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Homole, Homolium

(210 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὁμόλη, Ὁμόλιον; Homólē, Homólion). Mountain at the northern end of the Thessalian  Ossa. At the outflow of the Peneius from the  Tempe Valley lay a town of the same name on the slope (not by the sea, Str. 9,5,22), attested to be above modern Omolion (formerly Laspochori). H. was the northernmost town of  Magnesia and so of Greece. H. overlooked the river crossing to lower Macedonia (Liv. 42,38,10; remains of a bridge about 1 km north of Omolion). Finds attest to settlement since anc…

Oetaei

(179 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Οἰταῖοι/ Oitaîoi). A tribe which originally lived in the low sandstone, flisch and neogene zone to the south and east of the main ridge of the Oete in the direction of the central Greek regions of Doris and Locris. From there the O. gradually annexed the northern neighbouring regions; Heraclea [1], which was primarily founded to repulse them, was annexed in the 4th cent. BC, followed by the entire former Malian region as far as the Spercheus and Thermopylae. The O. were linked pol…

Angeae

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀγγείαι; Angeíai). Town in south-east  Pindus within the settlement area of the  Dolopes, probably close to the modern Rentina. From the 2nd cent. BC, A. outmatched the main town of  Ctimenae in importance. In the course of the Second Macedonian War, it was captured by the  Aetolians in 198 BC (Liv. 32,13,10), but continued to exist (cf. Syll.3 692,10 of 130 BC). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography Y. Béquignon, La retraite de Philippe V. en 198 et l'incursion étolienne en Thessalie, in: BCH 52, 1928, 445 f. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, …

Narthacium

(147 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ναρθάκιον; Narthákion). Mountain and city in the Othrys mountain range located in the Thessalian region of Achaea Phthiotis. It was at Mount N. , the Xerovouni Avaritsis (1022 m), that, in 394 BC, Agesilaus [2] defeated the Thessalians, who were pursuing him as he retreated from Persia (Xen. Hell. 4,3,9; Plut. Agesilaus 16,5). The city of N. has been localized by inscriptions (middle of the 2nd cent. BC: IG IX 2, 89-91; ArchE 1927/8, 122f.) in the remains of a city (approx. 880 m)…

Acharrae

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀχάρραι; Achárrai). Town in north-western  Achaea Phthiotis, at the border with Dolopia ( Dolopes) and Thessaliotis ( Thessaly). A. was the mint for 4th/3rd-cents. BC bronze coins bearing the inscription Ἐκκαρρεων (HN 294); its exact location remains unclear. In the Second Macedonian War, A. surrendered in 198 BC to the  Aetolians during their advance into south-western Thessaly (Liv. 32,13,13; further sources in [1. 154 f.]). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography 1 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924.

Phthiotis

(216 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Φθιῶτις/ Phthiôtis). Name of two regions which were not distinguished even in early ancient literature: 1) Thessalian P., the southern part of Thessaly, the area of Pharsalus (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 52; Aristot. fr. 497; Str. 9,5,3); 2) Achaea P., bordering on 1) to the south and south-east, the area of the Othrys, the plain of Halmyrus and the northern bank of the Thermaikos Kolpos, including several cities (Scyl. 63; Hdt. 1,56; 7,132; Thuc. 1,3; Heracleides Creticus fr. 3,2; Scymn. 605; Str. 1,2,38; 9,5,1; 5,8-11; Pol. 18,20,5; Ptol. 3,13,46). As a region of períoikoi

Amphanae

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀμφαναί; Amphanaí). Town on the narrow coastal strip of the Pelasgiotis ( Pelasgians) near Cape Pyrrha, modern Angistri. According to its foundation myth already existing in the pre-Thessalian period, A. was later outstripped by the Thessalian town of  Pagasae. Most recent reference from the middle of the 4th cent. BC (FGrH 115 Theopompus fr. 54); its cultic tradition continued in  Demetrias. In contrast with older studies it is no longer localized on Mount Soros, but to the south of it in the ru…

Galates

(56 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ Γαλάτης; Galátēs). Plut. Phocion 33,4 mentions G. as the then current name for the Acrurium mountains, part of the  Callidromus range, on whose southern slopes Phocion and Polyperchon met in 318 BC. The change of name is perhaps linked to the invasion by the Celts in 279 BC. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)

Sosthenis

(82 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Σωσθενίς; Sōsthenís). City in the  Spercheus valley, its location at modern Vardates is not without dispute. S. originally belonged to the Oetaei and probably went into decline with the end of Aetolian rule over this region (Syll.3 421 Z. 22; 636 Z. 13) after 168 BC. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography Y. Béquignon, La vallée du Spercheios, 1937, 306 f.  A. Kontogiannis, Σ., in: La Thessalie (Actes du colloque international Lyon 1990), 1994, vol. 2, 239-244  F. Stählin, s. v. S., RE 3 A, 1198 f.

Boebe

(197 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Βοιβή, Βοιβηὶς λίμνη; Boibḗ, Boibēìs límnē). City on the steep, southern bank of the eponymous lake that stretched, north-west to south-east, along the Pelion and that was mentioned as early as the Iliad, in the Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,711f.). B. belonged to Magnesia and, in 293 BC, became part of  Demetrias. In the Byzantine Period it was transferred to the edge of the lake. Of that locale (the medieval Karla) there still exists a church, Hagios Nikolaos between Glafira and Ka…

Menelais

(72 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μενελαΐς; Menelaḯs). Town in Dolopia ( Dolopes) reclaimed as formerly Macedonian by Philip V in 185 BC (Liv. 39,26,1). M. may have been on the northern slopes of Mount Itamos, where there is a ruin near Kasthanaia. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 60, 81f. F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 15, 806.

Phalanna

(105 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (ἡ Φάλαννα; hē Phálanna). City in Perrhaebia in Thessaly (Perrhaebi) in a fertile area, scanty remains on the flat Magula Kastri, 3 km to the east of Tirnavos. Own coin minting in the 4th century BC (HN 305). P. provided Delphi with hieromnḗmones and treasurers several times. In 171 BC P. was a site of battles between Romans and Macedonians (Liv. 42,54,6; 65,1). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography R. Scheer, s.v. Ph., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 532  B. Lenk, s.v. Ph., RE 19, 1617-1620  F. Stählin, Da…

Olizon

(108 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀλιζών; Olizṓn) is mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad as belonging to Philoctetes (Hom. Il. 2,717). Demetrius [2] incorporated O. into the newly founded Demetrias [1] in about 290 BC (Strab. 9,5,15). O. was in the southern part of Magnesia [1], opposite Artemisium in Euboea (Plut. Themistocles 8,2). O. is identified with Paliokastro to the east of the village of Lavko on the Trikkeri peninsula and was probably populated until the late Imperial period (IG IX 2, 1217-1221, unnamed). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Lenk, s.v. O., RE 17, 2484  TI…

