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(89 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Ostrogoth king, brother of Theodemir and Vidimir, uncle of Theoderic the Great (Theodericus [3]), who took part in the campaigns of Attila (Iord. Rom. 331; Iord. Get. 199), but after AD 453 escaped from Hunnish rule. After settling in Pannonia ( c. 454), between 459 and 462 the brothers fought successfully against Byzantium for better treaty conditions (Leo [4] I). In about 468/9 V. was killed in an attack by the Sciri (Iord. Get. 270 f.; 275 f.; [1. 265]). PLRE 2, 1135 f. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 42001, 259-265.


(43 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Rodoulfus). King of the Heruli who fell in AD 508 in the battle against the Langobardi (Procop. Goth. 2,14,11-22). Probably the son in arms of Theodericus. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 946 2 J. Moorhead, Theoderic in Italy, 1992, 193.

Theodericus (Theoderic)

(1,575 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
( Theodericus; Θευδέριχος; Theudérichos). [German version] [1] T. I King of the Visigoths, AD 418-451, successor to Vallia, probably the son-in-law of Alaricus [2] [1. 180]. Despite the settlement of the Visigoths in Gaul in 418, he besieged Arelate (Arles) in 425, then renewed the foedus with Rome ( foederati ), but again fought against Aetius [2] in 436. In 438, the Goths were defeated; in 439, there was another treaty with Rome after renewed Gothic successes. In 450, Attila attempted in vain to win over T.; T. was kill…


(92 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Granddaughter of Theoderic [3] the Great; having been forced into marriage in 536 AD by Vitigis, she tried to betray Ravenna to the Byzantines in 538, supposedly in order to marry Belisarius (?) (Procop. Goth. 2,10,11). In 540 she and Vitigis (d. 542) were brought to Constantinople, and in 549/50 she married Germanus [1] (d. 550). Birth of a son, Germanus, in 550/1. M. bore the unusual title of a patricia (Iord. Get. 81). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography PLRE 3B, 851f. H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 1990, 343, 347, 357.


(61 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Son of Odoacer; elevated by his father to Caesar in Italy ( c. 489-493 AD); from 493 onwards a hostage of Theoderic [3] the Great, after the death of Odoacer (in 493) banished to Gaul and on attempting to return murdered by Theoderic. (Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 241a, FHG 5, 29; Anon. Vales. 11,54). PLRE 2,1064. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)


(123 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Brother of Odoacer. After the fall of Attila's kingdom, O. led the Sciri (Iord. Get. 277f.), together with his father. After their defeat, he served the Romans from AD 469 on. Challenged by the magister militum praesentalis Armatus, he killed him in 477, on the orders of Zeno (Malchus, FHG 4, p. 117, fr. 8 = fr. 9,4 Blockley) [2. 411-413]. O. served as m agister militum in Illyria from 477 to 479, then changed to his brother's side and in 488 defeated the Rugians (Eugippius, Vita Severini 44,4). He was murdered in 493 after Odoacer's defeat (Io…


(87 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Gothic comes AD 505 [1. 886f.]. In a dispute with the Gepidae in 505, he occupied Sirmium and helped the local overlord Mundo [2. 397ff.] against troops of the Eastern Empire, defeating them (Ennod. panegyricus dictus clementissimo regi Theoderico 12; Iord. Get. 300f.) [3. 174f.]. Possibly identical to the Petia murdered in 514 by Theoderic (Theodericus (Theoderic) [3]) (Auctarium Havniense, MGH AA 9,331) [1. 861; 2. 406f.]. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2 2 P. Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 1997, 489-554 3 J. Moorhead, Theo…


(46 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Suebian. With Sido, he deposed his uncle, Vannius , in AD 51, divided the kingdom of the Suebi with Sido and thereafter reigned in close dependency on the Roman Empire, but apparently detested by his subjects (Tac. Ann. 12,30). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)


