inscriptions for Rhodian Zeus At…

Neapolis

(2,079 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Νέα πόλις/ Néa pólis, Νεάπολις/ Neápolis, ‘New City’). [German version] [1] Town on the northern coast of the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia Town on the northern coast of the Aegean to the west of the mouth of the Nestus river, across from the island of Thasos, modern Kavalla (Str. 7a,1,36; Ps.-Scyl. 67), probably a Thasian colony but the exact period of foundation is unknown. Early in the 6th cent. BC, autonomous silver coinage modelled on that of Eretria [1] (HN 196…

Mostene

(205 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μοστήνη; Mostḗnē). Lydian city (Ptol. 5,2,16), localised according to inscriptions and coins either at the eastern foot of Mount Sipylus near modern Çobanisa or Sancaklıboz or to the south of Thyateira or c. 40 km to the east of Magnesia [3] (modern Asartepe near Urganlı). In AD 17, M. was destroyed by an earthquake (Tac. Ann. 2,47,3). M. was one of 12 or 14 cities of the province of Asia that thanked Tiberius for help in rebuilding with honorary inscriptions and a monument in Rome (copy: Puteoli, CIL X 1624; I…

Idyma

(192 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἴδυμα; Ídyma). Ancient Carian settlement (Ptol. 5,2,15; Steph. Byz. s.v. I.) on the eastern end of the gulf of Ceramus near Gökova, 4 km inland near İskele, by the river Idymus. Coins (from the 6th cent. BC onwards) showing a head of Pan and from the Hellenistic period with a Rhodian Apollo and fig leaf are preserved. In the mid-5th cent. BC I. was a member of the  Delian League and was ruled by Pactyes. In the 3rd/2nd cents. I. belonged to the Rhodian Peraea, was occupied in 201 …

Theangela

(390 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Θεάγγελα/ Theángela). City in Caria (Cares), to the east of Halicarnassus, most eastern settlement of the Leleges; a precedessor settlement may have been Συάγγελα/ Syángela (S.), at the modern Alazeytin Kalesi to the west above Çiftlik [1. 112-116, 145-147; 2. 89-96], or on Mount Kaplan to the southwest of modern Etrim [3. 17 note 3, 224 note 33a]. In the 6th/5th cent. BC S. was in the hands of the Carian dynastic family of Pigres, who held a command…

Trapezopolis

(140 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τραπεζόπολις/ Trapezópolis). City in Caria (Ptol. 5,2,18; Cares) on the northern slopes of Mount Cadmus (modern Baba) in the Salbacus mountains (modern Akdağ); scant remains of the city are at Bolu to the west of Denizli. As well as in inscriptions and on coins (1st-3rd cents. AD) T. is particularly well attested in late Antiquity literary sources. T. was part of the Conventus of Alabanda (Plin. HN 5,109). T. enjoyed close relations with the neighbouring city of Attuda (modern Hasköy; cf. Homónoia coins under Antoninus [1] Pius). In the 4th cent. AD T. was …

Amyzon

(290 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἀμυζών/ Amyzṓn). City in Caria (Cares; cf. Str. 14,2,22; Ptol. 5,2,19), on the northern slopes of the Latmus [1] mountains 15 km to the northwest of Alinda (see vol. 15 addenda). A 6th cent. BC settlement which arose around a mountain sanctuary - in the middle of the 5th cent. possibly belonging to the Delian League (ATL 1, 521) - was expanded under Idrieus (351-344 BC) into a Greek-style city. It attained its peak in the 3rd cent. BC. A. was renamed Alexandria for a short time, w…

Cedreae

(271 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Education / Culture (Κεδρέαι, also Κεδρεῖαι, Κεδρεαί; Kedréai, Kedreîai, Kedreaí). Town in Caria on the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf, on the island of Şehir adası and on the mainland near Taşbükü. Originally, its population was purely Carian, later Carian-Greek (μιξοβάρβαροι, mixobárbaroi, Xen. Hell. 2,1,15). The inhabitants of C. spoke the dialect of Dorian Asia Minor (cf. inscriptions). At the end of the 6th cent. BC, Hecat. mentions C. as a town (FGrH 1 F 248); in the 5th…