Peirasia

(147 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Πειρασία; Peirasía). A city in the northeast of Thessaliotis (Thessalians, Thessalia), with ruins on the isolated 313 m high limestone mountain of Strongylovuno south of the modern Vlochós on the left bank of the Enipeus [2]. It was identified with the Homeric Astérion (Hom. Il. 2,735) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀστέριον), and was allied with Athens in 431 BC (Thuc. 2,22,3 with schol.). Its contributions for the Delphic temple in 359/7 BC are attested in inscriptions (Syll.3 240 H, col. II 6ff.). Ancient remains: three concentric polygonal city walls with more …

Apidanus

(195 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀπιδανός; Apidanós). One of the major rivers of the western Thessalian plain, the modern Pharsalitis. Rising from streams near  Pharsalus (the originally abundant basin in front of the ancient city wall has been dry since an earthquake in 1954), it flows in a northerly direction through  Phthiotis and Thessaliotis ( Thessalians), receiving from the west the Cuarius, present-day Sophatidikos, the Onochonus, present-day Karabalis/Kallentsis, as well as the Pamisus, present-day Bliur…

Cynoscephalae

(112 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κυνὸς Κεφαλαί; Kynòs Kephalaí, ‘heads of dogs’). Part of the central Thessalian mountain range Chalcodonion (modern Mavrovuni, formerly Karadağ) between Pherae and Scotussa with many limestone rounded hilltops (hence the name). At C. in 364 BC the Thebans under Pelopidas defeated Alexander of Pherae (Plut. Pelopidas 32). In 197 Philip V suffered decisive defeat here against T. Quinctius Flamininus (Pol. 18,20ff.). Antiochus III had the bones of the fallen Macedonians buried in 191 (…

Pharcadon

(81 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Φαρκαδών, Φαρκηδών; Pharkadṓn, Pharkēdṓn). Town in Histiaeotis, a region of Thessaly on the river Peneius, once again named P. (formerly Klokoto or Tsioti). Philippus [7] V. defeated the Aetolians in 199 BC at P. (Liv. 31,41f.). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography L. Darmezin, Sites archéologiques et territoires du massif des Chassia, in: Top. antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 139-155  E. Kirsten, s.v. Pharkadon, RE 19, 1835-1838  H. Kramolisch, s.v. Pharkadon, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 535  Koder/Hild, 238.

Mal(l)oea

(128 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] City in the Thessalian country of Perrhaebia ( Perrhaebi) in the valley of the Titaresius, identified with the ruin Paliokastro near Sykia. It is mentioned as the neighbouring town of Chyretiae only during the wars at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC and only by Livy: in 199 and 191 M. went over to the Aetolian side and was won back by Philip V (Liv. 31,41,5; 36,10,5; 13,4) who had to give it back to Perrhaebia in 185 (Liv. 39,25,16). In 171 BC M. surrendered to king Perseus (Liv. 42,53,8) and soon afterwards was conquered by the Roman army and plundered (Liv. 42,67,7). Kramolisch,…

Dolopes

(387 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Δόλοπες; Dólopes). The D. were the south-western neighbours of the Thessalians, possibly split off from them during their immigration and driven out of the plains. Their area of settlement ─ without access to the coast ─ lay between Achaea Phthiotis in the east, Spercheus valley in the south, Epirus in the west and the central Pindus, a mountainous country, very sparsely settled then as now and, since the southern Pindus has a strong north-south folding, passable only in that dire…

Armenium

(180 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀρμένιον; Arménion). Town in  Thessaly, according to Homer's catalogue of ships located near  Pherae on  L. Boebe (Hom. Il. 2,734: Ὀρμένιον; Orménion); in the Hellenistic period, it was a kome, belonging to  Demetrias (Str. 9,5,15; 18). Its eponymous hero was Armenus, who went to Colchis with  Jason (Str. 11,4,8; 14,12). The ancient settlement is localized north of Pherae (modern Velestino) near the modern villages of Neon Perivalion and Armenion, where a hill (Petra) bearing the remains of Cyclopean…

Othrys

(166 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὄθρυς/ Óthrys). Range of mountains, c. 85 km long and 45 km wide, between the Malian Gulf and the Spercheus valley on one side and Thessalia on the other. The O. consists of several chains of mountains (slate, lime) and predominantly has the character of a low mountain range. To the south it falls of steeply in a straight edge, but to the north it is more structured. The greatest elevation is Yerakovouni (1726 m). Politically the region was part of Achaea Phthiotis (Achaei). The great…

Mopsium

(77 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μόψιον; Mópsion). Town and hill in the Thessalian territory of Pelasgiotis. In 171 BC, it served Perseus for a time as an advance base out of the Tempe Valley for attacks on the Romans in the Plain of Larisa [3] (Liv. 42,61,11; 65,1; 67,1: Mopselus). M. may possibly be equated with the town ruins at Makrichori, approx. 25 km north west of Larisa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s.v. M. (1), RE 16, 236-240.

Ortha, Orthe

(181 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὄρθα/ Órtha, Ὄρθη/ Órthē). There were possibly two places with this name in Thessalia. [German version] [1] Place in Perrhaibia According to the Homeric Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,739), O., with Elone and Olosson, was part of the region of the Polypoetes and therefore situated in Perrhaibia (Perrhaebi). Various ruins at Elasson are identified as O. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) [German version] [2] Town in southern Thessalia There are Hellenistic coins with the legend ΟΡΘ(Ι)ΕΩΝ/ ORTH(I)EŌN (HN 303), and a list of theorodoci in Delphi from the beginning of the 2nd…

Crannon

(181 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Κραννών). City in the Thessalian Tetras Pelasgiotis, located through findings on inscriptions at c. 22 km south-west of  Larisa [2]. Settled since Neolithic times, it bore the place name of Ephyra since the Mycenaean period (Str. 8,3,5). From no later than the 6th cent. BC on, C., home of the Scopadae family, belonged to the eight most important Thessalian cities. In the early 4th cent., it was ruled by the tyrant Deinias of Pherae, and in…

Scotussa

(125 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Σκοτοῦσσα/ Skotoûssa). City in Pelasgiotis in Thessaly, about 20 km to the west of Pherae at modern Skotoússa. (earlier Supli; Cynoscephalae). Attested by finds, remains and myth as very ancient, its first period of prosperity came to an end when the population was massacred by Alexander [15] of Pherae in 367 BC (Diod. 15,75,1; Paus. 6,5,2 f.). S. was not insignificant under Macedonian rule (Pol. 18,20,2-6; Liv. 33,6,8), and in the Thessalian League after 197 (Liv. 36,9,3). After …