(521 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Rex in Italy AD 476-493. Son of Edeco, brother of Onulf, probably born in 433 (cf. Iohannes Antiochenus, FHG 4, p. 617, fr. 209,1). O.'s family came from the circles around the court of Attila, and so it is hard to determine to which tribe they belonged [5. 124]. The number and identity of O.'s siblings is also a matter of debate ([4]; contra [2]). After the disintegration of Attila's empire (454) O.'s father and Onulf led the Sciri until 469. O.'s whereabouts during this period are uncertain; his identification with O., the leader of the Saxons, ([4. 347f.], c. 463-469 in Ga…


(405 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Τωτίλας/ Tōtílas; alternate name Baduila, e.g. Iord. De summa temporum vel origine actibusque gentis Romanorum 380; [1. 458]). King of the Goths AD 541-552, nephew of Hildebald (Ostrogothic king 540/541), great-nephew of the Visigothic king Theudis. He commanded the Gothic troops in Tarvisium when his uncle was murdered. When Erarich's rule caused discontent among the Ostrogoths, T. decided to succeed his uncle despite negotiations with Byzantium (Procop. Goth. 3,2). In 542, he re-engaged in the war against Byzantium during the absence of Belisarius ( ibid. 3…


(128 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] Great-grandfather of Eutharic Great-grandfather of Eutharic, Theoderic [3] the Great's designated successor (cf. Cassiod. Var. 11,1,19; Iord. Get. 81; 250 f.; 298). The family tree is probably partially an invention of Cassiodorus. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography P. Heather, Cassiodorus and the Rise of the Amals, in: JRS 79, 1989, 103-128, esp. 118-120  PLRE 2,1116. [German version] [2] King of the Visigoths, mid-5th cent. Visigoth king 451-453 AD, son of Theoderic [1]. After Theoderic's death in the battle on the Campi Catalauni …


(74 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Flavius S., under Felix [6] sent against Bonifatius [1] in Africa in 427 AD (Chron. Min. 1,472); Consul in 437, magister utriusque militiae 437-448, coastal defences against the Vandali 440 (Nov. Valentiniani 9), 448 patricius [2. 158 f.]. Often seen as rival of Aetius [2] [3. 498-500]. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 1010 2 T. D. Barnes, Patricii under Valentinian III., in: Phoenix 29, 1975, 155-170 3 B. L. Twyman, Aetius and the Aristocracy, in: Historia 19, 1970, 480-503.


(108 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King ( rex) in Visigoth Spain 531-548 AD, great-uncle of  Totila, probably from an influential Gothic family [2. 157 f.]. An 'arms bearer' ( armiger) of Theoderic [3] the Great, he was sent as commander-in-chief to the Visigoths c. 511, guardian of Amalaricus. T. married a well-to-do Spaniard and, with Theoderic's indulgence, exercised power in Spain (Procop. Goth. 1,12,50-54). After Amalaricus's death in 531 T. became rex, in 548 he was assassinated (Chron. Min. 2,283 f.; for the date see [4. 356]). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 P. Amory, People and…


(116 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Ῥοδογάϊσος/ Rhodogáïsos). Goth king, crossed the Danube in AD 405 and invaded Italy (Zos. 5,26,3; Oros. 7,37,4-17; [1. 206-217; 2. vol. 3,1, 200 f.]). He divided his army into three groups (Chron. min. 1,652); one may have reached Gaul [2. vol. 3,2, 22 f.]. While besieging Florence he was repelled by Stilicho (Paulinus, Vita Ambrosii, ch. 50), surrounded at Fiesole, taken prisoner and executed (23.8.406: Chron. min. 1,299). The survivors evidently defected to the Roman side [3. 213]. PLRE 2, 934. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 M. Cesa, Römisches Heer…


(55 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Roman landowner in Bruttium and Lucania; in AD 546 he supported the Byzantines in the reclamation of this region (Procop. Goth. 3,18,20-23). His force of armed farmers, which was supposed to prevent Totila from advancing southwards, broke up under the latter's influence, however (Procop. Goth. 3,22,1-5). PLRE 3,1344. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)


