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Fest

(8,610 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang | Kranemann, Benedikt | Leppin, Volker | Petzolt, Martin | Rode-Breymann, Susanne | Et al.
1. Allgemein 1.1. Anlässe F. (von lat. festus, »feierlich«, »festlich«) unterbrechen die Routine des Alltags, zu dem sie als zeitlich und räumlich begrenzte »Anti-Struktur« in Gegensatz stehen und dessen strukturierender Bestandteil sie sind [21]. In der Nz. markierten F. die Phasen natürlicher, sozialer oder individueller Zeitfolgen, die entweder zyklischer oder serieller Natur sein konnten: Ersteres z. B. beim landwirtschaftlichen Jahreszyklus, dem ökonomischen Zyklus, dem Kirchenjahr mit seinen wiederkehrenden Heiligentagen und Jahrmärkten, Letzteres z. B. b…

Festival

(8,958 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang | Kranemann, Benedikt | Leppin, Volker | Petzolt, Martin | Rode-Breymann, Susanne | Et al.
1. General 1.1. OccasionsFestivals (from Latin  festus, “joyful, festive”) interrupt the routine of the everyday world, to which they contrast as a temporally and spatially limited “anti-structure” of which they are the structuring element [21]. In the early modern period, festivals marked the phases of natural, social, or individual chronologies, which could be either cyclic or linear. Cyclic chronologies included the annual agricultural cycle, the…
Date: 2019-10-14

Anointing

(2,517 words)

Author(s): Prenner, Karl | Willi-Plein, Ina | Mell, Ulrich | Köntgen, Ludger | Kranemann, Benedikt
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Practical Theology and Liturgy I. History of Religions Many magical and religio-cultic rituals are associated with rubbing, spreading, sprinkling, or dousing persons and objects with fats, oils, or salves, but also with special waters. In addition to the cosmetic and medical uses of salves, the various cultures and religious traditions of the peoples link important stations on the path of life (Rites of passage) with ritual anointing as a purifying, beautifying, and healing act and in order to avert dangers and adversities (“protection against evil spirits and powers”; Apotropaic rites). The rubbing of various body parts in the context of incantation rites (Incantation), births, illnesses (Egypt, ancient Near East, sub-Saharan Africa, India), and in burial ceremonies (Burial) the anointing of the corpse. The latter is especially prominent in the Egyptian ritual for the dead as the anointing of the body in the embalming ritual or generally in the use of ointments as sacrificial and burial …

Rite and Ritual

(6,139 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred | Stausberg, Michael | Schwemer, Daniel | Gertz, Jan Christian | Hollender, Elisabeth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The terms The terms rite and ritual are often used synonymously, both in daily speech and in the specialized language of religious studies, leading to a lack of clarity. “Rite” is etymologically related to Sanskrit ṛta, “right, order, truth, custom,” and may thus be regarded as the “smallest” building block of a ritual, which can be defined as a complex series of actions in a (logical) functional relationship. Within a three-level sequence, cult (Cult/Worship : I, 2) must also be taken into cons…