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(180 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] (lit. “honor”), Serbian term for the celebration of a family’s patron saint, also called Krsna ime (“baptismal name”) or Sveti (“saint”); a regular patronal festival (of a church or institution) can also be called a Slava. Originally the celebration was dedicated to a family’s ancestors; after the Serbs’ conversion to Christianity, the saint who had been adopted as patron of the tribe, family, or household came to be the focus of the celebration (Feasts and festivals: V, 2). In other parts of the western Balkans, t…


(1,569 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] Federal republic, capital city Belgrade, consisting of the two constituent republics of Serbia and Montenegro; area 102,170 km2, 10.1 million inhabitants; 63% Serbs, 14% Albanians, 6% Montenegrans, 4% Hungarians, 13% others. Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929), Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1941), Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1963), Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1963–1992). I. History and Politics Yugoslavia (South Slavia) was created in 1918 as the fusion of between the two independent states of …


(621 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] The Republic of Macedonia (capital Skopje), with an area of 25,333 km2, had a population in 1994 of 1,940,000, of whom 66.5% were Slavo-Macedonians, 22.9% Albanians, 4% Turks, 3% Roma, and 2.1% Serbs. The Republic of Macedonia comprises the portion of historical Macedonia that went to Serbia after the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. During the Middle Ages, this ethnically mixed territory had belonged to the Bulgarian Empire (Bulgaria) and then the Byzantine Empire; later it came under Ottoman rule…

Sava, Saint

(289 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] (birth name Rastko; c. 1175 – 1236, Tarnovo), first archbishop of Serbia and the youngest son of the Serbian grand prince Stefan Nemanja. About 1192 he entered a monastery on Athos. He and his father, who had retreated to Athos as a monk after abdicating, taking the name Simeon, revitalized the Hilandar monastery. In 1207 Sava moved the remains of his deceased father to the monastery of Studenica, where he served for several years as archimandrite. Returning to Athos from 1214 to …

Žiča Monastery

(193 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] Žiča Monastery, in Serbia (Serbian monasteries), is near the town of Kraljevo, the seat of the bishopric of the same name. In 1206 Stefan Prvovenčani (then grand prince and later king of Serbia) and his brother Sava began building the monastery; the foundation charter dates from 1220. After 1217 Žiča was the coronation site of the Serbian kings. After Sava was consecrated archbishop of the autocephalous Church of Serbia in 1219, he made the monastery his residence; it remained the…

Panselinos, Manuel

(165 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] Panselinos, Manuel, Byzantine painter from Saloniki (Thessalonica). The first mention of his name is in an 18th-century manual of painters by Dionysius of Fourna, who does not provide his dates or mention specific works. Shortly afterwards the frescoes of the Protaton church in Karyes on Athos were ascribed to him, so that it was finally possible to date him to the late 13th and early 14th century. It is unclear to this day whether there was actually a painter by this name, since c…


(186 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] Zagreb, capital of the Republic of Croatia, situated between the Sava and the slopes of Mount Medvenica. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop and an Orthodox metropolitan. Settlement of what is now Zagreb goes back to the pre-Roman period. In 1094 (or shortly before 1091), King Ladislaus I of Hungary and Croatia erected the see of Zagreb and made the town also a county seat. The diocese was initially suffragan to Esztergom and after the 12th century to Kálocsa; in additio…


(408 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] Paulicians, a dualistic sect (Dualism) that sprang up in the second half of the 7th century in the region of Armenia, whence it spread throughout Asia Minor. Little is known of their origins and teachings; our information about the latter derives almost totally from the 9th-century account of Petros Sikeliotes. An evil demiurge, ruler of the visible, material world, is opposed to a good, transcendent God who is impotent within the visible world. Christ is seen as an angelic being …


(295 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] is a town to the northeast of the lake of the same name in the republic of Macedonia. In antiquity it was known as Lychnidos and was the chief town in Illyrian Dassaretia. The place is first mentioned in 343 as a bishop’s seat. Probably around 842 it came under Bulgarian rule, and is mentioned again in 879/880 as a bishopric, under the name Ochrid, or (Gk) Achrida. From 886 Clement and Nahum, disciples of Cyril and Methodius, apostles to the Slavs, made it a center of church and m…

Paisiy of Khilendar

(162 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] (1722, Bansko/Pirin Mountains [?] – 1798 [?], Mount Athos), Bulgarian monk and scholar. Paisiy lived in the Khilendar monastery on Mount Athos from 1745, on whose behalf he journeyed throughout the Bulgarian territories. In 1762, he completed his Slavonic-Bulgarian History ( Istorija Slavobolgarskaja), in which he described the Bulgarians’ glorious past in order to bolster their self-confidence and awaken their spirit of resistance against what he perceived as a threat of assimilation to Greek culture. In this work he als…


(239 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] Capital of Serbia and of former Yugoslavia, situated at the confluence of the Save with the Danube. It is the seat of the patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church (who is also archbishop of Belgrade). The seminary (since 1836) and the theological faculty (since 1920, separated from the university in 1953) are situated there. Belgrade is also the seat of a …

Studenica Monastery

(294 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] is the oldest Serbian monastery; it stands near the river of the same name in southwestern Serbia. It was built between 1183 and 1196 by Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja, who entered it as a monk under the name of Simeon in 1196 and served as its abbot until he moved to Athos. He died in 1199 in ¶ the Serbian monastery Hilandar on Athos, but in 1207 his remains were brought to Studenica by his son Sava and were reburied there. Sava played a central role in the cult of Nemanja that grew up in Studenica (Simeon Mirotočivi, “the myrrh-streaming”…


(900 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] The Republic of Croatia covers an area of 56,542 km2; in 2004 it had an estimated population of 4,500,000. The 2001 census reported an ethnic makeup of 89.6% Croats, 4.5% Serbs, 0.5% Muslims (Bosniaks), 0.4% Hungarians, 0.3% Slovenians, and 4.7% from other minorities. Its capital is Zagreb. Dalmatia was home to Jewish communities from the time of the Romans into the modern period; in the rest of Croatia, this continuity was interrupted from the 15th to the 18th century until new communities formed as a result of …

Petar II Petrovich Njegoš

(166 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] (Nov 1, 1813, Njeguši – Oct 19, 1851, Cetinje), prince-bishop of Montenegro. After being educated in the monasteries of Cetinje and Savina/Boka Kotorska, Petar succeeded his uncle, Petar I, who had designated him his successor, but he could not be consecrated bishop until 1833 in St. Petersburg. Under Petar I, the political activities of the bishop of Montenegro had already taken precedence over his ecclesiastical functions. Petar continued the modernizing efforts begun under his …


(1,587 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] I. General Belgrade is the capital of the Republic of Serbia, which has an area of 88,361 km2 and as of 1991 a population of 9.78 million (7.82 million without Kosovo). It includes two autonomous provinces, Voivodina and Kosovo, the latter under United Nations administration from 1999 to 2008. From 1992 to 2006, Serbia was combined in a federation with Montenegro (1992–2003 called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). The population is 65.9% (79.4%) Serbs, 17.1% (1%) Albanians, 3.5% (4.3%) Hungaria…

Chrysanthos Notaras

(179 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] (c. 1663, Arachova, Peloponnese – Feb 7, 1731, Constantinople), patriarch of Jerusalem (1707–1731). He studied at the Patriarchal Academy in Constantinople; years later, he resumed his studies in Padua (1697–1700) and then for a few months in Paris. In 1702, he was consecrated metropolitan of Caesarea; in 1707, he became the successor of his deceased uncle, the patriarch Dositheus of Jerusalem, whose patronage had proved decisive. Like his uncle …