Gomphi

(239 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γόμφοι; Gómphoi). Settlement created by synoecism in the 4th cent. BC; its location close to the modern G. (formerly Mouzaki) is verified. Together with  Metropolis, Pelinnaion, and  Tricca, G. formed the belt of fortifications of the Thessalian Hestiaeotis on the Pindus passes to Dolopia, Athamania, and Epirus. On coins from the 4th and 2nd cents., G. bears the name of Philippopolis (HN 295). Towards the end of the 3rd cent., G. was under Aetolian rule; during the wars of the ear…

Cierium

(189 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κιέριον; Kiérion). City in the Thessalian tetras Thessaliotis in the valley of the Cuarius (modern Sophaditikos or Onochonos), founded by invading Thessalians as their main town, north-east of the Boeotian founded town of  Arne [2]; in the following period, they drove the Boeotians back south to their historical seats (Thuc. 1,12,3; Str. 9,5,14). Arne is equated with Makria-Magoula, C. with the ruins on a nearby hill near the modern Pyrgos Kieriou. Near C. was the Thessalian tribal san…

Pharsalus

(631 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture (ἡ Φάρσαλος/ hē Phársalos). Peleus, king of the Myrmidons, father of Achilles, rules in the city of Phthia,which in Antiquity had been identified with the city of P. located on the southwestern edge of the Thessalian plain. Hom. Il. 1,155 knows only Phthia. The Thessali founded P. when they took over the land at the source of the Apidanus. They called this part of the plain Phthiôtis, while the subjected territory of the indigenous population that had been pushed ba…

Mondaea

(69 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μονδαία/ Mondáia). A city, mentioned only in inscriptions, in the neighbourhood of Perrhaebian Azorus in north-western Thessaly. It is identified with the ruin at Lutron Elassonos, c. 25 km north-west of Elasson. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographique antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 93ff., 109f.  F. Stählin, s.v. Mondaia, RE 16, 106f. (sources).

Titarus

(102 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τίταρος/ Títaros). A mountain chain (Eust. in Hom. Il. 1,192,20; Str. 7a,1,14 f.; 9,5,20: Titárion; modern Sapkas, up to 1890 m elevation) between Mount Olympus [1] in the east and Mount Cambunia in the west, forming a natural boundary between Macedonia and Thessaly. The T. was the northern border of Perrhaebic Tripolis [1] and gave its name to one of the main rivers of the small region, Titaresius (Hom. Il. 2,751-755; location uncertain); today the name is officially applied to the whole river (in Antiquity also Europus/Xerias) up to the Peneius. Kramolisch, Herwi…

Glaphyrae

(127 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γλαφύραι; Glaphýrai). The catalogue of ships of the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,711ff.) mentions the town together with  Boebe and  Iolcus. Its mythological founder was Glaphyros, son of Magnes and father of Boibos. In historical time, the ethnic term Γλαφυρεύς ( Glaphyreús) is documented for officials from  Demetrias [1]. Therefore, it can be assumed that G. existed until the Hellenistic period, although Str. 9,15,5 does not mention G. at the Synoikismos for Demetrias. The exact location of G. at the southern bank of the former Boebe Lake is not certain. Kramolisch, Herwig (E…

Nelia

(157 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Νήλεια; Nḗleia). A town in Magnesia [1], incorporated into Demetrias [1], mentioned only in Str.  9,5,15. Owing to the rare ancient cult of Aphrodite Neleia, evidenced in Iolcus,  the place name, in the sense of ‘City of the Dead (of Iolcus)’ ([2] et al.) has been equated with Pefkakia Magoula, which is situated in the territory of Demetrias (continuously inhabited from the late neolithic period; the classical and more recent layers of settlements were removed as part of the levelling of Demetrias). The place name N. is, …

Halus

(411 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ἅλος; Hálos). The remains of H. lie at the south end of the Κρόκιον πεδίον (Krokion plain) and on the north foot of a foothill of Othrys, where the passage from the Malian Gulf to the Gulf of Pagasae was easy to block, because the coasts were only a few hundred metres apart (today c. 2 km). H. owes its name to the rich saline spring of Amphrysus at the foot of the town hill. Already named in the catalogue of ships in the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,682), it was an important Thessalian harbour du…

Iolcus

(355 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine (Ἰωλκός; Iōlkós). Already named in the most ancient legends (Aeson, Alcestis, Argonautae, Jason, Neleus, Peleus, Pelias). Residence city at the northern exit of the Gulf of  Pagasae on the Anaurus (modern Xerias). A large settlement mound in the old city of Volos (Kastro Volo) bears witness to continuity of settlement at the latest since the early Bronze Age - many Mycena…

Argissa

(156 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἄργισσα; Árgissa). Listed in the ships' catalogue of the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,738) as the city of the Lapith  Polypoetes, it was equated even in ancient times with the town of Argura (Str. 9,5,19). This was situated about 40 stades ( c. 7 km) east of  Atrax on the river  Peneus. Following the discovery of coins bearing the name of Argura, A. is now localized (as opposed to [1. 99 f.]) on the Gremnos-Magula, c. 7 km west of  Larisa, where traces of settlements have been found, dating back to the Dimini culture ( c. 6000 BC). Following a forcible occupation towards the end o…

Phalara

(83 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (τὰ Φάλαρα; tà Phálara). Town of the Malieis, port serving Lamia [2] on the Malian Gulf, probably present-day Stilida. Destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20); after its reconstruction, it was again an important harbour town (cf. Str. 9,5,13). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. P., RE 19, 1647  F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 217f.  K. Braun, R. Scheer, s.v. P., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 533.

Antron

(169 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἄντρων; Ántrōn). City in  Achaea Phthiotis, on the Malian Gulf opposite  Euboea, on a cliff c. 25 m above the sea, near the modern Fano. Remains of the very old city wall and necropoleis from the Mycenaean to the Roman periods have survived. Homer (Il. 2,697; Hymn. Dem. 491 [1. 181-183]) mentions A. and its  cult of Demeter. In 342 BC  Philippus II made A. a Macedonian possession by means of bribery. In 302 BC A. was captured by  Demetrius. A. evidently remained a Macedonian possession until th…

Sepias

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Σηπιάς/ Sēpiás). [German version] [1] Coastal strip of the Magnesia Peninsula Strip of the coast of the southeastern Magnesia [1] Peninsula, where a Persian fleet moored in 480 BC and suffered great losses due to a storm (Hdt. 7,183-191). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) [German version] [2] City in the south of the Magnesia Peninsula City in the south of the Magnesia [1] Peninsula (Hdt. 7,183), which was incorporated into the synoikismós of Demetrias [1] in about 290 BC (Str. 9,5,15). Its ruins are near modern Puri. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) [German version] [3] Cape on the sout…

Callidromus

(115 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ/ἡ Καλλίδρομος; ho/hē Kallídromos; τὸ Καλλίδρομον; tò Kallídromon; Lat. Callidromus). Name of the massif above  Thermopylae (Str. 9,4,13), modern Saromata, up to 1374 m in height, its spatial extent variously defined. Generally it is seen as part of the Oete ( Oetaei). The C. massif consists of Mount Acrurium (later known as Galate, Plut. Phocion 33), Mount C. itself, Mount Phricion (summit with the fortress of C., Liv. 16-18; App. Syr. 77; 81; 85). By going across Mount C., both the Persians in 480 BC ( Persian War) and the Romans in 191 BC bypassed Thermopylae. Kramol…

Laceria

(80 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λακέρεια; Lakéreia). Settlement on the northern shore of Lake Boebe in Magnesia, only attested in archaic times (Pind. Pyth. 3,58f.); its location - like that of its neighbouring settlement Amyrus - has yet to be established. L. was said to be the home of Coronis, the mother of Asclepius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Le ‘Dotion Pedion’, Lakereia et les origines de Larisa, in: Journal des Savants 1987, 127ff. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 58f.

