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Menenius

(665 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a patrician family, but plebeian bearers of this name are also in evidence (attested for M. [2]). This gens gave its name to the tribus Menenia. In the 5th cent. BC, it produced a number of high-ranking officials, but died out during the 4th. cent. BC. Noteworthy is the use of the praenomen Agrippa, which later only appeared as a cognomen [1. 19f.]. [German version] [1] M., Agrippa Triumvir coloniae deducendae 442 BC, probably identical with the consul of 439 BC In 442 BC, in the position of a triumvir coloniae deducendae (MRR I 54), M. led a colonia to Ardea. According to Livy (4,11,5…

Timasitheus

(83 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] (Τιμασίθεος/ Timasítheos). As a high official of Lipara in 393 BC he brought about the freeing of a Roman legation, captured with their ship, which was taking a tenth of the Veii plunder to Delphi as votive gifts. This deed earned treatment as an honoured guest of the Roman people for T. himself and privileges for his descendants when Lipara came under Roman rule in 252 BC (Diod. 14,93,4 f.; Liv. 5,28,3-5; Val. Max. 1,1 exteri 4; Plut. Camillus 8,3-8). Müller, Christian (Bochum)

Rabuleius

(234 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Roman gens of the early Republic, to which R. [1] - if historical - and R. [2] may be attributed; however, the tradition in Dion. Hal. (R. [1]: tr. pl., R. [2]: patrician) is contradictory. If one considers R. [1] unhistorical as does [1. 29] it becomes likely to view the gens Rabuleia as patrician, but a plebeian origin cannot be excluded. [German version] [1] People's tribune in 486 BC, sought to mediate in the dispute over the agrarian law According to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,72,1 ff., R. attempted to mediate as tr. pl. in 486 BC in the dispute between Cassius [I 19] and his co-consul…

Nautius

(434 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a patrician gens, whose last known representative N. ( tr. mil. 258 BC) is placed by tradition in the middle of the 3rd cent. BC. According to Varro (HRR II p. 9 = Serv. Aen. 2,166; cf. 3,407; 5,704) the ancestor of the gens was a companion of Aeneas by the name of Nautes, to whom Diomedes [1] surrendered the Palladion of Troy, which had been plundered by the Greeks, and this was the origin of a gentile cult for Minerva observed among the Nautii (cf. Fest. 164 L.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,69,1). [German version] [1] N., Sp. Legate of the consul L. Papieius Cursor, contributed considera…

Potitii

(325 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] Patrician family. According to tradition, the P. provided for a cult of Hercules on the Ara Maxima in Rome - together with the Pinarii (Pinarius), with respect to whom they took precedence. Supposedly at an extremely early time Hercules himself or Evander [1] had entrusted the cult to them. In 312 BC, the censor Appius Claudius [I 2] Caecus converted it into a state cult (Verg. Aen. 8,268-72 with Serv. Aen. ad loc.; Liv. 1,7,8-15; 9,29,9-11; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,40,1-5; Val. Max…

Icilius

(363 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a plebeian family, that probably already died out in the 4th cent. BC, according to the tradition known for its anti-patrician stance (Liv. 4,54,4). [German version] [1] I., L. People's tribune 456, 455 and 449 BC People's tribune in 456, 455, 449 BC (MRR 1,42; 48). In 456 he is said to have carried through the lex de Aventino publicando, which allocated the Aventine to the plebs (Liv. 3,31,1; 32,7; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 10,31,2-32,5); as the fiancé of  Verginia he bravely resisted the despotism of the decemvir Appius Claudius [I 5] (Liv. 3,44,3; 45,4-46,…

Verginia

(339 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] According to traditional legend, found in literature most notably in Livy's dramatic rendering (3:44-48; cf. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 11:28-32), V. was the daughter of Verginius [I 3] and played a role in the demise of the Decemvirate ( decemviri [1]). Recognizing that he had no chance to win her, the decemvir Appius Claudius [I 5] induced one of his clients to claim V., asserting that she was originally his slave and that Verginius had merely been led to believe that she was his child. Not surprisingly, she was awarded to the client…

Poetelius

(484 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Plebeian family, which produced a succession of important representatives in the 4th cent. BC (family tree in [1]). [German version] [1] P., Q. Decemvir in 450 BC As a member of the second collegium of the decemviri in 450 BC (MRR 1, 46f.) he is said to have been sent into battle against an incursion by the Sabines (Liv. 3,41,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 11,23,1). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] P. Libo, M. Consul 314 BC As consul in 314 BC, P. achieved a victory with his counterpart Sulpicius Longus against the Samnites (Liv. 9,24-26; Diod. Sic. 19,76,1-5). Ac…

Maecilius

(151 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Roman-Italian family name, etymologically presumably from the praenomen Maius [1. 185]; light defacement of the name in the MSS handed down, in Livy (2,58,2): L. Mecilius as member of the first people's tribune council in 471 BC (presumably subsequently added to the list). [German version] [1] M., Sp. People's tribune in 416 BC According to Livy (4,48), M. proposed an agricultural law as tr. pl. IV in 416 BC, which made provisions for distributing the land conquered by Rome and occupied by the nobility ‘man for man’ ( viritim), but it failed by a veto of six people's tribunes, won …

Volscius

(146 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] V. Fictor, M. Ancient tradition, scarcely historically accurate and in itself inconclusive (see [1]) attributes, with individual variations, to V. a people's tribuneship in the years 461 to 457 BC (MRR 1, 37-41) and links him with a lawsuit against Kaeso Quinctius [I 1], who V. accused of having mortally wounded his brother. Initially accused, but unsuccessfully because of the intercession of his fellow tribunes, of false witness (cf. V.'s cognomen Fictor, 'Inventor') in 459 BC by Kaeso's father Quinctius [I 7] Cincinnatus, in 458 he was convicted …

Venulus

(68 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] Tiburtine, sent in Vergil's Aeneid by Turnus [1] to seek help from Diomedes [1] against Aeneas [1], but fails in this mission and shortly afterwards falls in a cavalry battle (Verg. Aen. 8,9; 11,241-295; 11,741-758; Serv. Aen. 8,9; 11,757). Linguistically it is debatable whether the origin of the name V. is Celtic or Illyrian. Müller, Christian (Bochum) Bibliography C. Feroni, s. v. Venulo, EV 5.1, 1990, 498 f.

Terentilius

(90 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] T. Harsa, C. According to Livius (3,9,1-10,3; on the historicity of the account see [1. 411-413; 2. 93-95]), as tr. pl. in 462 BC he proposed establishing a five-man college to legally limit the powers of the consuls. Although he later withdrew the proposal, it unleashed long-lasting controversies, which ultimately led to an ambassadorship to Greece (to study law) in 454 and to the establishment of the Decemviri [1] in 451. Müller, Christian (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Livy Books 1-5, 1965 2 D. Flach, Die Gesetze der frühen römisch…

Maelius

(344 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Rare Roman family name, attested in historical traditions only in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. [German version] [1] M., Q. People's tribune 320 BC, gave up his office Jointly responsible for the Caudine treaty, M. gave up his office as tr. pl. 320 BC and was turned over to the Samnites (Liv. 9,8,13-10,2; Cic. Off. 3,109). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] Aspired to the kingly rule of Rome 440/39 BC According to Liv. 4,12,6-16,1 and Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 12,1-4 M., a rich plebeian, gained a broad following in a famine 440/39 BC by buying grain and selling…