Thyssanus

(109 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Θυσσανοῦς/ Thyssanoûs). Port in southern Caria (Cares; Mela 1,84; Plin. HN 5,104) on the western coast of the Bozburun peninsula on the Gulf of Syme (modern Sömbeki) at modern Ortaca. T. belonged to the Rhodean peraia, as a dámos ( demos [2] B) politically to Camirus on Rhodes, with a territory stretching as far as the southern and northern bays (e.g. with the remains of an acropolis at modern Cumhuriyet Mahallesi). After a temporary separation T. was returned to Rhodes by the Romans presumably c. 70 AD. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography W. Blümel, Die Inschr…

Iasus

(1,066 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ἴασος/Ἰάσιος; Íasos/Iásios). [German version] [1] Several kings of Argus Kings of Argus: a) son of Argus and Evadne, father of Agenor (Apollod. 2,3), b) son of Argus and Ismene, father of  Io (ibid. 2,5), c) son of Triopas, bother of Agenor, father of Io (Paus. 2,16,1). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] Father of Atalante Arcadian, son of Lycurgus and Cleophile, brother of Ancaeus, Epochus, and Amphidamas, husband of Minyas' daughter Clymene, father of  Atalante (Hes. Theog. 1288; Callim. H. 3,216; Apollod. 3,105; 109). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [3] Leader of the …

Olymus

(128 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ὄλυμος/ Ólymos or Ὄλυμον/ Ólymon?). City in Caria north-west of Mylasa; known only from inscriptions. In the 5th cent. BC, member of the Delian League ( Hýlimos); in the 3rd/2nd cents., O. merged with Mylasa in sympoliteía . A temple of Apollo and Artemis survives at modern Kafaca, 8 km north-west of Milâs. The inscriptions (end of 2nd cent.  - 70s of 1st cent. BC) very often relate to the selling or leasing of temple land and provide information about a privileged class constituted by the desce…

Cnidus

(445 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Colonization | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κνίδος; Knídos, Lat. Cnidus). City of the Carian or Dorian Chersonesus (now the Reşadiye peninsula). Dorian settlement (Hom. Il. 1,43; Hdt. 1,174); member of the Dorian Pentapolis. C. probably stood originally in the middle of the peninsula near today's Datça. Historical dates: About 580 BC it participated in the colonization of Sicily (Thuc. 3,88) and in the Hellenion in Naucratis (…

Blaundos

(240 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Βλαῦνδος; Blaûndos). City in eastern  Lydia on the border with Phrygia, to which it is therefore also assigned (Ptol. 5,2,25: Βλέανδρος; Bléandros); south of Inay (cf.  Klannudda) near the modern Sülümenli (also Sülünlü) on a narrow spur between two ravines flowing into the Hippurius (the modern Köprülü Çay), a northern tributary of the upper Maeander [2]. Indigenous place name in 2nd cent. BC still Mlaundos (on coins). From its official designation Blaundeī́s Makedónes (coins, inscription IGR 4, 717, 3rd c…

Caystrus

(224 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] [1] River in Lydia River in Lydia (Καΰστριος; Kaÿ́strios: Hom. Il. 2,461; Hdt. 5,100; Κάϋστρος; Káÿstros: Str. 13,3,2; Arr. Anab. 5,6,4; Mela 1,88), modern Küçük Menderes (‘Little Maeander’); it rises on the southern slopes of Mount Tmolus above Coloë (modern Keles near Kiraz); it flows through the plain of Kilbis, then through the  Caystrou pedion [1], absorbs from the right tributaries from Mount Tmolus, from the left those from the Mesogis mountains (modern Cevizli dağı) (Plin. HN 5,115), and…

Telandrus

(135 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Delian League (Τήλανδρος; Tḗlandros). City in the border region of Caria (Cares) and Lycia (Lycii) on the River Glaucus (Plin. HN 5,101;  Quint. Smyrn. 4,7); hardly to be correctly located in the ruin sites of modern Nif on the upper River Nif  (ancient Glaucus?), rather, as a member of the Delian League, to be found near the coast: the Telandrii, who were included in the tribute lists for the years 453/2-425/4 BC ( Phóros C.; cf. ATL 1, 555), probably inhabited the island of Telandria (modern Tersane) o…

Labraunda, Labranda

(312 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Λάβραυνδα, Λάβρανδα; Lábraunda, Lábranda). Locality and sanctuary of the Carian Zeus Stratios (also Labrandos), situated on a southern spur of Mt Latmus. Connected by a sacred road to Mylasa, to which it belonged as kṓmē together with the later settlement (Str. 14,2,23). Place name and name of the god are pre-Greek. The double-headed axe ( lábrys) of L. was believed to have been taken over from the Amazons or the Lydian Heraclid kings (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 45). The cult statue ( xóanon ) with the shouldered lábrys is depicted on coins of the 4th cent. BC. The shri…