Pherae

(464 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Φέραι; Phérai). City east of Thessalian Pelasgiotis (Thessalians) at a place that was continually settled from the Neolithic period onwards because of its favourable position on the south-western bank of the Boebe and on the abundant spring, of Hypereia (Plin. HN 4,20). The oldest known sanctuary of P. to date, dedicated to the principal goddess, Artemis Enodia, da…

Gyrton(e)

(205 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γυρτών[η]; Gyrtṓn[ē]). Lapithae from G. appear both in the Argonaut legend ( Argonautae; Apoll. Rhod. 1,57) and in The Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,738). The town originally belonged to Perrhaebia, but in historical times was an important place of the Thessalian Pelasgiotis. In 431 BC among the Thessalian reinforcement troops for Athens there was also a contingent from G. (Thuc. 2,22). In 215 at the behest of Philip V at least 60 Gyrtonians became citizens of the neighbouring  Larisa (IG IX 2, 517). In 191 a…

Spercheius

(174 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Σπερχειός/ Spercheiós). River that has formed the basin between Othris and Oete in the south of Thessaly; it rises in the Tymphrestus, and nowadays, after a course of some 75 km, enters the Gulf of Malis south-east of Lamia. In its upper and middle course a typical mountain river, its meandering lower course (up to 50 m wide) has changed frequently since Antiquity, and its mouth become displaced some 14 km to the east (Hdt. 7,198,2; Str. 1,3,20). Its tributaries, some of them stil…

Xyniae

(149 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ξυνίαι; Xyníai). City in Achaea Phthiotis in western Othrys, about 4 km southwest of modern X. (formerly Dauklí). X. lay 74 m above the southeastern shore of Lake Xynias and controlled the pass on the road from Lamia [2] to Thaumaci. X. was Aetolian from the middle of the 3rd cent. BC (at this time there was a definition of borders with the neighbouring city of Melitaea: IG IX 2, p. XI, no. 3), but at the end of the 3rd cent., X. was Macedonian. In 198 BC, after a massacre of its …

Pagasae

(531 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles | Education / Culture (Παγασαί/ Pasagaí). City in Thessaly on the northern coast of the bay named after it, modern Neai Pagasai. Tradition maintains that before P. was founded, the site was dedicated to Apollo Pagasaeus, and the wharf and was the place of departure and arrival for the Argonauts. P. was founded in c. 600 BC by the Thessali, who took possession of a 5,3 km wide coastal strip (Str. 9,5,15; Scyl. 64). Dependent on Pherae, P. was the most significant place on the 'Pagasite Gulf' (Παγασιτικὸς κόλπος/ Pagasitikòs …

Iton

(378 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ/ἡ Ἴτων; ho/hē Ítōn, Ἴτωνος; Ítōnos). One of the oldest Greek cities, within the Thessalian core territory of Tetras Thessaliotis (Str. 9,5,14) in the valley of the Curalios/Cuarius, a right tributary of the  Peneius. Within its territory was the Thessalian tribal sanctuary of Athena Itonia (Str. 9,5,17). Because of an erroneous distance given by Strabo (9,5,8), the city and its sanctuary were thought to be near  Halus (Achaea Phthiotis) [1; 2; 3], but excavations near modern Philia have verified their location c. 16 km south-east of Karditsa and c. 10 km upriver o…

Ctimenae

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κτιμεναί; Ktimenaí). Capital of the  Dolopes in the vicinity of Lake Xynias, probably near today's Cydonia and not today's Ktimenai (formerly Anodranitsa). Conquered in 198 BC by the Aetolians allied with Rome (Liv. 32,13,10); thereafter Angeia was the capital of the Dolopes. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 48ff. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 148f.

Myrae

(53 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μύραι/ Mýrai, Scyl. 65; or to be corrected to Εὐρέα[ι]/ Euréa[i]? Cf. [1]). Town in the north of the peninsula of Magnesia [1], south of Homole, location unknown. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography     1 J.A.W. Warren, Two Notes on Thessalian Coins, in: NC 7,1, 1961, 1-8. F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 16, 1089.

Oete

(205 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Οἴτη/ Oítē, Lat. Oeta, Oete). In a more narrow sense, O. is the central section of the mountain wall to the south of the Spercheus valley which is dominated by this mighty limestone wall (15 km in length) and its gigantic escarpment. The 'funeral pyre' ( pyrá) of Hercules, on which he is supposed to have been burnt, a great altar of ashes, and a small, 3rd cent. BC Doric temple and adjacent buildings are found in the present-day village of Pavliani (1800m high). Cult lasted from the Archaic period to the Imperial period. In a broader sense, the western continuation of Mt.…

Sycurium

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Συκύριον; Sykýrion). Place in the Dotium region at the western end of the Tempe valley, used by Perseus [2] as a permanent camp for actions against the Roman army in the third of the Macedonian Wars, in 171 BC (Liv. 42,54; 62; 64; 67). The location is uncertain, the assignment of the name to modern S. (formerly Makrokeserli) is arbitrary. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography H. Kramolisch, s.v. Sykyrion, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 644f.