Veturia

(121 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] According to a legendary tradition of the early Republic, V. prevented her son Marcius Coriolanus from conquering his home city Rome with a Volscian army (Volsci). The best-known version of this often revisited subject matter is that of Livius [III 2] (2,40,1-12; cf. e.g. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,39-54; Val. Max. 5,4,1; Plut. Coriolanus 33-36, but there, V. is called Volumnia [1]), who simultaneously provides an aetiology for the foundation of the temple of Fortuna Muliebris. Prototypes in Greek tragedy (e.g. Eur. Phoen.; Eur. Hec.) are unmistakable. A po…

Opimia

(102 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Vestal vergin, buried alive in 483 BC Vestal virgin, buried alive for unchastity in 483 BC. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,89,4 calls her O., but her name is given differently elsewhere (e.g. Liv. 2,42,11); the name was probably established by ancient authors through associations between the vestal concerned, not known by name, and others whose names were recorded (perhaps O. [2]). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] Vestal virgin, buried alive in 216 BC As a Vestal virgin, she was convicted for unchastity and buried alive in 216 BC (Plut. Fabius…

Tolumnius

(136 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] Etruscan nomen gentile; most famous bearer: Lars T., king of the Veii, who in 437 BC brought about the killing of Roman ambassadors by the Fidenati (Fidenae), who had defected to him. In the subsequent war, he was killed in single combat by Cornelius [I 20] Cossus (Liv. 4,17,1-5; 4,19,1-5); the year of this single combat was already disputed in ancient tradition (Liv. 4,20,5-11; cf. [1. 563 f.]. Cossus dedicated T.' armour as spolia opima (War booty III.) to Iuppiter Feretrius (for the political role of this under Augustus cf. Licinius [I 13]). The h…

Siccius Dentatus, L.

(188 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] The tradition portrays S. (sometimes different nomina gentilia in the sources) as a plebeian whose self-confident demeanour, originating in his own military achievements, created enemies and who, as a consequence, was perfidiously eliminated. Thus, S. only narrowly escaped a plan of Romilius [1], cos. in 455 BC (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 10,36-49; 52,2; 56,2), to dispose of him by conferring upon him a military command doomed to failure, after which occurrence, as people's tribune in 454, he had Romilius convicted. Afterwards, h…

Romilius

(217 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of an old, patrician family, which had already died out in the 5th cent. BC, for which the tribus Romilia on the ager Vaticanus (cf. Vaticanus as cognomen for R. [1]) is named. [German version] [1] R. Rocus Vaticanus, T. Consul in 455 BC and decemvir in 451 BC According to tradition, cos. in 455 and decemvir (Decemviri [1]) in 451 BC (MRR 1,42; 45 f.; InscrIt 13,1,24 f.; 93; 362-65). Livius (3,31,3-6) and Dion. Hal. (Ant. Rom. 10,44-46; 48,2-49,6; cf. Plin. HN 7,102) report that, after his consulate in which he achieved a victory over the Aequi,…

Poetelius

(402 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Plebeiisches Geschlecht, das im 4. Jh. v.Chr. eine Reihe bedeutender Vertreter hervorbrachte (Stammbaum bei [1]). [English version] [1] P., Q. decemvir 450 v. Chr. Als Mitglied des zweiten Collegiums der decemviri 450 v.Chr. (MRR 1, 46f.) soll er gegen einen Einfall der Sabiner ins Feld geschickt worden sein (Liv. 3,41,9; Dion. Hal. ant. 11,23,1). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [English version] [2] P. Libo, M. Consul 314 v. Chr. Als cos. 314 v.Chr. kämpfte P. mit seinem Kollegen Sulpicius Longus siegreich gegen die Samnites (Liv. 9,24-26; Diod. 19,76,1-5). Nach …

Potitii

(305 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[English version] Patrizisches Geschlecht. Nach der Überl. versahen die P. einen Hercules-Kult an der Ara Maxima in Rom, der ihnen zusammen mit den Pinarii (Pinarius), denen gegenüber sie einen Vorrang besaßen, angeblich schon in frühester Zeit, nämlich von Hercules selbst bzw. Euandros [1], anvertraut worden war, dann aber im J. 312 v. Chr. durch den Censor Appius Claudius [I 2] Caecus in einen Staatskult überführt wurde (Verg. Aen. 8,268-72 mit Serv. Aen. ad loc.; Liv. 1,7,8-15; 9,29,9-11; Dion.…

Rabuleius

(202 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Frührepublikanische röm. gens, der R. [1] - falls histor. - und R. [2] zuzurechnen sein dürften, doch ist die Überl. bei Dion. Hal. (R. [1]: tr.pl., R. [2]: Patrizier) widersprüchlich. Sieht man mit [1. 29] R. [1] als unhistor. an, liegt es nahe, die gens Rabuleia als patrizisch zu betrachten, doch ist plebeiische Abstammung nicht ausgeschlossen. [English version] [1] Volkstribun 486 v. Chr. versuchte im Streit um das Ackergesetz zu vermitteln Nach Dion. Hal. ant. 8,72,1 ff. versuchte R. als tr.pl. 486 v. Chr., im Streit um das Ackergesetz des Cassius [I 19] zw. diesem und…

Menenius

(583 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name einer patrizischen Gens, jedoch sind auch plebeische Träger des Names (gesichert M. [2]) belegt; nach ihr ist die tribus Menenia benannt. Im 5. Jh. v.Chr. brachte sie eine Reihe von Oberbeamten hervor, starb aber schon im 4. Jh.v.Chr. aus. Auffällig ist die Verwendung des Praen. Agrippa, das später nur noch als Cogn. erscheint [1. 19f.]. [English version] [1] M., Agrippa Triumvir coloniae deducendae 442 v. Chr., vermutlich identisch mit dem Consul von 439 v. Chr. 442 v.Chr. führte M. als triumvir coloniae deducendae (MRR I 54) eine colonia nach Ardea. Nach Livius (4,11,5f.)…

Maecilius

(119 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Röm.-ital. Gentilname, etym. verm. aus dem Praen. Maius [1. 185]; leichte Entstellung des Namens in der hsl. Überl. bei Livius (2,58,2): L. Mecilius als Mitglied des ersten Volkstribunencollegiums 471 v.Chr. (vermutlich nachträglich in die Liste eingefügt). [English version] [1] M., Sp. Volkstribun 416 v. Chr. Nach Livius (4,48) beantragte M. als tr. pl. IV 416 v.Chr. ein Ackergesetz, das vorsah, das von Rom eroberte und vom Adel okkupierte Land “Mann für Mann” ( viritim) zu verteilen, aber am Veto von sechs von den Patriziern für sich gewonnenen Volkstribunen schei…

Romilius

(198 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name eines alten, schon im 5. Jh. v. Chr. erloschenen patrizischen Geschlechts, nach dem die auf dem ager Vaticanus (vgl. Vaticanus als Cogn. bei R. [1]) gelegene tribus Romilia benannt ist. [English version] [1] R. Rocus Vaticanus, T. Consul 455 v. Chr. und decemvir 451 v. Chr. Der Überl. nach cos. 455 und decemvir ( decemviri [1]) 451 v. Chr. (MRR 1,42; 45 f.; InscrIt 13,1,24 f.; 93; 362-65). Livius (3,31,3-6) und Dion. Hal. (ant. 10,44-46; 48,2-49,6; vgl. Plin. nat. 7,102) berichten, daß R. nach seinem Konsulat, in dem er einen Sieg über die Aeq…