Klannudda

(134 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κλαννούδδα/ Klannoúdda; Tab. Peut. 9,4: Clanudda). City in eastern Lydia, c. 55 km east-north-east of Philadelphia [1], north of the Persian royal road. K. is probably the site of ruins at Hacet Kalesi near Kışla, where Hellenistic wall-ruins were identified, on the north-west edge of the plain of İnay (ancient Náïs). Coins in the 2nd/1st cents. BC ( Klannoudda; [1]; HN 650). K. was probably established as a Seleucid fortress, like neighbouring Blaundos, 15 km to the south, and absorbed by it at the start of the Roman Imperial period. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliogr…

Halicarnassus

(1,697 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Dark Ages | Alexander | Ionic | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Pompeius | Delian League | Education / Culture (Ἁλικαρνασσός; Halikarnassós). [German version] I. Location Coastal city in the south of  Caria on the Gulf of Ceramus, modern Bodrum. The plan of the city (Str. 14,2,16; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἁ.; Vitr. De arch. 2,8,10-14) resembled the seating arrangement of a theatre: a circular harbour bay, the ‘enclosed harbour’ (λιμὴν κλειστός, Ps.-Scyl. 98a), framed on both sides by …

Gerga

(269 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γέργα; Gérga). Village in northern  Caria, south-east of Eskiçine on the Marsyas [4], near Incekemer (formerly Gâvurdamları). The name G. (also Gergas, G. kṓmē) is to be found many times in uniquely large clumsy Greek (on one occasion also Latin) letters on boulders, rock stelae hewn in a pyramid shape and idol-like colossal statues (fragmentary) in the vicinity of a small temple (?) built of solid granite blocks, on the temple itself and carved into one of the low well-houses (?). Several parts that h…

Harpasus

(314 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Ἅρπασος; Hárpasos). [German version] [1] Southern tributary of the Maeander in Caria Southern tributary of the Maeander in Caria (Plin. HN 2,210; 5,109; Ptol. 5,2,15; Quint. Smyrn. 10,141-146; Steph. Byz. s.v. H.), modern Akçay, narrow like a canyon along its middle course, today with a dam further south (Kemer dam). Old Ionian settlement area, ruins of ancient settlements near its banks (e.g. Neapolis, Harpasa, modern Arpaz near Esenköy). In the summer of 228 BC,  Attalus [4] I beat Antiochus  Hierax at t…

Tmolus

(290 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Τμῶλος/ Tmôlos). [German version] [1] Mountain chain in Lydia Mountain chain (up to 2157 m elevation) in Lydia, snow-covered in winter (Hom. Il. 2,866; 20,385), modern Bozdağ. The T. mountains were the source of the Pactolus, which in Antiquity bore auriferous sand; Sardis was on its banks (Plin. HN 5,110). In the T. mountains, vines were cultivated (Str. 14,1,15; Plin. HN 14,74; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,12), they were known for fields of saffron (Verg. G. 1,56; 4,380; Solin. 40,10). The T. were the residence…

Gygaie limne

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γυγαίη λίμνη; Gygaíē límnē). Lake in Lydia north of  Hermus and of  Sardis, to which in the south adjoin the Lydian royal necropolis (modern Bintepe, ‘Thousand Hills’) with the tomb tumuli of  Alyattes,  Gyges and other princes (Hipponax fr. 42 Masson); possibly called after the ancestors of  Gyges (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 46) by the same name or a legendary figure. Gygaiae limne (GL) is already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 20,390f.; cf. 2,865), mythographical fantastic stori…

Saittai

(256 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαΐτται; Saḯttai). Town in eastern Lydia (Maeonia [1]; Ptol. 5,2,21: Σέτται, Σάετται), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, cf. Hyllus [4], c. 12 km on the west) and the Hermus [2]; present-day Sidaskale near İçikler. Representations of the river gods Hyllus and Hermus are found on coins of the Imperial Period . S. was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In AD 124, the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. Cult of the Men Axiottenus. Among others, …

Antioch

(1,581 words)

