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Autonomy

(1,712 words)

Author(s): Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. History of the Concept – II. Current State of the Problem “Autonomy” (Gk αὐτονομία) refers to self-regulation, self-determination, self-normativity. Autonomy can designate the political independence of states, the self-dependence of individuals, or the internal authority of institutions. The theological problem concerns the relationship of the modern concept of autonomy to the human relationship with God. I. History of the Concept Αὐτόνομος/ autónomos in Herodotus means: “To behave according to one's own will.”…

Hedonism

(379 words)

Author(s): Lange, Dietz
[German Version] The word derives from the Greek ἡδονή/ hēdonḗ (“joy,” “pleasure,” “enjoyment”). It appeared in England after 1850 and was first used there in the sense of eudaimonism. Sidgwick (11875) introduced it into philosophy. In current English, hedonism denotes riotous living. In German usage, the word Hedonik first appeared in A. Schopenhauer ( Werke, vol. XI, 62, 1916). It denoted (with no negative connotation) the more cheerful enjoyment of life that was then considered a characteristic of Greek antiquity (26) as an antonym of Asketik. T…

Eudaimonism,

(836 words)

Author(s): Lange, Dietz
[German Version] from Greek εὐδαίμων/ eudaímōn, “happy.” Although the term sometimes occurs in the works of Aristotle (e.g. Eth. nic. 1127b18), he employs it in the sense of “considered happy.” Its conceptual usage goes back to I. Kant, who initially used it to denote the belief in a steady progress for the better ( Streit der Fakultäten, 1798, 7, 81; ET: The Contest of Faculties, 1991), but later to express an ethical view that happiness constitutes a motive of moral action ( Metaphysik der Sitten, 6, 377f.; ET: The Metaphysics of Morals, 1996). J.G. Fichte added the meaning of “happ…

Pleasure

(1,131 words)

Author(s): Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. Theology The use of pleasure or enjoyment in a theological context began with Augustine of Hippo, who defined it as “amore alicui rei inhaerere propter seipsam” ( Doctr. chr. I 4.4; PL col. 20). The “res” is solely God, the highest good. The ethically telic uti (“use”) is subordinated to frui (“enjoyment”). Scholasticism followed Augustine but connected frui with the ultimus finis of humanity and secondarily with everything that occasions love of God (Thomas Aquinas In primum librum Sententiarum d.1 q.2 a.1, ratio 2). The German equivalent Genieß was not used in …

Dogmatics

(10,340 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. History – II. Systematics – III. Glaubenslehre (Doctrine of the Faith) I. History The term “dogmatics,” first used in the 17th century, refers to one of the oldest branches of theological endeavor: a coherent account of the content of the Christian proclamation, which in turn takes its orientation from the standard (“canonical”) paradigms of confession and proclamation. Other terms – “An exact exposition of the orthodox faith” (John of Damascus), “Sentences” (Peter Lombard), Summa Theologiae (Thomas Aquinas), Institutes of the Christian Religion (Calvin), L…

Acknowledgement and Recognition

(882 words)

Author(s): Honneth, Axel | Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Dogmatics and Ethics I. Philosophy The concept of “acknowledgment” (German: Anerkennung) has always played an essential role in practical philosophy. Thus, in ancient ethics the conviction prevailed that a good life could be led only by those persons whose behavior could find social esteem in the polis. The Scottish moral philosophers took their lead from the idea that public acknowledgment or disapproval represents the social mechanism by which the indiv…

Ebeling, Gerhard

(1,181 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. Life – II. Church Historian – III. Systematic Theologian Jul 6, 1912, Berlin-Steglitz – Sep 30, 2001, Zollikerberg/Zürich), Protestant German theologian. I. Life Ebeling began his theological studies in 1930; after studying at Marburg, Berlin, and Zürich, he passed his first theological examination for the examination office of the Confessing Church in Berlin. He prepared for pastoral ministry under …

Hypocrisy

(1,371 words)

Author(s): Kippenberg, Hans G. | Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Jewish and Christian Antiquity – III. Middle Ages to Modern Times I. History of Religion Hypocrisy as a deliberate feigning of non-existent situations is a special case of concealment. F. Bacon made a distinction between a morally necessary silence and a passive secretiveness, and between both of these and active hypocrisy or pretence. As a sociologist, G. Simmel regarded non-disclosure as a necessary means for enabling social relationships. Here, social distance and pr…

Heteronomy

(773 words)

Author(s): Grube, Dirk-Martin | Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics In Protestant dogmatics, the debate on the term “heteronomy” (etymology, see II below) is characterized by the fact that “heteronomy” is not only defined as the opposite of “autonomy” but also of “theonomy” (cf. also Graf). P. Tillich regards heteronomy and auton-¶ omy as being essentially rooted in a theonomy that is unattainable under the conditions of existence. In the dialectical course of the history of theonomy, autonomy, and heteronomy, heteronomy represents a reaction to the domin…

Happiness/Bliss

(2,967 words)

Author(s): Gilhus, Ingvild Sælid | Steinmann, Michael | Sarot, Marcel | Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. Religion – II. Philosophy – III. History of Theology and Dogmatics – IV. Ethics I. Religion Talk of happiness refers to a deeper level of experience than enjoying oneself or feeling good. Happiness denotes success in life; the pursuit of happiness is a universal element in human life and thought. The hope of happiness may take ritual forms, especially in connection with rites of passage when a change of social position and status makes life uncertain, for instance at birth and weddings. The…

Dialogue

(3,471 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla | D'Costa, Gavin | Vroom, Hendrik M. | Lange, Dietz | Neuner, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Literature (Early Church) – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics – VI. Ecumenism – VII. Dialogue and Mission I. History of Literature (Early Church) Dialogue, as a philosophical disputation with the objective of vanquishing the opponent at all costs, originated with the Sophists (Sophistic School); as a literary form, Plato's …