Myrmidones

(153 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μυρμιδόνες/ Myrmidónes). People who lived in the old Thessalian region of Phthia (the future Achaea Phthiotis). According to Homer they were the subjects of king Peleus (Hom. Il. 21,188f.), and then of king Neoptolemos (Hom. Od. 3,188); as followers of Achilles [1] they took part in the Trojan War with 50 ships (Hom. Il. 2, 683ff.). Their neighbours were the  Hellenes of Hellas (Hom. Il. 9,382; Hom. Od. 11,496). A doubt has recently been raised whether their capital city (on the s…

Sesklo

(171 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] Village, about 10 km to the north of the Pagasetic Gulf on the threshold of the Plain of Thessaly. The place of settlement, which has been excavated there since 1905, gave its name to a long prehistoric epoch of Greece (6th-4th millennia BC). It had been settled since the pre-ceramic Neolithic, and flourished with up to 3000 inhabitants in the middle Neolithic. Typical of the culture of S. are rectangular houses, a central megaron building and a special pottery (finds in the archa…

Trachis

(132 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τραχίς/ Trachís). One of the oldest cities in the valley of the Spercheius, on the northern slopes of the Oete, at the end of the Asopus [1] gorge near the 'Trachinian Rocks' (Τραχίνιαι πέτραι/ Trachíniai pétrai, Hdt. 7,198). T. was the residence of Ceyx. In the Iliad T. is part of the territory of Peleus (Hom. Il. 2,682). In the 5th cent. BC, T. was the capital of the Malieis (Hdt. 7,199). In 426 BC, against the Oetaei who were advancing from the south, Sparta founded Heraclea [1] Trachinia only 6 stadia (about 1.2 km) away…

Tricca

(162 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Τρίκκα/ Tríkka). Capital of Hestiaeotis in western Thessaly, on the Lethaeus (modern Trikkalinos), which flows from the Chasia Mountains. T. is mentioned in the Iliad as the place of origin of the Asclepius cult (Hom. Il. 2,729-733). In the Classical period T. was already minting its own coins (HN 310). T. became Macedonian after 352 BC (Diod. Sic. 18,56,5; Pelinna), was Aetolian for a time at the end of the 3rd cent. and was won back by Thessaly in 186/5…

Limnaeum

(88 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λιμναῖον; Limnaîon, Latin Limnaeum). In 191 BC, the Romans and Philip V marched through eastern Thessaly to drive out Antiochus III and the Athamanians. During the siege of Pelinna, Philip also attacked L. which did not surrender until the Roman cavalry appeared (Liv. 36,13,9ff.). There is a lack of other information. L. has recently been localized near Vlochos above the swampy confluence region of the rivers Enipeus [2] and Peneius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J. Cl. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 120f.

Condylum

(83 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κόνδυλον; Kóndylon). Fortification in the southern Olympus on a bypass around the valley of the Tempe that runs through  Gonnus, probably to be equated with Gonnocondylus, and located near modern Tsurba-Mandria. When Philip V released Perrhaebia in 196 BC, he kept C. with the place name Olympias until 185 (Liv. 39,25,16). A garrison of Perseus was stationed in C. in 169 BC during the Third Macedonian War. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Gonnoi, 1973, Index F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 8f.

Methylium

(67 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μεθύλιον; Methýlion). Town in western Thessaly, mentioned on coins and in a Delphic list of theorodókoi. Its location can only be approximately identified, between Cierium and Metropolis [4] in the region of Karditsa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 85ff. F. Stählin, s.v. Methylion, RE 15, 1391.

Casthanaea

(97 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κασθαναία; Kasthanaía). Near C. (‘village’, Str. 9,5,22) on the Magnesian east coast, the Persian fleet foundered in a storm in 480 BC (Hdt. 7,188;  Persian War). In around 290 BC, C. was included in the synoikismós following the foundation of  Demetrias [1]. Coins were minted at the time Constantine (coin finds). C. is equated with the as yet hardly investigated ruins near the modern Keramidion. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography H. Kramolisch, s.v. K., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 310 W. K. Pritchett, Xerxes' Fleet at the ‘Ovens’, in: AJA 47, 1963, 1ff. F. …

Olosson

(137 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀλοσσών/ Olossṓn). City of the Perrhaebi (Str. 9,5,19: Ὀλοόσσων/ Oloóssōn), their original capital city, on the northern edge of a plain on the south-western slope of Lower Olympus (cf. Olympus [1]). Continuously settled from the Mycenaean period; according to the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,739: Ὀλοόσσων), it belonged to the territory of Polypoetes [1]. An inscription establishing the boundary with Dion [II 2] (CIL III 591; 101 n.Chr.) has been preserved. The fort (Procop. Aed…

Aenianes

(603 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Αἰνιᾶνες; Ainiânes). Small tribe, related to the  Myrmidones and the Achaeans of  Phthia, originally settled in the vicinity of the  Perrhaebi at the river Titaresius and in the surrounding plains, then driven south by the Thessalians advancing from the north; in historical times, they settled in the Aenis region in the upper valley of the Spercheus between the Dolopes, the Achaeans of Phthiotis, the  Malieis and the  Oetaei (Hom. Il. 2,749; Hdt. 7,198; further sources [1; 2]). Th…

Lapathus

(49 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λαπαθοῦς; Lapathoûs). Small fortress in southern Olympus [1] above the Tempe valley near Condylum, near modern Hagios Elias, also called Charax. L. is mentioned because of the Roman troop movements in 169 BC (Liv. 44,2,11). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 10f.

Tempe

(365 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (τὰ Τέμπη/ tà Témpē, Latin Tempe, Stenae). A gorge, ca. 8 km long, up to 45 m wide and 500 m deep, between Olympus [1] to the north and Ossa [1] to the south, traversed by the Peneius from the Thessalian interior (Thessalians, Thessalia) east to the Aegean Sea; known today as Koiláda Tempón. In Classical Antiquity, the valley, actually formed by erosion, was held to be the result of an earthquake (Hdt. 7,129,4; Plin. HN 4,31). Myth has it that, in this valley, the nymph Daphne [2], while f…

Melitaea

(273 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μελιταία, Μελιτεία; Melitaía, Meliteía). Town of Achaea Phthiotis on the northern slopes of Mount Othrys, its location near Avaritsa (officially modern M.) is confirmed epigraphically. The migrating Thessalians moved the earlier town of Pyrrha from the valley of the Enipeus to its historical location as M. (Strab. 9,5,6). Brasidas stayed there in 426 BC (Thucyd. 4,78,1). One of the two hieromnḗmones of Achaea Phthiotis generally came from M. (Syll.3 314,5; 444,5). M. was a stronghold of the Greeks in the Lamian War (Diod. 18,15,1). From approx. 2…

Cypaera

(104 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κύπαιρα; Kýpaira). Neighbouring town of Xyniae in south-western Achaea Phthiotis on the border with Dolopia, near modern Palaia Giannitsu (not near modern Makryrrachi, formerly Kaitsa). For 363 BC a temple donation from C. is noted in Delphi (Syll.3 239 B 12). From the end of the 3rd cent. C. belonged to the League of the Aetolians who conquered it back in 198 BC from its short-term possession by the Macedonians (Liv. 32,13,14). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géograph…

Xynias

(58 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ξυνιάς; Xynías). Lake in a caldera of the Othrys (approximately 5  km × 7 km in size, up to 5 m in depth), named after the city of Xyniae on its southeastern shore, drained to the north, called Ezeros in the Middle Ages, and today dried up. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 159 f.

Makra Kome

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μακρὰ κώμη; Makrà kṓmē). Town in the upper valley of the Spercheius, in 198 BC conquered by the Aetolians during a plundering raid on Thessalia (Liv. 32,13,10). Makra Kome (MK) is localized near the ruins of the modern village of MK (formerly Varibopi) on the northern bank of the Spercheius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography Y. Béquignon, La vallée du Spercheios, 1937, 316ff. B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 67 F. Stählin, s.v. M.k., RE 14, 808f.