Author(s): Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Wagner, Jörg (Tübingen) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Weiß, Peter (Kiel) | Et al.
(Ἀντιόχεια; Antiócheia). [German version] [1] on the Orontes Founded as Antigonea on the Orontes 307 BC, but after the defeat of Antigonus I by Seleucus I Nicator at  Ipsus (301 BC), the town was moved to the site of present-day Antakya (Turkey) in 300 BC, and renamed as A. in honour of the latter's father Antiochus. Capital city of the Seleucid kingdom; it developed under the Seleucids through incorporating numerous settlements into a tetrapolis, each with their own boundary walls. Thanks to its positi…

Carura

(190 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(τὰ Κάρουρα; tà Károura). [German version] [1] City in SW Asia Minor Town in south-western Asia Minor on the upper course of the  Maeander at the border between Caria and Phrygia (Str. 12,8,17; 14,2,29), near the modern Sarayköy. Thanks to its hot springs, C. was an ancient health resort; a medical school (in the tradition of  Herophilus [1]) was based near the sanctuary of Men Karu (Str. 12,8,20), halfway between C. and Laodicea [4] (2nd/1st cents. BC). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography Miller, 726 W. M. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, 1890, 49 Ramsay 1, 164; 16…

Callipolis

(459 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Et al.
(Καλλίπολις; Kallípolis). [German version] [1] Place in Caria Place in Caria (Arr. Anab. 2,5,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Callipolis), its location disputed: either near the modern Gelibolu, south of the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf (ancient and medieval remains, no finds indicating a settlement),or east of it, 10 km inland, near Duran Çiftlik (remains of an ancient sanctuary and a church; the associated settlement about 1.5 km east of Kızılkaya, stone-cist tombs on the eastern side of the mound). C. was unde…

Pactolus

(126 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Πακτωλός/ Paktōlós). River in Lydia, originates at the Tmolus mountianrange (Boz Dağları), flows through Sardis and into the Hermus [2]; modern-day Sart Çayı. It was famous for the electron and gold dust washed out near the source (Hdt. 1,93,1; 5,101,2; Plin. HN 5,110), to which the Mermnad kings (Mermnadae) owed their legendary wealth (Archil. fr. 22 D.; Hdt. 6,125). Smelteries were located on the P. in Sardis. By the 1st cent. BC the gold of the P. was exhausted, it seems (Str. 13,1,23; 4,5). Quartz sand containing gold was also found in neighbouring streams. Kaletsch, …

Mausoleum

(600 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μαυσ(σ)ωλεῖον; Maus(s)ōleîon; Lat. mausoleum). Monumental tomb for the satrap Maussollus of Caria (died 353 BC) and his wife Artemisia [2] (died 351 BC) near the city of Halicarnassus in Lycia, probably only completed during the time of Alexander. It was counted as one of the Wonders of the World and became eponymous for a standard type of representative funerary architecture. Modern archaeology has focused much on the monument, which was frequently discussed and described in ancient literature (Str. 14,656 ff.; Diod. Sic. 16,45; Plin. HN 36, 30-31 and passim). Scan…

Mastaura

(117 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Μάσταυρα; Mástaura). Town in Lydia on the southern slopes of the Mes(s)ogis (Str. 14,1,47; Plin. HN 5,120; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Anth. Pal. 11,230, with a pun on the place-name), ruins to the north of Nazilli. From the Roman period, municipal institutions and cults are known from inscriptions and coins. In Christian times an episcopal see, it was represented at the councils of Ephesus (431) and Calchedon (451) (Hierocles, Synekdemos 659,8; Not. episc. 1,101; 3,21; 7,91; 8,108; 9,15; 10,156). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensb…

Aperlae

(213 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Ἀπέρλαι/ Apérlai). Settlement on the southern coast of Lycia (Lycii, Lycia; Plin. HN. 5,100), in the northeastern corner of a westward opening bay, modern Sıcak İskelesi. In the 5th cent. BC Lycian city coins, in the 1st cent. BC Lycian League minting, and again c. AD 240 (HN 694). In the Roman period A. was the chief town of a sympoliteia of three neighbouring communities in the Lycian League (IGR 3, 692 f.): Apollonia (modern Kılınçlı), Isinda [1] (near…

