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al-Ḥarīrī

(1,378 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S. | Pellat, Ch.
(sometimes Ibn al-Ḥarīrī in Yāḳūt), Abū Muḥammad al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. al-Ḥarīrī al-Baṣrī , Arabic poet and philologist known principally for his Maḳāmāt . Born in 446/1054, probably to a landed family living at al-Mas̲h̲ān, near Baṣra, where he spent his childhood, he commenced his studies at Baṣra; his biographers agree that he studied under al-Faḍl b. Muḥammad al-Ḳaṣabānī, but the latter is said to have died in 444/1052 (see Yāḳūt, Udabāʾ , xvi, 218; al-Suyūṭī, Bug̲h̲ya , 373; al-Ṣafadī, Nakt , 227), so that there is a discrepancy …

al-Bāk̲h̲arzī

(300 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, abu ’l-ḥasan (or abu ’l-ḳāsim ) ʿalī b. ḥasan b. ʿalī b. abi ’l-ṭayyib , Arab poet and anthologist, a native of Bāk̲h̲arz. After receiving a good education in his father’s house, he studied in particular S̲h̲āfiʿī fiḳh and, at Nīsābūr, attended the lectures of al-D̲j̲uwaynī (ʿAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf [ q.v.], where he made the acquaintance of al-Kundurī [ q.v.]; the latter, when he became wazīr , took him to Bag̲h̲dād as a secretary; previously, he had for some time been an official at Baṣra. Subsequently, he was admitted to the chancellery, an…

Raḥmāniyya

(1,204 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Algerian Ṣūfī order ( ṭarīḳa ) called after Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Gas̲h̲tulī al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲urī al-Azharī Abū Ḳabrayn, who died in 1208/1793-4. It is a branch of the K̲h̲alwatiyya [ q.v.] and is said to have at one time been called Bakriyya after Muṣṭafā al-Bakrī al-S̲h̲āmī. At Nafṭa [ q.v.], in Tunisia, and some other places it is called ʿAzzūziyya after Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAzzūz. Life of the founder. His family belonged to the tribe Ayt Smāʿīl, part of the Gas̲h̲tula confederation in the Ḳābiliyya D̲j̲urd̲j̲ura; having studied at his home, and th…

S̲h̲amsīya

(311 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, order of derwishes called after S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-T̲h̲anāʾ Aḥmad b. Abi ’l-Barakāt Muḥammad Sīwāsī or Sīwāsī-zāde, also called Ḳara S̲h̲ams al-Dīn and S̲h̲amsī (d. 1009 = 1600—1601). He is mentioned by the historians Naʿīmā (Constantinople 1281, i. 372) and Pečewī (Constantinople 1283, ii. 290) among the saints of the reign of Muḥammad III, and they state (probably on the authority of this sovereign, whose letter is cited by von Hammer, Geschichte der osmanischen Dichtkunst, iii. 286) that he fought at the taking of Erlau (1005 = 1596). He was the author of numer…

Ḥarīrī

(694 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(born 446, died 6 Red̲j̲eb 516), Abū Muḥammad al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥarīrī, grammarian and elegant writer, was born and brought up at Mas̲h̲ān near Baṣra; he also studied at Baṣra, though the name of his teacher seems wrongly given by the authorities as al-Faḍl b. Muḥammad al-Ḳaṣabānī, since this personage died 444. At Baṣra he held the office of ṣāḥib al-k̲h̲abar, i. e. head of the intelligence department (cf. Ṭabarī iii. 1260, 13) to the court; and this office remained with his descendants till the time of ʿImād al-Dīn Iṣfahānī, who visited B…

K̲h̲aṭṭābīya

(647 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, name of a sect reckoned among the S̲h̲īʿite extremists ( g̲h̲ulāt), called after Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭab Muḥammad b. Abī Zainab al-Asadī al-Ad̲j̲daʿ, who is said to have asserted the immanence ( ḥulūl) of the deity in the Imām Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ (83—148 = 702—765) and afterwards in himself. He obtained a following in al-Kūfa, where he was attacked by ʿĪsā b. Mūsā, who was governor for some years till 147 = 764/765; he armed his followers with stones, reeds and knives, assuring them that these would prevail against the enemy’s swords…

Ḳādirīya

(3,439 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Order ( ṭarīḳa) of dervishes called after ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [q. v.]. 1. Origin. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (ob. 561 = 1166) was the principal of a school ( madrasa) of Ḥanbalite Law and a ribāṭ in Bag̲h̲dād. His sermons (collected in al-Fatḥ al-Rabbānī) were delivered sometimes in the one, sometimes in the other; both were notable institutions in the time of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, and Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb, v. 274) records a bequest of books made to the former by a man who died in 572 (1176-7). Both appear to have come to an end at the sack of Bag̲h̲dād in 656 (1258),…

Arabia

(8,766 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S. | Kratschkowsky, Ign.
C. Arabia under Islām. Both internal and external causes have since the last date (1876) worked changes in the peninsula, the geography of which has been markedly advanced by a number of intrepid explorers, especially St. John Philby, R. E. Cheeseman, Bertram Thomas, D. Van der Meulen and H. Von Wissmann. The regions traversed by the last three of these, the “Empty Quarter” and the independent sulṭānates of Ḥaḍramawt, have indeed been little affected; though even in the latter the motor-car is showi…