Ormenium, Orminium

(247 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀρμένιον/ Orménion, Ὀρμίνιον/ Ormínion). According to the context in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,734ff.), Orménion was the residence of Eurypylus [1] and was situated in western Thessaliotis, but it was already abandoned in historic times and has not been located up to the present day. The historic township of Ormínion was in Magnesia [1] and, around 290 BC, it was incorporated into the newly established Demetrias [1], but it continued to exist as a kṓmē (Str. 9,5,15; 18: Ὀρμίνιον/ Ormínion; Plin. HN 4,32). Despite the geographic difference to t…

Dierum

(74 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Διερόν; Dierón). Fortification on Mt. Olympus, occupied by the troops of Q. Marcius Philippus during the invasion of Macedonia in 169 BC (Liv. 44,3). Located near the village Karia at c. 1,450 m altitude. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography A. Rhizakis, Une forteresse macédonienne dans l'Olympe, in: BCH 110, 1986, 331-346 G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 114 n. 243.

Thetideion

(86 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Θετίδειον; Thetídeion). Sanctuary to Thetis in the territory of Pharsalus. Shortly before the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC the Roman and Macedonian armies camped near there (Pol. 18,20; Liv. 33,6,10). The location is problematic: the area near Dasolophos (formerly Bekides), on the basis of the route of the march, and the lands around modern Thetidion (formerly Alchami), because of ancient remains, are possibilities. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J.-C. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 205-207  F. Stählin, s. v. Th., RE…

Callithera

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Καλλιθήρα; Kallithḗra). Southern Thessalian town, the target of an Aetolian raid in 198 BC; they drove the inhabitants of C. back inside their walls, but were unable to capture the town (Liv. 32,13,11f.). Judging by the itinerary of the Aetolians, C. is not to be located near the modern Kallithira (formerly Seklitsa), but about 10 km south-east of it near Paliuri. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 48-91, especially 77ff. F. Stählin…

Atrax

(221 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Apollo (Ἄτραξ; Átrax). City in the Thessalian Pelasgiotis, c. 20 km west of Larisa on the Peneius. Settled since the Mycenaean era (finds of pottery sherds), coins since the 4th cent. BC. A fortress under Macedonian rulership (from 344), played a significant role in the wars from 198 on (Liv. 32,15,8). Since 196 A. often provided strategoi for the new Thessalian Federation as well as its cult envoys to Delphi. Under Justinian the fortification of the upper city was restored, …

Celaetha

(108 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κελαίθα; Kelaítha). Town, according to a list of theorodokoi from Delphi from the 2nd cent. BC, located near  Cierium and Metropolis in south-western Thessaly. Probably not identical with the vicus Celathara which the Aetolians seized and plundered in the course of their raid into Dolopia and southern Thessaly in 198 BC (Liv. 32,13,12f.). In contrast, Kelaíthra is documented as a Boeotian town ‘near Arne’ (presumably more likely Cierium in Thessaly) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Κελαίθρα). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolop…

Hypata

(352 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Ὑπάτα; Hypáta). Capital of the Aenianes (HN 296), not shown to have existed before the 5th or beginning of the 4th cent. BC, situated on a terrace cut off by ravines above the Spercheus valley on the northern slope of Mount Oete ( Oetaei, Oete), modern Hypate. The fates of city and tribe largely coincide (references [1; 2; 3]), Macedonian rule began around 344, and following the interlude of the Lamian War, the rule was replaced by the Aetolian League from c. 273. In the year 191  Acilius [I 10] ravaged t…

Tisaeum

(72 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τίσαιον; Tísaion). Mountain in the south of Magnesia [1] (modern Bardzochia, 644 m elevation); today, the whole of the east-west part of the peninsula is called T. The Argonauts passed by this mountain (Apoll. Rhod. 1,568 ff.). There was a temple to Diana Tisaea there (Val. Fl. 2,7) and a station for signalling by fire to Demetrias [1] (Pol. 10,42,7; Liv. 28,5,17). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 1467.

Thaumaci

(168 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Θαυμακοί/ Thaumakoí). City in Achaea Phthiotis on the northern slopes of the Othrys mountains, on one of the most important routes to Thessaly. Remains of walls and ceramic finds suggest an origin in the 4th cent. BC; the first literary sources refer to events in the 3rd cent. BC, when T. was part of the Aetolian League. T. is mentioned several times in the military conflicts between the Romans, the Aetolians and Philippus [7] V shortly after 200 BC (Liv. 32,4,1-7; 32,4,13; 36,14,…

Ainianes

(557 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Αἰνιᾶνες). Kleiner, mit den Myrmidones und den phthiotischen Achaioi (Phthia) verwandter Stamm, urspr. in der Nachbarschaft der Perrhaiboi am Titaresios und in der Dotischen Ebene seßhaft, dann von den von Norden kommenden Thessaloi nach Süden verdrängt, wo sie in histor. Zeit die Landschaft Ainis im oberen Spercheios-Tal zw. den Dolopes, phthiotischen Achaioi, Malieis und Oitaioi bewohnten (Hom. Il. 2,749; Hdt. 7,198; weitere Quellen [1; 2]). Dort bildeten die A. einen selbstän…

Atrax

(193 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Apollon | Getreidehandel, Getreideimport (Ἄτραξ). Stadt in der thessalischen Pelasgiotis, ca. 20 km westl. von Larisa am Peneios. Besiedlung seit myk. Zeit (Scherbenfunde), Münzen seit dem 4. Jh.v.Chr. Unter maked. Herrschaft (ab 344) Festung, spielte in den Kriegen ab 198 eine bed. Rolle (Liv. 32,15,8). Seit 196 stellte A. öfter Strategen im neuen Thessalischen Bund sowie dessen Kultgesandte in Delphoi. Unter Iustinianus wurde die Befestigun…

Nessonis limne

(52 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Νεσσωνὶς λίμνη). Versumpfter See im NO von Larisa [3] in der thessal. Pelasgiotis, ehemals gespeist v.a. vom Peneios, h. trockengelegt. Ant. Autoren waren sein Wasserstandswechsel und der Zusammenhang mit der südl. gelegenen Boibe von Interesse (Strab. 9,5,20). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s.v. N., RE 17, 79f.