Sardiane

(110 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαρδιανή; Sardianḗ). Town territory of Sardis (with map; Str. 13,4,5; cf. Xen. Hell. 3,4,21; Xen. Ages. 1,29). Besides the valley of Pactolus, it included the fertile plain around the middle course of the Hermus [2] (Σαρδιανὸν πεδίον/ Sardianòn pedíon, Hdt. 1,80,1; Plut. Agesilaos 10; Str. loc.cit.), about east of Salihli up to Turgutlu [1. 499, 501], its exact boundaries being unknown. The Roman judicial district of Sardis ( Sardiana iurisdictio, Plin. HN 5, 111) stretched far beyond S., especially towards the east. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 G. …

Cares, Caria

(3,236 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Κᾶρες, Καρία; Kâres, Karía). [German version] I. Geography Tribe and region in south-western Asia Minor, its borders defined in the north by the Maeander and the mountain ranges of Mycale and Mesogis, and in the east by the Salbacus range; the Carian south coast stretches from the Triopic promontory to the bay of Telmessus (Str. 14,2,1; Liv. 37,16). Along its western coast -- characterized by gulfs and long stretched-out peninsulas -- lay the following towns which initially still belonged to Ionia:  Mi…

Tripolis

(627 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Tausend, Sabine | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Τρίπολις/ Trípolis; literally, 'triple city'). [German version] [1] Perrhaebic T. The three cities of Azorus, Doliche and Pythium [2] in the small valley south of the Titarus and west of the Olympus [1] were referred to as the 'Perrhaebic T.' The locations of the cities are attested archaeologically, some in inscriptions as well. Up to the 3rd cent. BC, the T. belonged to the Macedonian Elimiotis, then to the alliance of the Perrhaebi and therefore to Thessalia. Literary documentation of T. exists only for the 3rd Macedonian War in 171 BC (Liv. 42,53,6; 42,67,7). Kramolisch, Herwig (Epp…

Tabae

(179 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τάβαι/ Tábai). City in southeastern Caria, in the south of the Plain of T. (Ταβηνὸν πεδίον/ Tabēnòn pedíon, cf. Str. 12,8,13) on a rocky elevation near modern Kale. From the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC onwards, T. had the constitution of a polis (before 269/8: [1. 321 no. 1]). In 189 BC T. capitulated to Manlius [I 24] Vulso (Liv. 38,13,11-13) and after 167 was a 'friend and ally' of Rome (IG XIV 695-696b). T.'s autonomy was confirmed by Rome in 81 BC in thanks for its loyalty in the First Mithridatic War, its territor…

Alabanda

(368 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (Ἀλάβανδα; Alábanda). C. 40 km south of the  Maeander valley in the middle Carian plain ( Caria) of Çine, its most important location in antiquity, on two hills lying close together (Str. 14, 2, 26) and in the subsequent plain to the north, on the left bank of the  Marsyas, today Araphisar. First mentioned in 480 BC (city tyrant Aridolis in Greek captivity: Hdt. 7,195 -- unclear how the news at Hdt. 8,136 is to be reconciled with …

Caryanda

(172 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (τὰ Καρύανδα; tà Karýanda). Carian (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 242; Scyl. FGrH 709 T 1f.) harbour town between Myndus and Bargylia (Str. 14,2,20), south of the modern Güllük körfezi, originally on an offshore island (Salih adası?), later relocated to the mainland. C. was a member of the  Delian League and home of the seafarer (Hdt. 4,44,1) and geographer  Scylax. On Salih adası, remains of a walled settlement have been found; the mainland settlement of C., incorporated into  Myndus in the 3rd cent. BC, should be located not far from Salih adası near…

Mocadene

(93 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μοκαδ(δ)ηνή; Mokad(d)ēnḗ). Region in eastern Lydia along the upper Hermus in Maeonia [1], on the border with Phrygia; its location was established through inscriptions naming places within it ( kṓmē Thermai Theséos, modern Kula Emir Hamamları; mētropóleis Silandus, modern Selendi, and Temenothyrae). It remains doubtful whether to associate Moccadeni, a dḗmos in Asia (incorrectly located in Bithynia in Ptol. Geog. 5,2,18), with Mocadene. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography K. Buresch, Aus Lydien, 1898, 186 with map  J. Keil, s.v. M., RE 15, 2113  Id., s.v.…

Ceramus

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Κέραμος; Kéramos). Town in south-western Caria on the northern coast of the gulf named after C. (Κεράμειος or Κεραμικὸς κόλπος; Kerámeios/ Keramikòs kólpos, sinus Ceramicus; modern Gökova körfezi), removed from the coast by the delta formation of the -- in the end subterranean -- Koca Çay (Str. 14,2,15), modern Kemerdere near Ören (Plin. HN 5,109; Ptol. 5,2,10; Paus. 6,13,3f.). Originally Carian, it was Hellenized from the 6th cent. BC (archaic kouros head, c. 540/530 [1]); in 454/3 BC, it was a member…

