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Staritz, Katharina Helena Charlotte

(187 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] ( Jul 25, 1903, Breslau [Wrocław] – Apr 3, 1953, Frankfurt am Main), one of the first women ordained in the Old Prussian Union (1928). As municipal vicar of Breslau (appointed ¶ Nov 1933), she championed the cause of the city’s Jewish citizens, helping them emigrate and thus probably saving the lives of more than 100 Jews (National Socialism: I, 4). After her circular letter against the “Jewish badge” dated Sep 12, 1941, became generally known, she was relieved of her duties; expelled from Breslau, she went to …

Hocking, William Ernest

(156 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1873, Cleveland, OH – Jun 12, 1966, Madison, NH). Hocking initially studied mechanical engineering at Iowa State, then philosophy at Harvard. In The Meaning of God in Human Experience (1912), he attempted to synthesize the Idealism of J. Royce with the Pragmatism of W. James to develop a philosophy of religion on an empirical basis. As Alford Professor at Harvard from 1920 to 1943, he built on this beginning ( Living Religious and a World Faith, 1940; The Coming World Civilization, 1956; etc.), but also addressed the political problems of the Middle Ea…

Protten, Christian Jakobus

(168 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Sep 15, 1715, Accra, Gold Coast [today Ghana] – Oct 23, 1769, Accra), son of a Togolese mother and a Danish father, studied theology in Copenhagen from 1727 to 1735 and then accompanied N. v. Zinzendorf to Herrnhut. He returned to Elmina in West Africa in 1737 as the first Moravian missionary (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren: II, 4). During a long stay in Germany (1740–1756), in 1746 he married Rebecca Freundlich (1718–1780), a former slave from the Caribbean. From 1756 to 1761 he…

Independent Church Movements

(1,500 words)

Author(s): Koschorke, Klaus | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. History – II. Missiology I. History Independent local forms of Christianity and the aspiration to be emancipated from the control of European missionaries appeared early on in the history of the emerging churches of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Examples include the movement initiated by the female African prophet D.B. Kimpa Vita in the Congo during the early 18th century, which temporarily threatened Portuguese rule in the region. Independent church movements became a widespread…

Tanzania

(868 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder | Mungure, Elieshi
[German Version] I. General The name Tanzania is an artificial coinage introduced in 1964 with the formation of the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The republic has an area of 942,000 km2, including the islands of Pemba, Zanzibar, and Mafia, with some 2,000 km2. The most important vegetation zones are savannahs, veldt, semidesert, and the fertile coastal plain on the Indian Ocean. The continental area includes 54,000 km2 of inland lakes, primarily along the Great African Rift Valley. With an altitude of 5,895 m, Kilimanjaro reaches the highest elevat…

Tansania

(780 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder | Mungure, Elieshi
[English Version] I. Allgemein Der Name T. ist ein Kunstwort, das erst 1964 nach der Bildung der Vereinigten Republik von Tanganyika und Sansibar eingeführt wurde. Die Republik umfaßt eine Fläche von 942 000 km 2, von denen gut 2000 km 2 auf die Inseln Pemba, Sansibar und Mafia entfallen. Wichtigste Vegetationszonen sind Savannen, Buschland, Halbwüsten und die fruchtbare Küstenebene am Indischen Ozean. 54 000 km 2 des Festlands sind Binnenseen, insbes. am Ostafrikanischen Grabenbruch. Der Kilimanjaro ist mit 5895 m die höchste Bodenerhebung Afrikas (…

Unabhängigkeitsbewegungen, kirchliche

(1,413 words)

Author(s): Koschorke, Klaus | Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] I. Historisch Eigenständige lokale Ausprägungen des Christentums und das Streben nach Emanzipation von eur.-missionarischer Kontrolle hat es in der Gesch. der entstehenden Kirchen Asiens, Afrikas und Lateinamerikas schon frühzeitig gegeben. Verwiesen sei etwa auf die von der afrikanischen Prophetin D.B. Kimpa Vita ausgelöste Bewegung im Kongo des frühen 18.Jh., die zeitweilig die port. Vorherrschaft in der Region bedrohte. Zu einem verbreiteten Phänomen wurden U. seit Ende des 19.…

Weltkrieg, Erster

(1,475 words)

Author(s): Leonhard, Jörn | Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] I. Kirchengeschichtlich Der 1. W. markierte eine bisher unbekannte Steigerung der Macht- und Gewaltmittel des Krieges im Namen von Nation und Nationalstaat. Als erster umfassender technisch-industrieller Massenkrieg, als »Maschinenkrieg« des »modernen Militärstaates« (Max Weber) offenbarte der W. eine veränderte Qualität von nationaler Integrationserwartung und neuartiger Kriegsrealität: Als »totaler Krieg« forderte er alle beteiligten Staaten und Gesellschaften stärker als jemals…

World War I

(1,771 words)

Author(s): Leonhard, Jörn | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. Church History World War I stands for a hitherto unknown escalation in the intensity and violence of warfare in the name of the nation and the national state. As the first fully-fledged technological and industrial mass conflict – or in the words of M. Weber: as the Maschinenkrieg (“war of machines”) of the “modern military state” –, World War I revealed the extent to which the expectations of national integration had changed and gave rise to a new form of wartime reality: as a “total war,” it confronted all the warring stat…

Migration

(3,061 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Astrid | Brechtken, Magnus | Ludwig, Frieder | Dallmann, Hans-Ulrich
[German Version] I. Social Sciences – II. History – III. Migration and Christianization – IV. Practical Theology I. Social Sciences The term migration refers to the movements of individuals and groups. It is a universal phenomenon, historically and geographically. International migration increased substantially during the 19th and 20th centuries, thanks to the worldwide expansion of colonialism as well as improved transportation systems and information technologies, but also as a result of war and persecution (se…