(84 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Σίττας, Ζτίττας/ Síttas, Z títtas; Latin also Zetas and the like: [1. 1160]). Magister utriusque militiae in AD 530-538/9; doryphóros of Iustinianus [1] even before the latter's elevation to emperor. First magister militum per Armeniam in 528 (Cod. Iust. 1,29,5; [2. 266 f.]). Married a sister of Theodora (Ioh. Mal. 430). Magister utriusque militiae praesentalis in 530-538/9; killed in an ambush in 538/9 in a battle against the Armenians (Procop. Pers. 2,3,19-26). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 3, 1160-1163 2 B. Rubin, Das Zeitalter Justini…

Theodahatus (Theodahat)

(221 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] ( Theodahadus; Θευδάτος/ Theudátos). AD 534-536 king of the Ostrogoths in Italy, from the Amali family, son of Amalafrida, nephew of Theoderic the Great (Theodericus (Theoderic) [3]); he owned large estates in Tuscia, often illegally acquired (Proc. BG 1,3,2; cf. e.g. Cassiod. Var. 4,39). After the death of Athalaric, T., who until then had pursued scholarly studies (Proc. BG 1,3,1), was appointed king by Amalasuntha, with power supposed in fact to remain with the latter (Proc. BG 1,…


(140 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Flavius N., of Germanic origin. In AD 358 leader of a cavalry unit in Raetia (Amm. Marc. 17,6,3), in 361 promoted by Iulianus [11] to magister equitum (Amm. Marc. 21,8,1). In 361/62 N. was part of the court in Calchedon against the supporters of Constantius [2] II (Amm. Marc. 22,3,1), and he was consul in 362 and the commander of the Persian campaign of 363 (Amm. Marc. 24,1,2). After the death of Iulianus he sided with a party of ‘Gauls’ in the conflict surrounding the succession (Amm. Marc. 25,5,2). After…


(43 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king 586-601 AD, son of Leowigild; in 587 he brought about the conversion of the Visigoths to Catholicism (Chron. min. 2,218). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography D. Claude, Adel, Kirche und Königtum im Westgotenreich, 1971, 77-91  PLRE 3, 1079 f.


(153 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] Murderer of Valentinianus [4] III, 5th cent. AD Protector of Valentinianus [4] III, formerly in the service of Aetius [5]. He and Optila murdered Valentinianus in AD 455, in order to avenge the death of Aetius, probably on the instructions of Maximus [8], to whom he delivered the diadem (Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 201,4 f., FHG 4, 615; Chron. min. 1,303, where he is Aetius [2]' son-in-law; 2,86). PLRE 2,1117 f. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) [German version] [2] Magister militum, 5th cent. AD Magister militum in the Eastern empire, executed after a conspiracy aga…


(95 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Suebi in AD 465-469. R. was probably at the court of the Visigoths in 461. After the death of Frumarius [1. 486 f.] he was elevated to king of all the Suebi in 465 (Chron. min. 2,33). He was son-at-arms of king Theoderic II of the Visigoths (Chron. min. 2,33). He is not identical [2. 667 f.] to the pretender Rechimundus (AD 459-461) [1. 936]. R. was still alive when Hydatius [2] ended his Chronicle (AD 468). Suebi Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 938 2 D. Claude, Prosopographie des spanischen Suebenreichs, in: Francia 6, 1978, 647-676.


(44 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Goth, commander of the troops in the Gothic part of Gaul which Vitigis abandoned in AD 536/7 (Procop. Goth. 1,13,15-16; 29). From there, M. was called to the siege of Rome (Procop. Goth. 1,19,12; PLRE 3B, 823f.) Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)

Vetericus (Viderich)

(77 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Viderich). Amalus (Amali), who came with his father Berimund from the territory of the Hunni to Gaul in AD 427 (Iord. Get. 251). Probably identical to Vitericus (Chron. min. 1,477 Mommsen), who fought with the Romans against the Visigoth Theoderic I (Theodericus [1]) in 439 ([2. 259 f.]; otherwise in e.g. [1]). Father of Theoderic the Great's (Theodericus [3]) designated successor Eutharicus Cilliga. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 1157, s. v. Vetericus 2 H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 42001.