Nautius

(385 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name einer patrizischen gens, deren letzten bekannten Vertreter N. ( tr. mil. 258 v.Chr.) die Überl. schon für die Mitte des 3. Jh.v.Chr. verzeichnet. Nach Varro (HRR II p. 9 = Serv. Aen. 2,166; vgl. 3,407; 5,704) war der Stammvater der gens ein Gefährte des Aineias namens Nautes, dem Diomedes [1] das von den Griechen geraubte Palladion von Troja übergab, was der Ursprung eines bei den Nautii gepflegten Gentilkultes für Minerva war (vgl. Fest. 164 L.; Dion. Hal. ant. 6,69,1). [English version] [1] N., Sp. Legat des Consuls L. Papieius Cursor, trug maßgeblich zur dessen Sieg …

Opimia

(92 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Vestalin, 483 v. Chr. lebendig begraben Vestalin, 483 v.Chr. wegen Unkeuschheit lebendig begraben. Dion. Hal. ant. 8,89,4 nennt sie O., doch ist ihr Name auch anders überl. (u.a. Liv. 2,42,11); verm. wurde er von den ant. Autoren aus der Verbindung der namentlich nicht bekannten Vestalin mit anderen Personen der Überl. gebildet (evtl. O. [2]). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [English version] [2] Vestalin 216 v.Chr. lebendig begraben Als Vestalin wurde sie 216 v.Chr. wegen Unkeuschheit zum Tode verurteilt und lebendig begraben (Plut. Fabius 18,3; Liv. 22,57,2). Mü…

Maelius

(316 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Seltener röm. Gentilname, in der historischen Überl. nur im 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. bezeugt. [English version] [1] M., Q. Volkstribun 320 v. Chr., gab sein Amt auf Mitverantwortlich für den Caudinischen Vertrag, gab M. als tr. pl. 320 v.Chr. sein Amt auf und wurde an die Samniten ausgeliefert (Liv. 9,8,13-10,2; Cic. off. 3,109). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [English version] [2] hatte 440/39 v. Chr. Ambitionen auf eine Königsherrschaft in Rom Nach Liv. 4,12,6-16,1 und Dion. Hal. ant. 12,1-4 gewann M., ein reicher Plebeier, in einer Hungersnot 440/39 v.Chr. durch Aufka…

Icilius

(312 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name eines wohl schon im 4. Jh. v.Chr. erloschenen, nach der Tradition für seine patrizierfeindliche Haltung bekannten (Liv. 4,54,4) plebeischen Geschlechts. [English version] [1] I., L. Volkstribun 456, 455 und 449 v. Chr. Volkstribun 456, 455, 449 v.Chr. (MRR 1,42; 48). I. soll 456 die lex de Aventino publicando, die den Aventin der plebs zur Nutzung zuwies, durchgesetzt haben (Liv. 3,31,1; 32,7; Dion. Hal. ant. 10,31,2-32,5), als Verlobter der Verginia mutig gegen die Willkür des Decemvirn Appius Claudius [I 5] aufgetreten (Liv. 3,44,3; 45,4-4…

Tarpeius

(223 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Sylvia | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] [1] T. mons According to Varro (Ling. 5,41), term for the Capitolium, cf. Tarpeium Saxum. Zimmermann, Sylvia [German version] [2] Epithet of Iuppiter as lord of the Capitolium Epithet of Iuppiter as lord of the Capitolium, where the rock was from which traitors were thrown to their deaths in accordance with a law written by T. [4] (e.g. Ov. Fast. 6,34; Ov. Met. 15,866; Prop. 4,1,7). Zimmermann, Sylvia [German version] [3] T., Sp. Father of Tarpeia Father of Tarpeia, commander of the Capitoline fortress under Romulus [1] during the attack of the Sabine kin…

Vitruvius

(1,935 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] [1] Vitruvius Vaccus, Marcus According to Livy (8,19,4-8,20,10), V. was an influential citizen of Fundi (Fondi) who led the revolt against Rome that was undertaken by Privernum (Piperno) with the support of Fondi in 330/329 BC.  After the failed insurrection he was executed in Rome.  It is difficult to explain V's role in this revolt, given that he was clearly not an unimportant figure in Rome and owned a house there, which was then destroyed by decree of the Senate (Cic. Dom. 101 sti…

Numitorius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a Roman gens, documented only since the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] N., L. People's tribune in 471 BC Member of the first college of people's tribunes (that of 471 BC) whose members are all known (Calpurnius Piso fr. 23 HRR = Liv. 2,58,1; Diod. Sic. 11,68,8). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] N., P. People's tribune in 449 BC, grandfather or great-uncle of Verginia According to tradition, N. was the grandfather or (great) uncle of Verginia; together with her betrothed, L. Icilius [1], he sought to protect he…

Ogulnius

(235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a Roman gens, first appearing with O. [1]. Later members of the family are politically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] O. Gallus, Q. Leader of a Roman embassy in 292 BC that transferred the cult of Asclepius to Rome During an epidemic in Rome in 292 BC, leader of a Roman embassy that transferred the cult of Asclepius from Epidaurus to Rome (MRR 1, 182); in 273, member of the first embassy to the Ptolemaic court in Alexandria [1] (MRR 1, 182; for the background to this embassy see [1. 141-145]). As cos. in 269 (MRR 1, 199), according to Pliny (HN 33…

Volumnia

(194 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Wife of Marcius Coriolanus According to a much-related story about Marcius Coriolanus (in which V. plays only a subordinate role, however), when he and a Volsci army are outside Rome, the pleas of his wife V. and his mother Veturia cause him to refrain from attacking his home city (the story in e.g. Liv. 2,39,1-2,40,11; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,40-54; Val. Max. 5,2,1; 5,4,1; Plut. Coriolanus 33,1-36,6, but there, it is not his wife but his mother who bears the name V.). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] Pantomime actress, 1st cent. BC Freedwoman (and lover:…

Larcius

(890 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a patrician gens, of Etruscan origin, which brought forth two figures of significance in the early Republican period. Only in the 1st cent. BC does evidence appear for further bearers of the name. I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] L. (Flavus or Rufus ?), T. Consul in 501 and 498 BC, first dictator of Rome Consul in 501 and 498 BC (InscrIt 13,1,88; 350-53). The written record, up to Festus (216 L.), names L. as the first dictator of Rome (MRR I 9f.; 11f.), but it is divided on whether L. occupied the office during his 1st (Liv. 2,18,4-7 …

Numicius

(243 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman family, which died out at the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC. Of the two Republican namesakes who held offices, N. [1] was of plebeian origin, while N. [2] must have been a patrician. Considering the questionable historicity of the latter, there were perhaps only plebeian Numicii, although this question cannot be definitively settled (on this topic [1. 20]). [German version] [1] N., T. Guarantor of the Caudinian agreement, handed over to the Samnites in 320 BC As one of the guarantors of the Caudine treaty, he was handed over to the Samnites in 320 BC (Cic. O…

Latinius

(306 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name (Etruscan Latini), a derivation from the ethnicon Latinus. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., T. According to the legend, Jupiter told L. during the Latin War to instruct the consuls to have the Ludi Romani repeated According to Livy (2,36,2-8), who sets the legend that was originally probably not fixed in time in 491 BC, Jupiter told L. in a dream during the Latin War that he should instruct the consuls to have the ludi Romani ( ludi ) repeated; L. finally obeyed these instructions after initially ignoring them twice and…