Mylasa

(878 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Diadochi and Epigoni | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (τὰ Μύλασα; tà Mýlasa). Main locality of the Cares in the land of Caria, modern Milâs. Place name pre-Greek, ancient cults of Carian Zeus in M. and environs (Hdt. 1,171; Str. 14,2,23). M. participated in the Ionian Revolt under the Carian Heraclides (the son of Ibanollis, tyrant of M.; Hdt. 5,37,121). In the middle of the 5th cent. BC, M. was a membe…

Hiera Kome, Hierocaesarea

(272 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἱερὰ Κώμη; Hierà Kṓmē, Ἱεροκαισάρεια; Hierokaisáreia). Settlement in Lydia on the ancient Pergamon-Sardis road east of the  Hyllus near modern Sazova or Beyova. Hiera Kome (HK) developed around a sanctuary of  Anaetis; this cult, which was introduced under the Persians, was found throughout the Lydian Hermus valley and because of its strangeness (fire worship, Magi priests) was still commented upon by the Greeks in the 2nd cent. AD  (Paus. 5,27,5ff.; 7,6,6). In 201 BC a victim of the …

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Castolus

(154 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Καστωλός; Kastōlós). Town (and river?) in Lydia. The ‘plain of C.’ (Καστωλοῦ πεδίον; Kastōloû pedíon) was the perpetual rallying-point for the Persian army when on alert (cf. Cyrus the Younger:Xen. Hell. 1,4,3; Xen. An. 1,1,2; 9,7). The plain cannot be localized with certainty, but should be not far from Sardis, near the Persian royal road: according to inscriptions, possibly the plain of Burçak around Söğüt çayı; C. would then be the modern Bebekli. Formerly independent (Ethnika IG II2 3059; 3233) with fortifications ( tetrapyrgia) around its plain, in imperia…

Mardi

(244 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μάρδοι; Márdoi). Near Eastern tribes in Armenia (Ptol. Geog. 5,12,9), Media and Hyrcania south of the Caspian Sea in the modern Elburz Mountains/northern Iran (Str. 11,13,3), called Amardi here (Str. 11,6,1; 7,1; Plin. HN 6,36; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀμαρδοί/ Amardoí, s.v. Μ.), in Margiane (Str. 11,8,8; Plin. HN 6,47); also one of the four Persian nomadic tribes (Hdt. 1,125,4) living above the Elymaïs region (Str. 11,13,6; Plin. HN 6,134; Arr. Ind. 40,6) in modern Ansan. Persian M. served in the Achaemenid army (Hdt. 1,84,2…

Magnesia

(1,218 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Blümel, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαγνησία; Magnēsía). [German version] [1] Thessalian coastal region (Ethnicon Μάγνης, Μαγνῆτες/ Mágnēs, Magnêtes; IG IX 2,1228 b16: dat. pl. Μαγνείτεσσι/ Magneítessi 3rd cent. BC). The Thessalian coastal region of Peneius to the Gulf of Pagasae with a narrow peninsula stretching far to the south, which encloses the Gulf of Pagasae in the east and south, filled up completely by the mountains Ossa and Pelion and their foothills. The east coast toward the open sea was without a harbour and feared by sailors; in 480 B…

Lagina

(208 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (τὰ Λάγινα; tà Lágina). Location, north of Stratoniceia, of a sanctuary of the Carian Hecate (modern Leyna, near Turgut); annual Panegyris (Str. 14,2,25; 29), procession with the sacred key, mystery plays, penteteric agons. In 81 BC, it was established as Hekatesia Rhomaea, the right to grant asylum given by the Senate later confirmed by Caesar, Augustus and, in AD 22, Tiberius (Tac. Ann. 3,62,2). Archaeological findings: square, lined by Doric stoai, surrounding a pseudodipteros temple wit…

Cenchreus

(175 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κέγχρειος, Κέγχριος; Kénchreios, Kénchrios, Cenchreus). Stream south-west of Ephesus (Alexander Aetolus fr. 2 Powell; Str. 14,1,20; Paus. 7,5,10; Tac. Ann. 3,61,1), modern Arvalia Çayı (not the Değirmen dere, but cf.[1]); it rises at Mount Solmissus (modern Agadağ), and before its sedimentation flowed into the bay of the Caystrus, nowadays from the left into the  Caystrus [1] itself. The C. ran through the Ortygia, the grove in which Leto allegedly gave birth to Apollo and Artemis (S…

