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(333 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich)
[German version] The B. were rebellious residents of rural Gallia and Spain (3rd to 5th cents. AD). The first appearance of B. (under their leaders Aelianus and Amandus) is documented for the time around AD 285/6. In 286,  Maximianus became joint ruler with  Diocletianus under orders to defeat the B. (Eutr. 9,20; cf. Pan. 2(10),4,3). In AD 407, battles erupted again in the tractus Aremoricanus (between the mouths of the Loire and the Seine). The revolt was finally suppressed before the year 417 by Exuperantius, a relative of  Rutilius Namatianus (Rut. Namat.…


(478 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich)
[German version] The Latin term saltus denotes woodland, fallow land with some degree of tree cover, and pasture; cf. Varro, Ling. 5,36: “quos agros non colebant propter silvas aut id genus, ubi pecus possit pasci, et possidebant, ab usu salvo saltus nominarunt” (“from their practical usefulness, they called saltus those fields which they held but did not cultivate because of the woods, or the type of land where cattle can graze”). In Catullus, the following belong to the saltus Firmanus: “aucupium, omne genus piscis, prata, arva ferasque” (“all manner of fowl, fish, meado…


(878 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich)
[German version] While in the early Principate period, Roman  penal law distinguished primarily between citizens and non-citizens and this was the criterion in terms of personal rights for the determination of punitive measures, from the end of the 2nd cent. AD social rank determined the treatment of individuals by the courts. The differentiation in punishments is linked in the legal texts and in modern research primarily with two terms, honestiores and humiliores. The honestiores were the members of the privileged classes (senators, equites, decurions, veterans); they were e…

Deserti agri

(482 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich)
[German version] Reclamation of wasteland was a concern of imperial lawmaking as early as the height of the Imperial period. On the imperial estates in North Africa leaseholders who had cultivated fallow land enjoyed particularly favourable lease conditions under the lex Manciana (CIL VIII 25943). Jurists from the Classical period commented on a case in which agricultural land that had been neglected by its owner was cultivated by a third party (Gaius, Inst. 2, 51). Pertinax is supposed to have tried to allocate uncultivated land in AD…

Bulla Felix

(195 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich)
[German version] At the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD leader of a group of bandits of 600 men, which operated between Rome and Brundisium. For two years B. held sway against Roman troops (initially under a centurio, then a tribune of the imperial bodyguard). He had a well-functioning information network and received support from sections of the rural population. The band apparently recruited mainly from runaway slaves and imperial freedmen. B. asked a centurio taken prisoner to tell the masters th…


(1,432 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich)
Colonus means farmer, specifically a tenant farmer -- the tenant farmer of late antiquity who was tied to the land and was dependent on a landowner ( Leasehold). [German version] A. The early imperial period The leasing of land was a practice already widespread in the time of the late Republic and in the early years of the Principate, along with the farming of the estates by  slaves (cf. i.a. Dig. 19,2; Columella 1,7). The length of the lease was generally set at five years ( lustrum). In Italy, the lease was usually paid for in money; although there were also instances of parti…


(797 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich)
(χήρα/ chḗra; Latin vidua). [German version] I. Greece Remarriages, including of widows, were common in Classical Athens, and were accepted by public opinion. Especially if a widow was still of childbearing age, remarriage was even expected. Athenian legal speeches attest on a number of occasions to widows marrying a second time (Isaeus 7,7; 8,8; 9,27; 11,8; Lys. 32,8; Dem. Or. 36,8; 45,3 f.). This attitude is attributable to the fact that women married very young in ancient societies, and that the age …


(802 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich)
(ὀρφανός/ orphanós; Lat. orbus). [German version] I. Greece In Graeco-Roman antiquity, a high mortality rate and a great difference in the marrying age of men and women led to many children losing their father before they reached the age of majority. In Greek thinking, a fatherless child was regarded as an orphan (ὀρφανός/ orphanós). Orphans had a guardian (ἐπίτροπος/ epítropos [2] or ὀρφανιστής/ orphanistḗs) appointed, generally an agnatic relative, frequently an uncle on the father's side; it was also possible to designate a guardian in one's will. The gu…


(1,253 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
I. Political [German version] A. Definition In Late Antiquity, the term patrocinium referred to relationships of protection and dependence, especially in rural areas, in which the coloni or small farmers placed themselves under the protection of powerful office holders or the owners of large private landholdings. The patrocinium was primarily directed against the imperial administration, particularly against the tax collectors; the rural population sought to escape the obligation of paying taxes through the patrocinium. In modern scholarship, the patrocinium is frequently…