(92 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Ostrogoth king c. 451-473 AD, son of Vandalarius, brother of Valamer and Theodemir, uncle of Theoderic (Theodericus [3]) the Great. He took part in Attila's campaigns (Iord. Get. 199), and ruled beside his brothers in a region in Pannonia after Attila's death in 454 (Iord. Get. 268), from 461 as a Roman ally. V. was sent to Italy in 473 by Theodemir and died there during the campaign (Iord. Get. 283 f.). His successor was his son of the same name (Iord. Get. 284). PLRE 2,1164. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)


(88 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] According to Zosimos (4,25,2-4) M. was a Goth of royal descent (relative of Athanaric [2. 189f.]. He went over to the Romans, received a military command and shortly after (380 AD?) in Thrace achieved a success (probably exaggerated by Zosimus [2. 77f.]) against pillaging Goths. Gregorius [3] of Nazianzus addressed two letters (epist. 136 and 137) to M. as magister militum. M. was a Christian but not an Arian [1. 388]. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 F. Paschoud, Zosime, vol. 2,2, 1979, 387f. 2 P. Heather, Goths and Romans, 1991.


(60 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Chief of the Greuthungi, who crossed the Danube in AD 386, but were defeated (Zos. 4,35,1; 38f.; Claud. Carm. 8,623-633). O. was killed and the surviving Greuthungi were settled in Phrygia by Theodosius I (cf. Chron. min. 1,244). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography PLRE 1, 639  P. Heather, Goths and Huns, in: CAH 13, 1998, 502; 512 n. 42.


(70 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Σάφραξ/ Sáphrax). Ostrogoth; he and Alatheus were legal guardians of Vetericus (Viderich) (son of Vidimir; Amm. Marc. 31,3,3); after crossing the Danube (after 375), he fought in the battle near Hadrianopolis [3] in AD 378 (Amm. 31,4,12). In 380 (?), he settled in Pannonia (Zos. 4,34,2 f.; Iord. Get. 140 f.). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 1, 802 2 F. Paschoud (ed.), Zosime, Histoire nouvelle, vol. 2,2, 1979, 406-408 (with French translation).

Theodebaldus (Theodebald)

(117 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] ( Theodebaldus; Θευδίβαλδος/ Theudíbaldos). Frankish king 547-555 AD, son of Theodebert, still a child at the beginning of his reign. Courted by Iustinianus [1] in 551 for an alliance against Totila (Proc. BG 4,24,11-30), T. refused both this and a request for help from the Ostrogoths in 552 (Proc. BG 4,34,17 f.; for the relationship with Byzantium cf. MGH Epp. 3,131 f., 547 AD). Allegedly against T.'s will, however, Leuthari and Butilinus supported the Goths in Italy in 553/4, but w…


(112 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Nephew of Witigis (on the name cf. [1. 430]), secured Goth power in Liguria in AD 538/9 and conquered Mediolanum [1] (Procop. Goth. 2,18,19; 2,21). His attempt to end the Byzantines' siege of Auximum remained unsuccessful; the loss of Liguria in 539 prevented him supporting Witigis in Ravenna (Procop. Goth. 2,28,31-35). After the latter's capture in 540, U. refused an offer of the title of king of the Goths and proposed Hildebaldus for it (Procop. Goth. 2,30,3-16). After a conflict with Hildebaldus, he was murdered in 541 (Procop. Goth. 3,1,37-48). Lütkenhaus, Werner …


(216 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king, AD 568-86. Elevated to king of the territories in Spain in 569 after the death of Athanagild (568) by the latter's successor, his brother Liuwa. L. married Athanagild's widow Goisuntha in his second marriage. After the crisis, which had prevailed since c. 550, he united the majority of Spain under Gothic rule by 579. After Liuwa's death in 573 [3. 40], L. reigned alone and established his sons from his first marriage, Hermenegild and Reccared, as co-regents. In 579, L. married Hermenegild to Ingundis (daught…


(116 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king (Visigoths), from AD 415 the successor of Segericus in Spain. V. may have planned to cross to Africa (see also [2. 89]) in order to escape pressure from Constantius [6] on the Goths, but in 416 he concluded a treaty with Ravenna in which they probably agreed to a Goth initiative against the other Germanic peoples in Spain and the later settlement of the Goths in Gaul. (MGH AA 11,19; Oros. 7,43,10-15; Olympiodoros fr.30 Blockley; [2. 88-93]). V. died in 418 before the…