Ogulnius

(197 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Röm. Gentilname, zuerst mit O. [1] hervorgetreten. Die späteren Familienangehörigen sind polit. unbedeutend. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] O. Gallus, Q. Führer der röm. Gesandtschaft 292 v. Chr., die den Asklepioskult nach Rom überführte 292 v.Chr. Führer der röm. Gesandtschaft, die während einer Epidemie in Rom den Asklepios-Kult von Epidauros nach Rom überführte (MRR 1, 182); 273 Mitglied der ersten Gesandtschaft nach Alexandreia [1] an den Ptolemäerhof (MRR 1, 182; zum Hintergrund dieser Gesandtschaft [1. 141-145]). Als cos. 269 (MRR 1, 199) führt…

Latinius

(274 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Römischer Gentilname (etr. latini), entstanden aus dem Ethnikon Latinus. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] L., T. Der Legende nach wies Iuppiter ihn an, den Consuln während des Latinerkriegs eine Wiederholung der ludi Romani aufzutragen Nach Livius (2,36,2-8), der die urspr. wohl zeitlose Legende ins J. 491 v.Chr. setzt, gab Iuppiter L. im Traum die Weisung, den Consuln während des Latinerkrieges eine Wiederholung der ludi Romani ( ludi ) aufzutragen, der er nach zweimaliger Mißachtung und folgender Strafen schließlich nac…

Numitorius

(206 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Röm. Gentilname, histor. erst seit dem 2. Jh.v.Chr. bezeugt. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] N., L. Volkstribun 471 v. Chr. Mitglied des ersten vollständig bekannten Volkstribunencollegiums von 471 v.Chr. (Calpurnius Piso fr. 23 HRR = Liv. 2,58,1; Diod. 11,68,8). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [English version] [2] N., P. Volkstribun 449 v. Chr., Großvater oder -onkel der Verginia In der Überl. erscheint N. als Großvater oder (Groß)onkel der Verginia, der gemeinsam mit ihrem Verlobten L. Icilius [1] diese vor der Begierde des Decemvirn…

Larcius

(771 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Name einer patrizischen gens etr. Ursprungs, die in der Frühzeit der Republik zwei bedeutende Vertreter hervorbrachte. Weitere Träger des Namens sind erst wieder ab dem 1. Jh.v.Chr. belegt. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] L. (Flavus oder Rufus ?), T. Consul 501 und 498 v. Chr., erster Dictator Roms Consul 501 und 498 v.Chr. (InscrIt 13,1,88; 350-53). Bis auf Festus (216 L.) nennt die Überl. L. als ersten Dictator Roms (MRR I 9f.; 11f.), ist aber uneins, ob L. das Amt in seinem 1. (Liv. 2,18,4-7 mit Verweis auf die unsichere Üb…

Numicius

(222 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Name einer röm. Familie, die am Anfang des 3. Jh.v.Chr. erlosch. Von den beiden republikanischen Trägern des Namens, die eine Magistratur bekleideten, war N. [1] plebeischer Herkunft, während N. [2] Patrizier gewesen sein müßte. Angesichts der fraglichen Historizität des letzteren gab es vielleicht nur plebeische Numicii, doch ist dies nicht endgültig zu klären (hierzu [1. 20]). [English version] [1] N., T. Bürge des Caudischen Vertrages, 320 v. Chr. an die Samniten ausgeliefert Als einer der Bürgen des Caudinischen Vertrages wurde er 320 v.Chr. an die Samniten au…

Tarquinius

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schirmer, Brigitte | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Nomen gentile The name T. is the Latinized form of an Ancient Etruscan nomen gentile * tarq/χ u-na, from which the Latin name was derived by means of the -i̯o suffix inherited from the indo-European basic form. In Etruscan itself, the name in the form tarq/χ una is not attested; instances of a basic form * tarq/χ-  from the Archaic period are rare (cf. perhaps tarχ umenaia [1. 251, Cl 2.8], tarχ elnas [1. 86, Vs 1.2]). Inherited forms occur in Late Etruscan in the nomina gentilia tarcna/tarχ na ( cf. tarcnai, tar χ nas from the Tomba delle Iscrizioni, Caere, CIE 5907-5974; t…

Numisius

(590 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Roman nomen gentile (epigraphically Numesius, ILS 9231). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] One of the praetors of the Latin league in 340 BC One of the two chief magistrates ( praetores) of the Latin League, who, with his colleague L. Annius [I 3], attempted to enforce perfect equality between the Latins and the Romans in 340 BC, firstly through negotiations and then by means of war; he also continued the war after the defeat of the Latins on Mt. Vesuvius (Liv. 8,3,9; 11,5-12). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] N. (?) Nucula Membe…

Sestius

(572 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile, sometimes confused with Sextius. The family surfaced as patrician with S. [1] and [5] in the mid 5th cent. BC. In the late Republic, it had only (politically insignificant) plebeian members. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S., L. In order to illustrate the just administration of the first collegium of decemviri , especially the justice of C. Iulius [I 13] Iullus, Livy (3,33,9 f.) and Cicero (Rep. 2,61) tell the anecdote that after a corpse was found buried in the house of S., Iulius - who,…

Verginius

(1,949 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
Roman family, probably of Etruscan origin, that played an outstanding role, through the Verginii Tricosti branch (genealogy of the V. Tricosti in [1. 1519]), in Roman politics esp. in the 5th cent. BC. Characteristic of the V. Tricosti are the additional cognomina Caelimontanus, Esquilinus and Rutilus. The political importance of the family steadily declined from around the middle of the 5th cent., becoming altogether insignificant around the middle of the 4th cent. BC. If nothing else, however,…

Mamilius

(656 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Latin name of an ancient dynasty from Tusculum (in manuscripts frequently confused with Manilius and Manlius). Because the city was considered a foundation of Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, the Mamilii, from the early 2nd cent. BC at the latest, traced their lineage to Odysseus, via Mamilia, the daughter of Telegonus (coins: RRC 149; 362; in literature, from the Augustan period: Fest. 116f. L; Liv. 1,49,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,45,1). In the 5th cent. BC, with M. [I 1] the family was accepted in Ro…

Villius

(650 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] V., Ap. Livy (3,54,13) lists V. as peoples' tribune in 449 BC among those who, after the end of the D ecemviri [1], had been voted into this office "more due to the hopes (that had been put into them) than due to their merits". Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] V. Annalis, L. As peoples' tribune in 180 BC, he introduced a law about age limits that regulated the competition for offices and thus proved fundamental in the development of the cursus honorum [1]. In this, he had the consent of the Senate, which earned him and his…

Veturius

(1,228 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman family (also often given as Vetusius; on the origin of the gens Veturia [1. 284]), for which the tribus Voturia was named [2. 42]. The Veturii played a prominent political role in various phases of the Republic: from the beginning of the Republic to the leges Liciniae Sextiae (367 BC) with the Veturii [I 3-6] Cicurini, in the time between 334 and 321 with V. [I 1], and in the time of the 2nd Punic War with the Veturii [I 7-8] Philones. While the patrician status of the Cicurini and Philones can be regarded as certain (but cf. [3.…

Numisius

(506 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Seltener röm. Gentilname (inschr. auch Numesios, ILS 9231). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] Einer der Praetoren des latinischen Bundes 340 v. Chr. Einer der beiden Oberbeamten (Praetoren) des latinischen Bundes, der mit seinem Kollegen L. Annius [I 3] 340 v.Chr. zunächst mit Verhandlungen, dann auch mit Krieg die volle rechtliche Gleichstellung der Latiner mit den Römern durchzusetzen versuchte und auch noch nach der Niederlage der Latiner am Vesuv den Krieg fortsetzte (Liv. 8,3,9; 11,5-12). Müller, Christian (Bochum) …

