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Divine Action

(1,939 words)

Author(s): Schunack, Gerd | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Dogmatics – III. Philosophy of Religion I. Bible The discourse of divine action is one that is analogical, anthropomorphic, and related to history. It speaks of God's active, creative, judging, and saving being in his relationship to humankind and to the world, which was disclosed in the Christ event as love. Exegetically, three aspects are to be distinguished: 1. Biblical statements about an activity of God that is defined by its contents use the verbs עשׂה/ 'śh or ποιείν/ poieín. This activity is creative; it is ef…

Existence of God, Proofs of the

(4,069 words)

Author(s): Helm, Paul | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Rudolph, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Fundamental Theology – III. Islamic Theology I. Philosophy of Religion Philosophy of religion deals with the problem of the question of proofs of God in the broader context of delineating the relationship between faith and reason. A relationship between religion and philosophy has existed since antiquity. Plato's thought can be understood as philosophical commentary on popular Greek religion. This interrelationship led (e.g. in the Leges) to reflection on the nature of the divine and creation (Plato, Tim.) along with impulses …

Enlightenment (Spiritual)

(1,584 words)

Author(s): Elsas, Christoph | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Marquardt, Manfred | Mürmel, Heinz
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Christian Theology – IV. Buddhism I. Religious Studies Verbalizing the internal light (Symbols/Symbol theory) of the mysteries and mysticism, enlightenment denotes salvific knowledge that comes through sudden ineffable existential experience. Interreligious contacts (reception of ancient conceptions of enlightenment in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; modern encount…

Action

(1,873 words)

Author(s): Meixner, Uwe | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Herms, Eilert | Daiber, Karl-Fritz
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Theology – III. Ethics – IV. Practical Theology I. Philosophy The concept of action is of central importance for philosophical ethics and anthropology. It is closely related to the concept of person, since persons are the subjects of action and cognition (the latter always itself an action, since it necessarily involves judgment). We may distinguish …

Cosmology

(3,917 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Hülser, Karlheinz | Herrmann, Klaus | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Stoeger, William R.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II.#x2002;Ancient Near East and Old Testament – III.#x2002;Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity – VI. History of Modern Science I. Terminology Cosmology is a specific culture's orientation in space and time as conceived in words, images, and rituals. The orientation combines signs that can be perceived with signs that are set. Only in the complementarity of the construed other does the “natural” phenomenon acquire the meaning of a significant marke…

Ascension of Christ

(3,139 words)

Author(s): Zeller, Dieter | Schmitt, Armin | Boring, M. Eugene | Farrow, Douglas B. | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. History of Dogma and Dogmatics – V. Art History – VI. Judaism I. Religious Studies The attempt to ascend to the abode of the gods is associated with myths and expressions of the impossible (Deut 30:12; Prov 30:4) and of presumption (Isa 14:13f.; the Aloads, Bellerophon). Nevertheless divine help empowers (Wind, cloud, wings, Angels…

Creation

(11,110 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Janowski, Bernd | Herrmann, Klaus | Wischmeyer, Oda | Gunton, Colin E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. History of Theology – VI. Creation and Preservation – VII. Religious Education – VIII. Islam – IX. Science – X. Art History I. History of Religion 1. Fundamentals Life, nature, the environment, the passage of time – these are everyday experiences for any society. But reality also includes the danger that this world may be imperiled or perilous. Chaos and death are part …