Kypaira

(95 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Κύπαιρα). Nachbarort von Xyniai in der südwestl. Achaia Phthiotis an der Grenze zur Dolopia, beim h. Palaia Giannitsu (nicht beim h. Makryrrachi, ehemals Kaitsa). Für 363 v.Chr. ist in Delphoi eine Tempelspende aus K. vermerkt (Syll.3 239 B 12). Seit dem E. des 3. Jh. gehörte K. zum Bund der Aitoloi, die es 198 v.Chr. aus kurzfristigem maked. Besitz zurückeroberten (Liv. 32,13,14). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (Hrsg.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 49ff.  F. Stäh…

Gomphoi

(197 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Γόμφοι). Im 4. Jh. v.Chr. durch Synoikismos entstandener Ort; Lage beim h. G. (vormals Mouzaki) gesichert. Mit Metropolis, Pelinnaion und Trikka bildete G. den Festungsgürtel der thessal. Hestiaiotis an den Pindos-Übergängen nach Dolopia, Athamania und Epeiros. Auf Mz. des 4. und 2. Jh. trägt G. den Namen Philippopolis (HN 295). Gegen E. des 3. Jh. stand G. unter aitolischer Herrschaft, wechselte in den Kriegen zu Anf. des 2. Jh. mehrfach den Besitzer und mußte 186/5 von Philipp…

Ormenion, Orminion

(205 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Ὀρμένιον, Ὀρμίνιον). Nach dem Kontext im homer. Schiffskat. (Hom. Il. 2,734ff.) war Orménion die Residenz des Eurypylos [1] und lag in der westl. Thessaliotis, war aber in histor. Zeit verlassen und ist bis h. nicht lokalisiert. Der histor. Ort Ormínion lag in der Magnesia [1] und wurde um 290 v.Chr. in die Neugründung Demetrias [1] eingemeindet, bestand aber als kṓmē weiter (Strab. 9,5,15; 18: Ὀρμίνιον; Plin. nat. 4,32). O. wurde schon von ant. Autoren trotz der geogr. Differenz mit dem homer. O. gleichgesetzt. Auf dem Berg Goritsa (21…

Lapathus

(44 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Λαπαθοῦς). Kleine Festung im südl. Olympos oberhalb des Tempetals bei Kondylon, bei h. Hagios Elias, auch Charax gen. L. wird aus Anlaß der röm. Truppenbewegungen 169 v.Chr. erwähnt (Liv. 44,2,11). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 10f.

Acharrai

(75 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Ἀχάρραι). Stadt in der nordwestl. Achaia Phthiotis an der Grenze zu Dolopia (Dolopes) und Thessaliotis (Thessaloi). A. prägte die Bronzemünzen des 4./3. Jh. v. Chr. mit der Aufschrift Ἐκκαρρεων (HN 294); eine Lokalisierung ist bisher nicht gelungen. A. ergab sich im 2. Maked. Krieg 198 v. Chr. den Aitoloi bei ihrem Zug ins südwestl. Thessalien (Liv. 32,13,13; weitere Quellen bei [1. 154 f.]). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography 1 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924.

Kondylon

(72 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Κόνδυλον). Festung im südl. Olympos an einer über Gonnos laufenden Umgehung des Tempetales, wohl mit Gonnokondylos gleichzusetzen und beim h. Tsurba-Mandria lokalisiert. Als Philippos V. 196 v.Chr. Perrhaibia freigab, behielt er K. mit dem ON Olympias noch bis 185 (Liv. 39,25,16). Im 3. Maked. Krieg lag 169 v.Chr. eine Besatzung des Perseus in K. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Gonnoi, 1973, Index  F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 8f.

Peirasia

(126 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Πειρασία). Stadt im NO der Thessaliotis (Thessaloi), Ruinen auf dem isolierten, 313 m hohen Kalkberg Strongylovuno südl. vom h. Vlochós am linken Ufer des Enipeus [2]. Wurde mit dem homer. Astérion (Hom. Il. 2,735) gleichgesetzt (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀστέριον). 431 v.Chr. mit Athen verbündet (Thuk. 2,22,3 mit schol.). Beitr. für den delph. Tempel 359/7 v.Chr. sind inschr. belegt (Syll.3 240 H, col. II 6ff.). Ant. Überreste: drei konzentrische polygonale Stadtmauern mit über 24 Türmen. P. ist vielleicht identisch mit Iresiae bei Liv. 32,13,9 (von Philippos [7]…

Iolkos

(300 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine | Ägäische Koine | Ägäische Koine | Dunkle Jahrhunderte | Mykenische Kultur und Archäologie (Ἰωλκός). Schon in ältesten Sagen (Aison, Alkestis, Argonautai, Iason, Neleus, Peleus, Pelias) gen. Residenzstadt am Nordausgang des Golfs von Pagasai am Anauros (h. Xerias). Ein großer Siedlungshügel in der Altstadt von Volos (Kastro Volo) bezeugt Siedlungskontinuität spätestens seit der frühen Brz. - zahlreiche myk. Gräber, zwei Palastanlagen, ein…

Mondaia

(66 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Μονδαία). Nur in Inschr. genannte Nachbarstadt des perrhaibischen Azoros im NW von Thessalia. Sie wird mit der Ruine bei Lutron Elassonos, ca. 25 km nordwestl. von Elasson, gleichgesetzt. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (Hrsg.), Top. antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 93ff., 109f.  F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 16, 106f. (Quellen).

Melitaia

(242 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Μελιταία, Μελιτεία). Stadt der Achaia Phthiotis am Nordabhang des Othrys, Lage bei Avaritsa (h. amtlich M.) inschr. gesichert. Die einwandernden Thessaloi verlegten die Vorgängerstadt Pyrrha aus dem Enipeustal als M. an die histor. Stelle (Strab. 9,5,6). 426 v.Chr. hielt sich Brasidas dort auf (Thuk. 4,78,1). Einer der beiden hieromnḗmones der Achaia Phthiotis stammte meist aus M. (Syll.3 314,5; 444,5). Im Lamischen Krieg war M. eine Festung der Griechen (Diod. 18,15,1). Seit ca. 260 gehörte M. zum Bund der Aitoloi, für welchen M. ebenfalls öfter einen hieromnḗm…

Krannon

(157 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bildung (Κραννών). Stadt der thessal. Tetras Pelasgiotis, durch Inschr.-Funde ca. 22 km südwestl. von Larisa [2] lokalisiert. Seit neolithischer Zeit besiedelt, führte der Platz in myk. Zeit den ON Ephyra (Strab. 8,3,5). Spätestens ab dem 6. Jh.v.Chr. gehörte K. mit der Familie der Skopadai zu den acht bedeutendsten thessal. Städten. Anf. des 4. Jh. herrschte hier der Tyrann Deinias von Pherai, 352 kam K. unter maked. Herrschaft. Mit dem S…

Dolopes

(342 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Δόλοπες). Die D. waren die südwestl. Nachbarn der Thessaloi, möglicherweise von diesen bei der Einwanderung abgespalten und aus den Ebenen verdrängt. Ihr Siedlungsgebiet - ohne Zugang zur Küste - lag zw. Achaia Phthiotis im Osten, Spercheios-Tal im Süden, Epeiros im Westen und dem mittleren Pindos, ein Gebirgsland, damals wie h. sehr dünn besiedelt und, da der südl. Pindos eine starke Nord-Süd-Faltung aufweist, nur in dieser Richtung einigermaßen begehbar. Die D. gelten bei Home…