Mamilius

(579 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Latin. Name der alten Herrscherfamilie aus Tusculum (hsl. häufig mit Manilius und Manlius verwechselt). Da die Stadt als Gründung des Telegonos, des Sohnes des Odysseus und der Kirke, galt, führten sich die Mamilii spätestens seit dem frühen 2. Jh.v.Chr. über Mamilia, die Tochter des Telegonos, auf Odysseus zurück (Mz.: RRC 149; 362; lit. seit augusteischer Zeit: Fest. 116f. L; Liv. 1,49,9; Dion. Hal. ant. 4,45,1). Im 5. Jh.v.Chr. wurde die Familie mit M. [I 1] in Rom aufgenommen, erlangten Angehörige der M. mehrfach das Consulat (M. [5-7]; wohl im 1. Jh. v.Chr. ausgestorben. …

Horatius

(4,197 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Kytzler, Bernhard (Durban)
Name einer schon im 5. Jh. v.Chr. erloschenen patrizischen gens. Spätere Träger des Namens verdanken ihn der Provenienz aus der nach dieser gens benannten Tribus. [English version] [1] Horatii Gensmitglieder der Horatier (Königszeit). Der Sage nach (Liv. 1,24-26; Dion. Hal. ant. 3,13,4-22,10) entschied unter König Tullus Hostilius [I 4] ein Kampf der Drillinge der Horatier gegen die Drillinge der Curiatier statt einer Schlacht den Streit zwischen Rom und Alba Longa. Nachdem zwei Brüder gefallen waren, überwand der letzte H. s…

Servilius

(3,846 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman patrician family (epigraphically also Serveilius), said to have migrated to Rome from Alba Longa under king Tullus Hostilius [4] (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7). The oldest branches are the Ahalae and Fidenates in the 5th and 4th cents. BC; the Caepiones and Gemini, from whom the Vatiae (Isaurici) descended, appear in the 3rd cent. The last prominent member of the Servilii Caepiones was the murderer of Caesar, M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, son of Servilia [1], and himself adopted into the family. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A fleet commander in the B…

Sextius

(1,175 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile, also confused with Sestius . According to tradition, the family achieved prominence in the 4th cent. BC with S. [I 6] who obtained access to the consulate for plebeians. The family was unimportant under the Republic, with the exception of S. [1 3]; the branch which was best known into the 3rd cent. AD originated with Caesar's follower S. [I 2], but it made spurious claims to be descended from the first plebeian consul S. [I 6] (hence the epithets Africanus and Laterensis). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., Q. Founder of t…

Tullius

(3,490 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name derived from the praenomen Tullus; oldest traditional bearer of the name is the sixth king of Rome, Servius T. [I 4]; until the time of Cicero and his family, other bearers are only rarely recorded. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T., Attius As 'by far the first man of the Volsci at the time' (Liv. 2,35,7), tradition connected him with the story of Coriolanus, in which T. supported the latter in his plans out of an old hate for the Romans (Liv. 2,37,1-8; 2,38,1-5; 2,39,1; 2,40,12). Hi…

Sicinius

(441 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian nomen gentile, often confused with Siccius; members of the family frequently appear as people's tribunes in the 5th cent. BC, but the family is otherwise insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., C. Tradition links S. with the origins and early development of the people's tribunate ( tribunus plebis ): S. was firstly the initiator of the secessio plebis of 494 BC and then one of the people's tribunes, subsequently elected for the first time (Liv. 2,32,2; 2,33,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,45,2; 6,8…

Publilius

(1,664 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Benz, Lore (Kiel) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Plotke, Seraina (Basle)
I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P. Relative of Cicero's second wife Publilia A close relative (brother?) of Cicero's second wife Publilia; for this reason, he is frequently mentioned in Cicero's letters to T. Pomponius [I 5] Atticus. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] P., Volero People's tribune in 472 and 471 BC People's tribune in 472 and 471 BC (MRR 1, 29 f.). P. is said to have introduced a bill in 472 to have the election of the tribunes of the plebs take place not in the comitia curiata, which were dominated by patricians and their clients, but in the comitia tributa (Co…

Horatius

(4,620 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kytzler, Bernhard (Durban)
Name of a patrician gens which had already died out in the 5th cent. BC. Later bearers of the name owe it to the provenance from the eponymous tribus. [German version] [1] Horatii Member of the Horatius gens (Royal period). According to legend (Liv. 1,24-26; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,13,4-22,10), under King Tullus  Hostilius [I 4], the conflict between Rome and  Alba Longa was decided by a fight between the Horatii triplets and the Curiatii triplets rather than a battle. After two brothers had fallen, the last H. overcame his opponent…

Pontius

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Oscan praenomen and Oscan/Lat. gentilic. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Pontius, Gavius Samnite general, delivered Rome its defeat 321 BC at Caudium Samnite general who in 321 BC famously defeated the Romans at Caudium and sent them 'under the yoke' (Liv. 9,2,6-6,4). The fact that the Samnite leader in the Social War (Social Wars [3]), P. [I 4], had the same name is no proof that P.' name entered the tradition only later. The annalistic tradition (in Liv. 9, 15,8), however, of P.'…

Trebonius

(601 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, documented with certainty only from the 1st cent. BC on (T. [I 2] might be unhistorical). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] T., C. Son of an ill-reputed (Cic. Phil. 13,23; the same as in Hor. Sat. 1,4,114?) Roman equestrian. In 58 BC [1], T. worked as quaestor urbanus against P. Clodius' [I 4] switch to the plebs . As tribune of the people in 55, he introduced laws that gave M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus and Cn. Pompeius [I 3] provincial terms of five years and exte…

Oppius

(1,221 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Oscan praenomen, later a widespread nomen gentile; literary refs. at Rome from as early as the 5th cent. BC (O. [I 5]), but historical evidence only from the 2nd cent. The Tusculan Opiter O., who is said to have given his name to the Mons O. at Rome, is an invention (Varro in Fest. 476 L.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] O., C. Author of a law of 215 BC to limit displays of wealth Restricted the opportunities for women to display wealth by his law of 215 BC (Liv. 34,1,1-3 et alibi; MRR 1, 255). In 195, this legislation was repealed despite the res…

Pinarius

(949 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(In an older form also Peinarius, CIL I2 1357; 2469f.). Name of a patrician gens. According to tradition, they maintained a cult for Hercules at the Ara Maxima together with the Potitii (further evidence there). Hercules himself - or Evander [1] - is said to have transferred the cult to them at an extremely early time. The derivation of the name from πεινᾶν ( peinân, 'starve') is a scholarly construction based on the P. having had the smaller share in the sacrifices for Hercules (Serv. Aen. 8,270, i.a.). The family was also traced back to Pinus, the ostensib…

Volumnius

(521 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Name of an originally Etruscan plebeian family (Etruscan form Velimna) that was significant in the early Republic. The Volumnii of the 1st cent. BC are not its descendants. The tomb of the V. in Perusia (modern Perugia) with bilingual inscriptions (CIL XI 1963 - CIE 3763) was used from the 2nd cent. onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V., P. Fought in 42 BC as a friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in the battle of Philippi, and wrote about it in a now lost work (Plut. Brutus 48; 51). Possibly identical to V. [4]? Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Amintinus Gallus…