Racism

(2,031 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst | Lohmann, Friedrich | Micksch , Jürgen | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Racism is a political ideology that traces cultural and social differences back to racial causes, thus making them seem natural and unchangeable. In racism’s hierarchical ordering, racists always occupy the highest rank. Everything they declare to be of lesser value is subjected to their rightful rule. Since racism has no scientific basis, it has recourse principally to conventional patterns of prejudice that yield its preconditions and its most important support…

Spiritualismus

(2,229 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker | Weigelt, Horst | Ludwig, Frieder | Sparn, Walter
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Als präziser Fachterminus ist der Begriff S. durch die »Soziallehren« von E. Troeltsch geprägt. Er dient der Differenzierung der von Luther zusammenfassend als »Schwärmer« (Schwärmertum) charakterisierten Gruppen, innerhalb derer sich jedenfalls Spiritualisten und Täufer idealtypisch unterscheiden lassen. Gemeinsam ist den unter S. zusammengefaßten Vertretern die Orientierung an einer Unmittelbarkeit des Geistwirkens (Geist/Heiliger Geist) im Innern des Menschen, in Abgrenzung von der äußeren Wirkung du…

Rassismus

(1,857 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst | Lohmann, Friedrich | Micksch, Jürgen | Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der R. ist eine polit. Ideologie, die kulturelle und soziale Unterschiede auf rassische Ursachen zurückführt und auf diese Weise als naturgegeben und unveränderlich erscheinen läßt. In der hierarchischen Ordnung des R. nimmt der Rassist stets den obersten Rang ein. Alles von ihm zum Minderwertigen Erklärte unterliegt seinem Herrschaftsanspruch. Da der R. einer wiss. Grundlage entbehrt, bedient er sich vorzugsweise konventioneller Vorurteilsmuster, die …

Spiritualism

(2,439 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker | Weigelt, Horst | Ludwig, Frieder | Sparn, Walter
[German Version] I. Definition The use of spiritualism as a precise technical term was shaped by the Soziallehren of E. Troeltsch, who used it to distinguish between two groups Luther had lumped together as Schwärmer (“Enthusiasts”): spiritualists and Anabaptists. The common characteristic shared by the groups called spiritualists is their belief in the direct effect of the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit) within each individual, in contrast to the outward working of the Spirit through the words of Scripture. As a rule, this belief i…

Modernization

(3,401 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef | Ludwig, Frieder | Münch, Richard | Gräb, Wilhelm | Hock, Klaus
[German Version] I. Study of Religion – II. History – III. Sociology – IV. Practical Theology – V. Missiology I. Study of Religion The term modernization usually refers to mutually reinforcing structural changes in various social sectors: nation building and democratization in the political sector; industrialization and tertiarization (i.e. the development of services) in the economic sector; urbanization, educational expansion, and mobilization in the social sector; diversification and individualization in the c…

Slavery

(4,377 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias | Kessler, Rainer | Harrill, J. Albert | Luker, Ralph E. | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. General The word slavery denotes a social structure (including its normative legal and ethical standards) in which certain individuals are considered and treated as objects. A slave owner has the right to decide what the slaves do, as well as where and how they live; the owner also has an absolute right of disposition over their bodies and lives and the right to sell them like any other property. The far-reaching implications of this definition distinguish slavery from other forms of unfreedom such as debt servitude, serfdom, and bondage. Slavery was widespread in a…

Sklaverei

(4,188 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias | Kessler, Rainer | Harrill, J. Albert | Luker, Ralph E. | Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] I. AllgemeinUnter S. wird eine soziale Struktur (einschließlich deren rechtlichen und ethischen Normvorgaben) verstanden, in deren Rahmen (bestimmte) Menschen als Sachen verstanden und behandelt werden. Das beinhaltet außer dem Bestimmungsrecht über Tätigkeit, Aufenthalt, persönliche Verhältnisse etc. des Sklaven insbes. auch die absolute Verfügungsgewalt des Eigentümers über Leib und Leben des Sklaven sowie das Recht, diesen wie eine Sache zu veräußern. Diese implikationsreiche …

Prophet/Prophetin/Prophetie

(7,901 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Jeremias, Jörg | Gray, Rebecca | Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben | Aune, David E. | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich 1.Der BegriffProphetie übersteigt in der den Ereignissen zugewiesenen Bedeutung Individualerfahrungen in Mystik, Ekstase oder bei Inspiration sowie situationsbezogene Aktivitäten etablierter Funktionsträger, etwa von Priestern (Priestertum), Schamanen oder Wahrsagern (Divination/Mantik). Von Propheten (P.) auf die jeweilige Gottheit zurückgeführte Offenbarungen haben wegweisenden ethischen Charakter für eine Gemeinschaft.Der Begriff προϕη´της/prophē´tēs entstammt der griech. Religionsgesch., wo…

Prophets and Prophecy

(8,753 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Jeremias, Jörg | Gray, Rebecca | Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben | Aune, David E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The term. In the significance ascribed to religious phenomena, prophecy surpasses individual experiences of mysticism, ecstasy, and inspiration, as well as the situational activities of established functionaries such as priests (Priesthood), shamans (Shamanism), or diviners (Divination). Revelations ascribed by prophets to the deity they serve give ethical guidance to a community. The term προφήτης/ prophḗ tēs derives from ancient Greek religion, where it referred initially to local specialists, who are hard to …
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