Mal(l)oia

(110 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] Stadt in der thessal. Landschaft Perrhaibia (Perrhaiboi) im Tal des Titaresios, gleichgesetzt mit der Ruine Paliokastro bei Sykia. Sie wird als Nachbarort von Chyretiai nur während der Kriege zu Anf. des 2. Jh. v.Chr. und nur von Livius gen.: 199 und 191 auf aitol. Seite übergetreten, wurde M. jeweils von Philippos V. zurückerobert (Liv. 31,41,5; 36,10,5; 13,4), der sie aber 185 an Perrhaibia zurückgeben mußte (Liv. 39,25,16). 171 v.Chr. ergab sich M. König Perseus (Liv. 42,53,8) und wurde bald darauf vom röm. Heer erobert und geplündert (Liv. 42,67,7). Kramolisch…

Kelaitha

(95 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Κελαίθα). Stadt, die nach einer delph. Theorodokenliste des 2. Jh.v.Chr. bei Kierion und Metropolis in SW-Thessalia lag. Wohl nicht identisch mit dem vicus Celathara, den die Aitoloi bei ihrem Raubzug 198 v.Chr. nach Dolopia und Süd-Thessalia eroberten und plünderten (Liv. 32,13,12f.). Dagegen ist Kelaíthra als boiot. Stadt ‘bei Arne’ (verm. eher Kierion in Thessalia) überl. (Steph. Byz. s.v. Κελαίθρα). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (Hrsg.), Topographie antique et géographie historiq…

Kierion

(177 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Κιέριον). Stadt in der thessal. Tetras Thessaliotis im Tal des Kuarios (h. Sophaditikos oder Onochonos), von den einwandernden Thessaloi als Hauptort nordöstl. der Stadt Arne [2] der Boiotoi gegr., welche sie in der Folgezeit nach Süden in ihre histor. Sitze abdrängten (Thuk. 1,12,3; Strab. 9,5,14). Arne wird mit der Makria-Magula, K. mit den Ruinen auf einem nahen Hügel beim h. Pyrgos Kieriu gleichgesetzt. Bei K. lag das thessal. Stammesheiligtum der Athena Itonia (Iton). K. er…

Mopsion

(66 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Μόψιον). Stadt und Berg in der thessal. Landschaft Pelasgiotis. Sie diente 171 v.Chr. Perseus zeitweise als vom Tempe-Tal aus vorgeschobene Basis für Überfälle auf die Römer in der Ebene von Larisa [3] (Liv. 42,61,11; 65,1; 67,1: Mopselus). M. ist vielleicht mit der Stadtruine bei Makrichori, ca. 25 km nordwestl. von Larisa, gleichzusetzen. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s.v. M. (1), RE 16, 236-240.

Limnaion

(75 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Λιμναῖον, lat. Limnaeum). 191 v.Chr. zogen die Römer und Philippos V. durch Ost-Thessalia, um Antiochos III. und die Athamanen zu vertreiben. Während der Belagerung von Pelinna zog Philippos auch gegen L., das sich erst ergab, als röm. Reiterei erschien (Liv. 36,13,9ff.). Sonstige Nachrichten fehlen. L. wird neuerdings bei Vlochos über dem sumpfigen Mündungsgebiet der Flüsse Enipeus [2] und Peneios lokalisiert. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J.Cl. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 120f.

Oitaioi

(153 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Οἰταῖοι). Volksstamm, der urspr. in der niedrigen Sandstein-, Flysch- und Neogenzone südl. und östl. des Hauptkamms der Oite in Richtung auf die mittelgriechischen Landschaften Doris und Lokris lebte. Von da erfolgte schrittweiser Anschluß der nördl. Nachbargebiete, im 4. Jh.v.Chr. Anschluß des zuerst gegen die O. gegr. Herakleia [1], dann auch des ganzen ehemals malischen Gebietes bis zum Spercheios und den Thermopylai. Polit. waren die O. mit Sparta, dann mit Thebai verbunden.…

Boibe

(156 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Βοιβή, Βοιβηὶς λίμνη). Stadt am südl. Steilufer des gleichnamigen Sees, der sich von Nordwesten nach Südosten entlang des Pelion erstreckte, schon im Schiffskatalog der Ilias genannt (Hom. Il. 2,711f.). B. gehörte zu Magnesia, wurde 293 v.Chr. nach Demetrias eingemeindet. In byz. Zeit war B. ans Seeufer verlegt. Von diesem Ort (ma. Karla) existiert noch eine Kirche, Hagios Nikolaos zw. Glafira und Kanalia, auf den Resten eines ant. Tempels. Schon das Alt. sah im B.-See den Rest …

Halos

(353 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Perserkriege (Ἅλος). Die Reste von H. liegen am Südende des Κρόκιον πεδίον (Krokische Ebene) auf und am Nordfuß eines Othrys-Ausläufers, wo der Übergang vom Malischen Golf zum Golf von Pagasai leicht zu sperren war, da die Küste nur einige 100 m entfernt war (h. ca. 2 km). Den Namen verdankt H. der reichen salzhaltigen Quelle des Amphrysos am Fuß des Stadtberges. Schon im Schiffskatalog der Ilias gen. (Hom. Il. 2,682), war es ein wichtiger…

Pharsalos

(551 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bildung | Caesar | Makedonia, Makedones (ἡ Φάρσαλος). Peleus, König der Myrmidones, Vater des Achilleus, herrschte in der Stadt Phthia, die im Alt. mit Ph. am südwestl. Rand der thessalischen Ebene gleichgesetzt wurde. Hom. Il. 1,155 kennt nur Phthia. Die Thessaloi gründeten Ph. bei ihrer Landnahme am Quelltopf des Apidanos. Sie nannten diesen Teil der Ebene Phthiṓtis, während das Untertanenland der in die südl. Berge zurückgedrängten Ureinwohner zu Achaía Phthiṓtis wurde. Ph. pflegte die Trad. der angebli…

Olosson

(124 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] (Ὀλοσσών). Stadt der Perrhaiboi (Strab. 9,5,19: Ὀλοόσσων), war deren urspr. Hauptort, am Nordrand einer Ebene am SW-Hang des Niederen Olympos (vgl. Olympos [1]). Seit myk. Zeit kontinuierlich besiedelt, nach dem homer. Schiffskat. (Hom. Il. 2,739: Ὀλοόσσων) im Gebiet des Polypoites. Erh. hat sich eine Inschr. zur Feststellung der Grenze zu Dion [II 2] (CIL III 591; 101 n.Chr.). Das Kastell (Prok. aed. 4,4: Λόσσονος) wurde unter Iustinianus erneuert; vgl. Hierokles, Appendix 101 (Ἐλισσών). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography H. Kramolisch, F. Hild, s…
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