Aphrodisias

(1,126 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀφροδισίας; Aphrodisías). [German version] [1] City in  Caria This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | Asia Minor | Marble | Rome | Education / Culture City in  Caria, 38 km south of the Maeander, in the left side valley of the Morsylos (present-day Dandalaz çayı); the modern Geyre. Traces of neolithic and early Bronze Age settlement on the acropolis; old name of Νινόη (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ninoe) preserved in the local cult ( Zeus Nineudios). A. was for a long time overshadowed by the neighbouring co…

Panormus

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Πάνορμος; Pánormos). [German version] [1] Harbour on the coast of Karia Harbour on the coast of Karia (Stadiasmus maris magni 285; 287; 294 with contradictory details) between Miletus [2] and Myndus, located at a distance of 80 stadia (14.8 km) from them, therefore near (Aşağı) Gölköy, which is the location also assumed for Caryanda, near the natural harbour of the Türkbükü bay or further to the west at the Ağaçbaşı-Limanı bay (Paşa Limanı). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. P. (1), RE 18,3, 654  G.E. Bean, J.M. Cook, The Halicarnassus Peninsula, in: ABSA 50,…

Arconnesus

(91 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἀρκόννησος; Arkónnēsos). ‘Guardian island’ (according to Str. 14,12,16; Steph. Byz. s.v.A.). Long-stretched-out island off the coast of  Caria, which protects the harbour bay of  Halicarnassus and which was fortified in ancient times; modern Kara Ada. During the siege by Alexander the Great in 334 BC, the Persians retreated to A. (Arr. Anab. 1,23,3 Ἀκρόνησος). Plin. HN 5,133 [1. 257] mistakenly placed  Ceramus on this island. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 G. Winkler, R. König, C. Plinius Secundus d.Ä., Naturkunde (Lat.-Ger.), book 5, 1993. Trav…

Catacecaumene

(223 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
(Κατακεκαυμένη; Katakekauménē, ‘burnt earth’). [German version] [1] Volcanic zone in western Asia Minor Volcanic zone, characterized by ash-like soil and black rocks, in western Asia Minor (Mysia and eastern Lydia: Xanthus FGrH 765 F 13; Str. 12,8,18f.), about 40×10 km in size (exaggerated in Str. 13,4,11) on the upper reaches of the Maeander, which flows through the C. (Str. 13,4,5); parallel to it in the south is a volcano-free crystalline schistose zone; separate from that the fault line of the Kogamos va…

Temenothyrae

(108 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τημενοθύραι/ Tēmenothýrai, also: Τημένου Θύραι/ Tēménou Thýrai). City in the highlands of eastern Lydia (cf. Paus. 1,35,7) on the border with northwestern Phrygia (Phryges) in Mocadene on an old overland route, probably a station on the Persian Royal Road, near modern Uşak. The indigenous form of the name ( -t(h)yra(i)) suggests that T. was an old Lydian settlement, according to inscriptions and coins (only 1st-3rd centuries AD) it was temporarily also named Flaviopolis; in late Antiquity it was part of the province of Phrygia Pacatiane (Hierocles, S…

Sala

(425 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Σάλα/ Sála). [German version] [1] River in Mauretania Tingitana River in Mauretania Tingitana, flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, modern Oued Bou Regreg (Plin. HN 5,5: S.; 9; 13: Salat; Ptol. 4,1,2; 4: Σάλα/ Sála). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] [2] Phoenician or Punic foundation This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni (neo-Punic Slt). Phoenician or Punic foundation near the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Chella in Morocco (Mela 3,107: S.; Plin. HN 5,5; 13: S.; Ptol. 4,1,2: Σάλα/ Sála; It. Ant. 6,4: S. colonia; Not. Dign. …

Apollonis

(239 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pergamum | Education / Culture (Ἀπολλωνίς; Apollōnís). City in northern  Lydia, equidistant at 300 stadia from  Pergamum and  Sardeis (Str. 300; c. 53 km). Founded at the end of the 3rd cent. BC (on the site of an earlier settlement?) by  Attalus I, and named after his wife Apollonis; ruins in Palamut Kalesi, 22 km north-west of  Thyateira. According to inscriptions and coins,   synoikismos was still taking place under Eumenes II, c. 194 BC, and later; ‘Macedonians’ of Seleucid origin figured amongst the colonists.…