Pinarius

(876 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
(ältere Namensform auch Peinarius, CIL I2 1357; 2469f.), Name einer patrizischen gens. Der Überl. nach übte sie zusammen mit den Potitii (dort auch Belege) an der Ara Maxima einen Kult für Hercules aus, der ihr schon in frühester Zeit, nämlich von Hercules selbst bzw. Euandros [1], übertragen worden sei. Gelehrte Konstruktion ist die Ableitung des Namens von πεινᾶν ( peinán, “hungern”), weil die P. geringeren Anteil an den Opfern für Hercules gehabt hätten (Serv. Aen. 8,270 u.a.). Die Familie wurde auch auf Pinos, den angeblichen Sohn des Numa Pompilius…

Publilius

(1,510 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Benz, Lore (Kiel) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Plotke, Seraina (Basel)
I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] P. Verwandter von Ciceros zweiter Frau Publilia Ein naher Verwandter (Bruder?) von Ciceros zweiter Frau Publilia, der daher öfter in Ciceros Briefen an T. Pomponius [I 5] Atticus erscheint. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [English version] [I 2] P., Volero Volkstribun 472 und 471 v. Chr. Volkstribun 472 und 471 v. Chr. (MRR 1, 29 f.). 472 soll P. ein Gesetz eingebracht haben, das die Wahl der Volkstribunen statt in den von den Patriziern mit ihren Klienten dominierten comitia curiata in den comitia tributa ( comitia ) vo…

Oppius

(1,061 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Oskisches Praenomen, dann weitverbreiteter Gentilname; in Rom bereits für das 5. Jh.v.Chr. lit. erwähnt (O. [I 5]), histor. aber erst seit dem 2. Jh. belegt. Erfindung ist der Tusculaner Opiter O., der dem Mons O. in Rom den Namen gegeben haben soll (Varro bei Fest. 476 L.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] O., C. Urheber eines Gesetzes 215 v. Chr. zur Beschränkung der Demonstration von Reichtum Beschnitt 215 v.Chr. mit einem Gesetz die Möglichkeiten von Frauen, Reichtum zu demonstrieren (Liv. 34,1,1-3 u.a.; MRR 1, 25…

Pontius

(1,326 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Osk. Praenomen und osk./lat. Gentilname. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] Pontius, Gavius Samnitischer Feldherr, brachte den Römern 321 v. Chr. die Niederlage bei Caudium bei Samnitischer Feldherr, der 321 v. Chr. den Römern die berühmte Niederlage bei Caudium beibrachte und sie ‘unter das Joch schickte’ (Liv. 9,2,6-6,4). Daß der samnit. Anführer im Bundesgenossenkrieg [3] (P. [I 4]) ebenfalls diesen Namen trug, ist kein Indiz dafür, daß P.' Name erst später in die Überl. gelangte…

Postumius

(2,687 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman patrician gentilic name (from the praenomen Postumus ), found in the highest offices from the 5th cent. BC on and politically significant until the 2nd cent. BC. As dictator in 499 or 496 BC, an A. P. is supposed to have decided the battle at Lacus Regillus (Liv. 2,19-20). The Albi or Albini (Regillenses), who withdrew from politics with P. [I 9]'s military failure in the Jugurthine War at the end of the 2nd cent. BC, are his descendants. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., C. Etruscan haruspex, even consulted by Sulla Etruscan haruspex ( haruspices

Minucius

(2,367 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens. The patrician bearers of the name from the 5th and 4th cents. BC that have come down to us are of disputed historicity, in any case the early family history has been embellished in the late Republic.  It is these Minucii that later membesrs (from the 3rd century BC) trace themselves back to. A prominent cognomen is Augurinus (M. [I 1-3] and [I 5 and 6]), deriving from the first plebeian augur M. [I 7], applied only subsequently to the early Republican members. The political zen…

Maenius

(930 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, perhaps of Etruscan origin [1. 185; 187]. The most important bearer of the name is M. [I 3]; the family is politically unimportant in the 1st cent. BC. Lex Maenia is the title of a Menippean satire of Varro (Varro Men. 153-155). The law concerned the power of the paternal head of the house; content and dating are contested [3. 1085 - 1121]. A further lex Maenia probably passed before 290 BC directed that the ‘agreement of the Senate’ ( auctoritas patrum) for elections be obtained before proclaiming the election results (Cic. Brut. 55). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Boch…

Popillius

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also frequently Popilius). Name of a Plebeian gens attested from the 4th cent. BC. The family maintained a joint funeral cult (Cic. Leg. 2,55). Its most famous branch was the Laenates (with regard to the cognomen Laenas); insignificant from the early Imperial period onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] P. Laenas Augur, in 44 BC adviser of the murderers of Caesar Augur (Cic. Att. 12,13,2), in 44 BC was the adviser of the murderers of Caesar and may perhaps have been tempted to betray them to the dictator (App. B Civ. 2,484; 487). Fündling, Jörg (B…

Popillius

(1,155 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
(auch häufig Popilius). Name einer plebeiischen gens, die seit dem 4. Jh. v. Chr. bezeugt ist. Die Familie pflegte einen gemeinsamen Grabkult (Cic. leg. 2,55). Ihr berühmtester Zweig waren die Laenates (zum Cogn. Laenas); seit der frühen Kaiserzeit unbedeutend. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] P. Laenas Augur, 44 v. Chr. Berater der Caesarmörder Augur (Cic. Att. 12,13,2), war 44 v. Chr. Berater der Caesarmörder und vielleicht versucht, sie an den Dictator zu verraten (App. civ. 2,484; 487). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [English version] [I 2]…

Maenius

(808 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Name einer röm. plebeischen Familie, vielleicht etr. Herkunft [1. 185; 187]. Wichtigster Namensträger ist M. [I 3], im 1. Jh.v.Chr. ist die Familie polit. bedeutungslos. Lex Maenia ist der Titel einer Menippeischen Satire des Varro (Varro Men. 153-155). Das Gesetz betraf die hausväterliche Gewalt; Inhalt und Datier. sind umstritten [3. 1085 - 1121]. Eine weitere, wohl vor 290 v.Chr. erlassene, lex Maenia ordnete an, die “Zustimmung des Senats” ( auctoritas patrum) zu Wahlen schon vor der Verkündung des Ergebnisses einzuholen (Cic. Brut. 55). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Re…

Minucius

(2,064 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name eines röm. Geschlechts. Die überl. patrizischen Namensträger des 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. sind in ihrer Historizität umstritten, auf jeden Fall ist die frühe Familiengeschichte spätrepublikan. Ausschmückung. Auf diese Minucii führten sich die späteren Angehörigen (seit dem 3. Jh.v.Chr.) zurück. Prominentes Cognomen ist Augurinus (M. [I 1-3] und [I 5 und 6]), vom ersten plebeischen Augur M. [I 7] herrührend, erst nachträglich den frührepublikan. Angehörigen beigegeben. Der polit. Höhepunkt der Fa…

Postumius

(2,508 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Köln) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Gentilname einer röm. patrizischen Familie (vom Vornamen Postumus ), seit dem 5 Jh. v. Chr. in den höchsten Ämtern und bis ins 2. Jh. v. Chr. polit. bedeutend. Ein A. P. soll als dictator 499 oder 496 v. Chr. die Schlacht am Lacus Regillus entschieden haben (Liv. 2,19-20). Von ihm leiteten sich die Albi bzw. Albini (Regillenses) ab, die mit dem mil. Versagen von P. [I 9] im Iugurthinischen Krieg am E. des 2. Jh. v. Chr. aus der Politik ausschieden. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] P., C. Etr. Eingeweideschauer, auch von Sulla aufgesucht Etr. Eingeweideschauer ( haruspex; har…