(622 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Flavius S., magister utriusque militiae in the west of the Roman Empire AD 395-408; son of an officer of Vandal origin (cf. Oros. 7,38,1) who served under Valens. S. took part as a tribunus in an embassy to Persia in 383 (Claud. Carm. 21,51-68); in 384 he married Serena (ibid. 69-88), the niece of Theodosius I, and became comes stabuli, after 385 comes domesticorum (Claud. Carm. minora 30,193 f.) and in 392 magister utriusque militiae, probably in Thrace (Cod. Theod. 7,4,18; 7,9,3). As second-in-command to  Timasius in 394 he led a campaign against Eug…


(255 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Οὐίττιγις; Ouíttigis). First non-Amal Ostrogoth king in Italy AD 536-540, successor to Theodahat (Theodahatus), nephew of Ulitheus, uncle of Uraias. Spatharius ('sword-bearer') to Athalaric (Cassiod. MGH AA 12,476). After Theodahat's failure in the face of the Byzantine invasion, V. was proclaimed king by the Gothic army in Reate at the end of 536 (Procop. BG 1,11,5). He had Theodahat killed (Procop. BG 1,11,6) and subsequently marched to Ravenna, where he forced Matasuntha, granddaughter of Theode…

Segericus (Segeric)

(42 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king in 415 AD, brother of Sarus, successor to Ataulfus but assassinated after a few days, probably because of his pro-Roman attitude (Oros. 7,43,9). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 987 2 P. Heather, Goths and Romans, 1991, 197 f.


(72 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (also Wacho, Waccho, Vaces). King of the  Langobardi; he killed his uncle Tato, expelled his cousin Ildichis and sought by marriage policies to make alliances with the Thuringi, the Gepidae and the Heruli. Allied with Byzantium, he refused in 539 AD to support  Witigis. V. died shortly afterwards. (Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 1,21;  Procop. Goth. 2,22,11-12). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography J. Jarnut, Geschichte der Langobarden, 1982, 20-22  PLRE 3, 1350.


(88 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Suebi in Spain, AD 448-455, Catholic [2. 21-23], married a daughter of the Visigothic king Theodericus I, plundered northern Spain 448/9 (Chron. min. 2,25) and concluded temporary treaties with the Romans in 453 and 454 (Chron. min. 2,27). R.' expansionistic policies at the beginning of the reign of Theodericus II (453-466) brought him into conflict with the Visigoths. During this conflict, R. was killed in 455 (Chron. min. 2,29). Suebi Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 935 2 R. Collins, Early Medieval Spain, 1983.


(59 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Goth in the service of Rome, a relative of Aspar (Ardabur [1]; ILS 1299), possibly an ancestor of Basilicus [2. 426f.]. P. put down a rebellion in Palestine in 418 AD. In 419 he was a consul, then until c. 438/440 a magister militum. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 892f. 2 W. Brandes, Familienbande?, in: Klio 75, 1993, 407-437.


(117 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Frank in Roman service. As comes domesticorum sent by Gratianus [2] from Gallia to Thracia in AD 377/378 (Amm. Marc. 31,7,4); he became magister militum per orientem in 383, consul in 384. In 388 he took part in the campaign against Maximus [II 7]. R. introduced Eugenius [1] to his nephew Arbogastes (Zos. 4,54,1) who installed Eugenius as emperor on 22 August 392. R. returned to the East. He died in 393 prior to the campaign against Eugenius. R. was in contact with Libanius (cf. Lib. Ep. 972) and Symmachus (Symmachus Ep. 3,54-69). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE…


(201 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] King of the Marcomanni, 2nd cent. AD (Ballomarius). King of the Marcomanni, who, from a position of neutrality (?), together with ambassadors from ten other tribes negotiated a peace with M. Iallius Bassus, the governor of Upper Pannonia, in AD 166, after attacking Germani had suffered a defeat (Cass. Dio, 71,3,1a = Petrus Patricius fr. 6 de Boor = Excerpta de legationibus 2,391 de Boor). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography P. Kehne, s. v. Markomannenkrieg (Hist.), RGA 19, 2001, 308-316, especially 312 (with older bibliography). [German version] [2] King o…