Tralleis

(628 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Tribe in the south of Illyricum (Τράλλεις, Τράλλοι/ Trálleis, Trálloi). Tribe in the south of Illyricum, which, according to Hesych. s.v. Τραλλεῖς was of Thracian origin, but to Steph. Byz. (s.v. Βῆγις; Βόλουρος; Τραλλία) and Liv. (27,32,4; 31,35,1: Tralles; 38,21,2: Tralli) was of Illyrian extraction. The T. were known as mercenaries in Hellenistic armies (Diod. Sic. 17,65,1; Liv. 37,19; Hesych. loc. cit.). The towns of Begis and Bulorus were situated in their territory (according to Steph. Byz. loc. cit.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) …

Thyatira

(318 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Education / Culture (Θυάτειρα/ Thyáteira, present-day Akhisar). City in northern Lydia in the valley of the central Lycus [18] on the road from Sardis to Pergamum, 57 km north-east of Magnesia [3]. In 281 BC Seleucus [2] I moved Macedonian military colonists to T., it was occupied by Attalus [4] I in 216 (Pol. 5,77,7), threatened by Philippus [7] V in 201 (Pol. 16,1,7), probably recaptured by Antiochus [5] III in 198 and in 190 by Eume…

Bargylia

(407 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (τὰ Βαργύλια; tà Bargýlia). Carian coastal town south of what is now Güllük on a secondary bay of the Gulf of Iasus (Βαργυλιητικὸς κόλπος; Bargyliētikòs kólpos; that today is marshy, Pol. 16,12,1; Liv. 37,17,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.), now Varvil Bay (medieval form of the name Βαρβύλια ( Barbýlia), Anon. Stadiasmus maris magni 286, 288; Ptol. 5,2,7), in the Carian language also called Ἄνδανος ( Ándanos; Steph. Byz. ibid.), once part of the region of the Leleges (Str. 13,1,59), now Asarlık. In th…

Xystis

(115 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ξυστίς/ Xystís). City in northwestern Caria (Cares IV.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ξ.), like Orthosia [1], Euhippe (at modern Dalama), Coscinus or Coscina (at modern Mount Arı near Dalama) and other places (Plin. HN. 5,109) between the Harpasus [1] and the Marsyas [4], left-bank tributaries of the Maeander [2], modern Körteke. Archaeology: a mountain fortress, presumably of the Leleges (cf. Str 7,7,2; 13,1,59), with pre-Classical and Mediaeval walling. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography R. J. A. Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, 2000, 61 G 3  E…

Triopium

(263 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τριόπιον; Triópion). Promontory at the southwest extremity of Asia Minor (Hdt. 4,38; 7,153;  Scyl. 99; Plin.  HN 5,104), the Western Cape (modern Deveboynu) and in a wider sense the Cnidus (modern Reşadiye) peninsula. The place name, derived from the eponymous founder Triopas (Diod. 5,57,6; 5,61,2), can rather be explained by its geographical shape and location ('three faces'). The cape of T. was frequently of significance to naval strategy in the Aegean (Plut. Cimon 12,2; Thuc. 8…

Tymnus

(78 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τύμνος; Týmnos). Port in Caria (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; Cares) on the western coast of the Bozburun peninsula, modern Bozburun. T. was part of the Rhodian Peraia. Inscriptions survive, including some relating to sacred law [1. no. 201], as do a number of ruins. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 W. Blümel, Die Inschriften der rhodischen Peraia (IK 38), 1991, 63-74. P. M. Fraser, G. E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954, 61 f.  W. Ruge, s. v. T., RE 7 A, 1748 f.  Zgusta, Nr. 1384, Nr. 4.

Marathus(s)a

(63 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μαραθοῦσσα; Marathoûssa, ‘fennel island’). The most southerly of the islands off Clazomenae in the south west of the Gulf of Smyrna, modern Hekim or Çiçek Islands. Few remains. Evidence: Thuc. 8,31,3; Str. 14,1,36; Plin. HN 5,137; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μαράθουσα. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography G. Winkler, R. König (ed.), C. Plinius Secundus der Ältere, Naturkunde, B. 5, 1993, 262f. (commentary).
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