Quinctius

(3,960 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Name of a patrician Roman family, derived from the praenomen Quintus (comparable to Sextus/ Sextius, etc.), often also Quintius in inscriptions and MSS. The origin of the family is unknown; its great age is suggested by its connection with the festival of the Lupercalia (Ov. Fast. 2,378 has Quintilii) and the unusual praenomen of the family, Kaeso, encountered in this context ( v. Q. [I 1]). Livy counts them among the families that migrated to Rome from Alba with King Tullius Hostilius (1,32,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7 mentions the Quinctilii). The Quinctii are mentioned many tim…

Plautius

(2,995 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, in the late Republic also often spelt Plotius, with no clear difference in use (cf. Claudius/Clodius). The earliest epigraphic evidence comes from Praeneste (among it the maker of the Ficoronian Cista, Novios Plautios, CIL I2 561), while the family in Rome achieved political eminence after 367 BC (Münzer therefore considers them to have migrated from Praeneste [1. 42; 44f.; 412]), providing seven consuls between 358 and 318; their migration may explain their interest in integrating Latini (cf. P. [I 5]…

Livius

(6,493 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, who probably came from Latium and was accepted into Roman nobility when Latium was integrated politically in 338 BC ( Latin law). The most important branches were first the Salinatores, then the Drusi (on the cognomen see Drusus). The third wife of Augustus and mother of the emperor Tiberius, Livia [2] Drusilla came from this branch (Stemma see Augustus; the family history of the branch is in Suet. Tib. 3). The line of the Salinatores was continued in the late Republic by the Livii Ocellae, who i.a. produced Livia Ocella, the stepmother of the emperor Galba [2]. E…

Lucretius

(3,448 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Italian surname (on its Etruscan connection cf. [1. 182f.]). In the 5th and 4th cents. BC we encounter the patrician family of the Lucretii Tricipitini (among others with the rare praenomen Hostus) which later died out; from the 3rd cent. BC onwards several plebeian families are known (Gallus, Ofella, Trio, Vespillo). The most important bearers of the name are Lucretia [2] from early Roman history and the poet L. [III 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L. Prosecutor of M. Livius Drusus [I 5] Claudianus In 54 BC he prosecuted M. Livius Drusus …

Mucius

(2,116 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens (in inscriptions also Muucius, CIL I2, 584, Greek Μούκιος/ Moúkios). Tradition tells us of the legendary C.M. [I 2] Cordus Scaevola; the great age of the family is perhaps demonstrated by the name Mucia Prata of a place to the east of the Tiber [1]. In the historical period (from the 3rd century BC) the family was plebeian and provided a series of significant lawyers (M. [I 5; I 8-9]). One of M. [I 4]'s sons was adopted by a P. Licinius Crassus and as P. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives Mucianus founded the reputation of this branch of the family of Licinii Crassi. I. Republican …

Sergius

(1,659 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family. The tribus Sergia was named after it. The family is attested to have attained consulship in the 5th cent. BC (S. [I 5]) but did not achieve lasting importance in the historical period. The attempt of its best-known member, L.S. Catilina, to attain the consulship once more failed with the Catilinarian Conspiracy. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., M. The brother of L.S. Catilina (?) According to Plutarch (Sulla 32,3; Cicero 10,3), the brother of L.S. Catilina, killed by him in 81 and posthumously put on the proscriptions…

Manlius

(3,605 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
(in Greek usually Μάλλιος/ Mállios, often confused in MSS with Mallius and Manilius). Name of a Roman patrician family, probably of Etruscan origin [1. 227]. It attained an early political zenith in the 5th and 4th cents. BC with the Vulsones and Capitolini branches (continued by the Torquati). Sources connect the family's history primarily with the repelling of the Celts ( M. [I 8] and [I 12]. Stemmata, details of which are uncertain: [2. 1157f., 1166]). A period of decline ended in about 260 BC wi…

Sempronius

(6,399 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of a Roman family. According to tradition, its members of the 5th cent. BC (Atratini, S. [I 3-8]) are supposed to have been patricians and champions of patrician privileges (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 10,41,5; 10,42,3), an assumption that may have been a retrospective invention (the Sempronii only became patricians under Caesar or Augustus); in the historical period, we know only of plebeian branches of the family during the Republic (Asellio, Blaesus, Gracchus, Longus, Tuditanus) who played an important role in the 3rd and 2nd cents. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period …

Livius

(5,860 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Et al.
Name einer röm. plebeischen Familie, die wahrscheinlich aus Latium stammte und mit dessen polit. Integration 338 v.Chr. (Latinisches Recht) in die röm. Nobilität aufgenommen wurde. Die wichtigsten Zweige waren zunächst die Salinatores, dann die Drusi (zum Cognomen s. Drusus); aus dieser Familie stammte auch die dritte Frau des Augustus und Mutter des Kaisers Tiberius, Livia [2] Drusilla (Stemma s. Augustus; die Familiengeschichte des Zweiges deshalb bei Suet. Tib. 3). Die Linie der Salinatores w…

Manlius

(3,056 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Köln) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
(griech. meist Μάλλιος, hsl. oft mit Mallius und Manilius verwechselt). Name einer röm. patrizischen Familie, wohl etr. Herkunft [1. 227]. In den Zweigen der Vulsones und Capitolini (fortgesetzt von den Torquati) erreichte sie im 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. einen frühen polit. Höhepunkt; die Überl. verbindet die Familiengesch. v.a. mit der Abwehr der Kelten (M. [I 8] und [I 12]; Stammbäume - im einzelnen unsicher: [2. 1157f., 1166]). Nach einer Phase des Niedergangs bis um 260 v.Chr. traten die jüngere …

Plautius

(2,774 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Name einer röm. plebeiischen Fanmilie, in der späten Republik auch häufig Plotius geschrieben, ohne daß ein deutlicher Unterschied im Gebrauch festzustellen ist (vgl. Claudius/Clodius). Älteste inschr. Belege stammen aus Praeneste (darunter der Verfertiger der sog. Ficoronischen Ciste, Novios Plautios, CIL I2 561), während die Familie in Rom nach 367 v.Chr. zu eminenter polit. Bed. gelangte (Münzer hält sie deshalb für aus Praeneste eingewandert [1. 42; 44f.; 412]) und zw. 358 und 318 sieben Consuln stellte; die Zuwanderung erklärt vi…

Quinctius

(3,608 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Konstanz) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Name einer röm. patrizischen Familie, abgeleitet vom Vornamen Quintus (vergleichbar Sextus/Sextius usw.), inschr. und hsl. häufig auch Quintius. Die Herkunft der Familie ist unbekannt; für das hohe Alter spricht ihre Verbindung mit der Feier der Lupercalia (Ov. fast. 2,378, dort Quintilii) und das in diesen Zusammenhang gehörende seltene Praen. der Familie Kaeso (s. Q. [I 1]). Livius zählt sie zu den Familien, die unter König Tullus Hostilius aus Alba nach Rom einwanderten (1,32,2; Dion. Hal. 3,29,7 nennt die Quinctilii). In der Obermagistratur erscheinen die Quinctii im 5. un…