(168 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Vandals 496-523, grandson of Geisericus, son of Gentunis; successor to his brother Gunthamundus (Procop. Vand. 1,8,8; Chron. min. 2,193; dates of his reign: Chron. min. 3,458 f.). In c. 500, T. married Amalafrida, the sister of the Ostrogoth king Theoderic (Theodericus [3]) the Great (Anon. Vales. 12,68). T.' relationship with the latter was strained in c. 511 by his financially supporting the Visigoth Gesalicus, who had fled to Africa after being defeated by the Ostrogoths (Chron. min. 2,223; Theoderic's letters to T.: Cassi…


(386 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Magister militum et patricius AD 457-472, de facto ruler in the Western Roman Empire in this period. R.'s father was a Suebian, his mother a Goth, daughter of Vallia. Born c. 419 (?) [5] (possibly related through his mother to the Frankish kings: [2. 16 f.], contra [5. 380]). A sister of R. married the Burgundian Gundiok in c. 450. In 456, R. defeated the Vandali (Chron. min. 2,29) with his fleet, acting as comes on behalf of the Western Roman emperor Avitus [1], then he became  magister militum. Together with Maiorianus [1] he rose up against Avitus, defeating hi…


(82 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (possibly a Roman name) was a magister militum of Odoacer AD 489-493; by September 489 he had crossed over to Theoderic (Theodericus [3]) the Great, but returned to Odoacer's camp (Anon. Vales. 11,51-52). From 490 he stayed with the Rugian king Fredericus [2] in northern Italy; in 493 a battle broke out between them, in which T. was defeated and killed (Chron. Min. 1). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography P. Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 1997, 424 PLRE 2, 1131.


(87 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] In AD 57 together with Mal(l)orix 'prince' ( regebant, Tac. Ann. 13,54) of the Frisii, who had occupied Roman military territory to the south of the IJsselmeer (Flevum). After the intervention of the Lower German governor L. Duvius Avitus the two requested Rome to allocate the territories to them. Nero did grant them citizenship, but refused to assignment the territories and had the Frisians expelled by force (Tac. Ann. 13,54). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography W. Will, Römische 'Klientel-Randstaaten' am Rhein?, in: BJ 187, 1987, 1-61, esp. 28 f.


(80 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Οὔλδης; Oúldēs). Leader of a federation of Hunni to the north of the Danube. In 400 AD U. had Gainas, who had fled over the Danube, killed and sent his head to Arcadius, bringing about the first Hunni-Roman treaty  (Zos. 5,22,1-3). As late as 405/6 he supported Stilicho against  Radagaesus (Oros. 7,37,12). In 408 he himself attacked Thrace, but bribed by the Romans his army disbanded (Soz. 9,5,1-5). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography PLRE 2,1180  G. Wirth, Attila, 1999, 31-37.


(90 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Alemannian, brother of Butilinus. L. marched with him to Italy in AD 553 presumably on behalf of the king of the Franks Theodebald I. He parted from Butilinus, and after plundering expeditions in southern Italy went back north alone; after an attack by Byzantine troops he lost his booty again. L. and a large part of his army died of an epidemic in 554 near Ceneta in Venetia (Agathias 1,6; 22,1-3). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 3, 789f. 2 D. Geuenich, Geschichte der Alemannen, 1997, 93f..

Theodebertus (Theodebert)

(133 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] ( Theodebertus; Θευδίβερτος/ Theudíbertos). Frankish king 533-547 AD (534-548?,  cf. [1. 7]), son of Theoderic (Theodericus (Theoderic)  [4]) (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,20-36). Together with his uncles, in 534 he conquered Burgundy, from 539 exploited fighting between Byzantium and the Goths  for attacks in Italy (Procop. Goth. 2,25), occupied parts of northern Italy and conducted a self-confident (cf. MGH Epp. 3,132 f. to Iustinianus [1]) double-dealing between the Goths and Byzantium. He…


(88 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Burgundiones from AD 516-523. Son of Gundobad, his successor in 516. His turning towards the Eastern Roman Empire bore him the title patrikios (Avitus Epist. 9). There was a crisis in his reign, after he had his son Sigerich executed (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,5). In 523 his kingdom was raided by the Frank Chlodomer, he himself was imprisoned and killed (Chron. min. 2,235; Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,6). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 1009 f. 2 H. Wolfram, Das Reich und die Barbaren, 21994, 360 f.

Tarbigilus (Tribigild)

(105 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Goth, related to Gainas, comes in the Eastern Empire. Probably an enemy of Eutropius [4]  (Claud. in Eutropium 2,176-180). In 399 AD he and his foederati troops rebelled (with Gainas's knowledge?) against Arcadius in Phrygia (Zos. 5,13,2-4), at first he was victorious over the imperial troops sent against him but afterwards he was defeated by them at Selge (Zos. 5,16,1-5); after uniting his troops with Gainas he marched on Constantinople (Zos. 5,18,4-9). He was killed during battles in Thrace (Philostorgios 11,8; [2. 151]). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 …


(117 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Of the Quadi. Installed as king of the territory between the rivers Marus and Cusus (March and Waag?) by Drusus [II 1] in AD 19, following the elimination of Maroboduus and Catualda (Tac. Ann. 2,63). He developed his rule praedationibus et vectigalibus ('by robbery and tolls') ( ibid. 12,29). Finally, in AD 51, V. was unable to prevail against internal conflicts (revolt of Vangio and Sido) and external pressure from the Hermunduri and Lugii. Emperor Claudius [III 1] did not intervene in these conflicts, but permitted V. to take refuge in exile in Pannonia ( ibid. 12,30). Lü…


(227 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Sylvia | Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] Titan (Θεία/ Theíā, fem. of theîos 'divine', also called Erypháessa, 'the far-shining'). A Titan, daughter of Uranus and Gaea, mother by the Titan Hyperion of Helius, Eos and Selene, by Oceanus of the Cercopes (Hes. Theog. 135; 371; Orph. fr. 114; Catull. 66,44). Titans Zimmermann, Sylvia [German version] [2] Ostrogoth king, c. AD 550 (also known as Teia(s), Gr. Τείας /Teíās). Ostrogoth king in AD 552; sent by Totila to northern Italy in 552 to block Narses [4]'s way to Italy; when Narses bypassed him, however, he marched back to Totil…


(79 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen ('shepherd'), occurring only in late Antiquity. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 260 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 323. [German version] [2] Official under Odoacer Sometime between 476 and 490 AD, O. was comes sacrarum largitionum under Odoacer, perhaps from Liguria [2. 183]. He is mentioned in Cassiodorus's Variae. O.'s sons Cyprianus and O. held offices under Theoderic the Great. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 807f. 2 D. Henning, Periclitans res publica, 1999, 109, 183.


(178 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] (Σάρος/ Sáros). River in Cilicia Pedias, modern Seyhan, rising on the Taurus in Cappadocian Cataonia and flowing through Comana [1], past Adana and ultimately into the sea to the west of Magarsa (this branch has dried up); it is for this reason often conflated with the Pyramus [1]. In the early Byzantine Period, the S. was still navigable as far as Adana (Procop. Aed. 5,5,8 f.; cf. also Xen. An. 1,4,1; Liv. 33,41,7; Str.  12,2,3; Ptol. 5,8,4). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography W. Ruge, RE 2 A, 34  Hild/Hellenkemper, 28, 398 f. [German version] [2] Rex Gothorum, AD…


(5,982 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
see Iulius [IV 15] (poet); see Iulius [IV 16] (jurist) [German version] I Greek (Παῦλος; Paûlos). [German version] [I 1] Bishop of Antioch [1], died after 272 Bishop of Antiochia [1] († after AD 272). P., who was probably born in Samosata and grew up in modest circumstances, succeeded Demetrianus in 260/1 and quickly antagonized influential parts of the Antioch community with his teachings and conduct of his office. According to Eusebius [7] (account of P.: Eus. HE 7,27-30), the presbyter Malchion, head of a school of r…


(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …
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