Pompeius

(7,542 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
Name eines plebeiischen Geschlechtes (die Verbindung mit der campanischen Stadt Pompeii ist unklar). Die Familie erlangte mit P. [I 1] polit. Bed.; auf ihn führt sich der Zweig der Rufi zurück. Ein verwandter Zweig gelangte mit P. [I 8] zum Konsulat und stellte mit dessen Sohn Cn. P. [I 3] Magnus den bedeutendsten Angehörigen der gens. Beide Linien setzten sich bis in die frühe Kaiserzeit fort (Stammbäume: [1; 2; 3]). I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] P., Q. Consul 141 v. Chr. Wurde 141 v. Chr. als homo novus und beliebter Redner (Cic. Brut. 96) gegen den Widerstan…

Lucretius

(2,893 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Et al.
Ital. Familienname (zu dessen etr. Verbindung vgl. [1. 182f.]). Im 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. begegnet die patrizische Familie der Lucretii Tricipitini (u.a. mit dem seltenen Praenomen Hostus), die dann ausstirbt; seit dem 3. Jh.v.Chr. sind mehrere plebeische Familien bekannt (Gallus, Ofella, Trio, Vespillo). Bedeutendste Namensträger sind aus der röm Frühgesch. Lucretia [2] und der Dichter L. [III 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] L. Ankläger des M. Livius Drusus [I 5] Claudianus Klagte 54 v.Chr. zusammen mit anderen den M. L…

Mucius

(2,232 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Römischer Gentilname (inschr. auch Muucius, CIL I2, 584, griech. Μούκιος). Die Überl. kennt den legendären C.M. [I 2] Cordus Scaevola; auf das hohe Alter der Familie weist vielleicht die Ortsbezeichnung der Mucia prata östlich des Tibers [1]. In histor. Zeit (ab dem 3. Jh.v.Chr.) war die Familie plebeisch und stellte eine Reihe von bed. Juristen (M. [I 5; I 8-9]). Ein Sohn von M. [I 4] wurde von einem P. Licinius Crassus adoptiert und begründete als P. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives Mucianus das Ansehen dieses Zweiges der Familie der Licinii Crassi. I. Republikanische Zeit …

Sulpicius

(5,409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of a Roman patrician family, probably originally from Cameria (hence the cognomen Camerinus); documented in the fasti from c. 500 BC. The otherwise rare praenomen Servius appears comparatively frequently and at times is even used in place of the nomen gentile (Tac. Hist. 2,48; Plut. Galba 3,1). The number of cognomina within the gens is high, but it has been impossible to identify clear branches. The link between the S. from the 3rd to the 2nd and 1st cent. BC is unclear. In the 2nd cent. BC, the most important branch of the family was that of…

Terentius

(5,938 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile of Sabine origin. Its members begin to appear in the sources late in the 3rd cent. BC. Politically the most important branch was that of the Terentii Varrones which attained the ranks of the nobility with T. [I 14] Varro, consul in 216 BC. From the mid-2nd cent., several families of this branch were in simultaneous and unconnected existence. Cognomina showing geographical origins are widespread among the Terentii (Afer, Lucanus, Massaliota). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] As people's tribune in 54 BC, T. prevented…

Marcius

(5,160 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Old Roman nomen gentile, derived from the prename Marcus. Tradition knows of a patrician branch with the (mythical) king Ancus M. [I 3] and Cn. M. Coriolanus as its most important members. The younger members of the family (from the 3rd cent.) were plebeian without a link to the patrician Marcii being evident. Important families included the Rutili, later also the Censorini, Tremuli, Reges and Rallae. In the Late Republic the family claimed descent from the kings Ancus M. and Numa Pompilius (therefore the cognomen Rex, see M. [I 5]; RRC 346; 425; Suet. Iul. 6,1; [4. 154]) as wel…

Pompeius

(8,348 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family (connection with the Campanian city of Pompeii is unclear). The family acquired political significance with P. [I 1]; he is the origin of the Rufi branch. With P. [I 8] a related branch attained consulship and with his son Cn. P. [I 3] Magnus supplied the most significant member of the gens. Both lineages continue until the early Imperial period (family trees: [1; 2; 3]). I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Consul 141 BC A homo novus and popular orator (Cic. Brut. 96), he became consul in 141 BC, despite resistance from the nobility a…

Valerius

(11,988 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, which was said to have immigrated to Rome under King T. Tatius with V. [I 10] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46). The name, derived from the old personal name Valesus/ Valerus, was originally Valesios (cf. V. [I 7]; CIL XII p. 298g: Valesies; Fest. 22; Varro, Rerum divinarum fr. 66 Cardauns [4; 5]); the censor App. Claudius [I 2] introduced the new spelling in 312 BC (cf. Dig. 1,2, 2,36). Because in Antiquity the name was derived (etymologically correctly) from valere, 'to be strong', it was considered to be a good omen ( boni ominis nomen, Cic. Div. 1,102; Cic. Sca…

Papirius

(3,269 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile, in its older form, Papisius (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3), from which one of the 16 old rural tribes ( tribus ) took its name. The patrician gens formed …

Iunius

(7,178 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Röm. Familienname, vom Götternamen Iuno abgeleitet [1. 470; 2. 731]. Die gens war plebeisch; ihre bes. von den Mördern Caesars, M. und D.I. Brutus [I 10 und 12], propagierte Herkunft vom (patrizischen) Republikgründer L.I. [I 4] Brutus (Cic. Att. 13,40,1) war bereits in der Antike umstritten (Plut. Brutus 1,6-8). Eine Familiengeschichte verfaßte auf Bitten des M. Brutus T. Pomponius Atticus (Nep. Att. 18,3). Politisch bedeutend wurde die gens ab dem 4. Jh.v.Chr. mit den Zweigen der Scaevae, Bubulci und Perae. Ab dem Ende des 3. Jh. traten die Bruti und Silani…

Marcius

(4,586 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Köln) | Et al.
Alter röm. Gentilname, abgeleitet vom Vornamen Marcus. Die Überl. kennt einen patrizischen Zweig mit dem (myth.) König Ancus M. [I 3] und Cn. M. Coriolanus als bedeutendsten Angehörigen. Die jüngeren Angehörigen der Familie (seit dem 3. Jh.) waren plebeisch, ohne daß die Verbindung zu den patrizischen Marcii deutlich ist. Bedeutende Familien waren die Rutili, dann die Censorini, Tremuli, Reges und Rallae. In der späten Republik berief sich die Familie auf ihre Herkunft von den Königen Ancus M. und Numa Pompilius (daher das Cogn. Rex, s. M. [I 5]; RRC 346; 425; Suet. Iul. 6,1; [4. 154]), vielleicht auch auf eine Verwandtschaft mit dem mythischen Italerkönig Marsyas (Solin. 1,7; Plin. nat. 3,108; [1. 113-119]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1…

Papirius

(2,916 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Römischer Gentilname, in älterer Form Papisius (Cic. fam. 9,21,3), nach dem eine der 16 alten Landtribus ( tribus ) benannt war. Die patrizische gens bildete schon früh mehrere Zweige (5./4. Jh.v.Chr.: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3. Jh.: Masones), die maßgeblich an den mil. Erfolgen der Republik beteiligt waren, jedoch spätestens im 2. Jh.v.Chr. ausstarben bzw. polit. unbedeutend wurden. Der jüngere plebeiische Zweig der Carbones stieg in der 2. H. des 2. Jh. auf und erlangte notorische Bekanntheit durch die gracchen…

Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name…
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