Tid̲j̲ānīya

(1,352 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(the forms Tid̲j̲d̲j̲ānī, Tid̲j̲īnī occur also), order founded by Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Sālim al-Tid̲j̲d̲j̲ānī (1150—1230 = 1737—1815). 1. Life of the Founder. This person was born at ʿAin Māḍī, a village 72 kil. W. of Lag̲h̲uat, 28 E. of Tahmut. His family were the Awlād Sīdī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad, and his parents both died of plague in 1166 (1753). After pursuing his studies at his native place, he went to Fez in 1171 (1758) to continue them, thence to Abyad, where he stayed five years, t…

Abū Ḥaiyān

(973 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
ʿAlī b. Muḥammed b. al-ʿAbbās al-Tawḥīdī (so called either after an ancestor who sold a sort of date called tawḥīd, ¶ or in the sense ,upholder of pure monotheismʿ), jurist, philosopher, Ṣūfī, and compiler of miscellanies, lived in the fourth (10th) century. Little was preserved of his biography, but from documents quoted by Yāḳūt it appears that he was alive in Rad̲j̲ab 400 (Feb. 1010), and that he died at the age of more than eighty. His home was placed by different authorities at Nīs̲h̲āpūr, S̲h̲īrāz, or Wā siṭ. Much of his life wa…

Abū Tammām

(851 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Ḥabīb b. Aws, poet and anthologist, born in 180 or 188 (796 or 804), and his birth-place is said to have been Ḏj̲āsim, a village near Damascus in the direction of Tiberias, died in 228 or 231 (842-843 or 845-846). His father was a Christian named T̲h̲ādūs (Theodosius?), for which name the son, when he became a Muslim, substituted the Arabic Aws, to which he attached a pedigree in the tribe of Ṭaiyʾ, whence he is often called simply the Ṭaiyʾite. Some of his early life was, it is said, spent in Dam…

Sunbulīya

(497 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwatī Order, named after Sunbul Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf, whose birth-place is variously given as Bolou and Marsuan. His death-date is given in the Ḳāmūs al-ʿAlām as 936 (1529/1530); according however to al-S̲h̲aḳāʾiḳ al-Nuʿmānīya (transl. Rescher, 1927, p. 224, 225) he died before 929 (1522/1523); and this author, who was a contemporary, mentions him among the S̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the reign of Bāyazīd II (died 918= 1512), wherein he is followed by the author of the Tād̲j̲ al-Tawarīk̲h̲ (Constantinople 1279, ii. 595), who is half a century later. On the other hand…

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(2,067 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
al-Ḏj̲īlī (Gīlānī) Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ṣāliḥ Zengi Dōst, preacher and Ṣūfī, after whom the Ḳādirī order is named, born in 470 (1077-1078), died in 561 (1166). The numerous biographies of this personage teem with fictions, out of which some history may be gleaned. Thus his pedigree is traced on the father’s side to al-Ḥasan, grandson of the Prophet, in the direct line. But this is contradicted by the foreign name of his father, and the fact that the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ was called ʿAd̲j̲amī (foreigner) …

Ibn al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲

(427 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Abu ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusain b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, poet of the Būyid period. He belonged to a family which was engaged in the public service, and was himself trained by Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm al-Ṣābiʾ in secretarial work. He found however that he could earn more by verse, and became an encomiast of the most important among his contemporaries, especially ʿIzz al-Dawla Bak̲h̲tiyār, who appointed him to the office of muḥtasib or censor in Bag̲h̲dād; a most unsuitable appointment, since this poet specialized in obscenity, and indeed against one of the headings in the Paris abridgment of his Dī…

Mewlānā Hunkiār

(158 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, a title of the head of the Mawlawl Order [see mawlawīya]. The second word is the Turkish form of the Persian k̲h̲udāwandg i ār, the equivalent of mawlā, which according to Aflākī ( Saints des Derviches Tourneurs, i. 59) was bestowed on Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn by his father. Sāmī in his Turkish Lexicon states that the word, besides being used for “Sulṭān”, “King”, is applied to certain saintly personages, in such combinations as pīr hunk i ār or mullā hunk i ār. The underlying idea of such a title is probably that the saint has had committed to him the government of the world, if he…

K̲h̲urramīya

(918 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, a sect whose name is derived by Samʿānī from the Persian word k̲h̲urram “agreeable”, on the ground that they regarded everything that was agreeable as lawful; but it is more likely to be derived from Ḵh̲urram, a district of Ardabīl, where the sect may have arisen. According to Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, vi. 186, they came into prominence after the execution of Abū Muslim of Ḵh̲orāsān in 136 a. h., but while some of them denied that he was dead and foretold his return “to spread justice in the world”, others maintained the Imamate of his daughter Fāṭima, whence they got the names Muslimīya and Fāṭimīya. …

al-Buḥturī

(1,634 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Abū ʿUbāda al-Walīd b. ʿUbaid, Arabic poet and anthologist of the third century (204—284 approximately). His nisba signifies member of the Buḥtur clan of the tribe Ṭaiʾ, whose glories he frequently celebrates. His birthplace was Manbid̲j̲ (or, according to one account a village near Manbid̲j̲ called Zardafna), ¶ and of Manbid̲j̲ he often speaks as his home; here he ultimately acquired property, which seems to have been inherited by his son T̲h̲ābit, who was living there in Iṣṭak̲h̲rī’s trnre. The woman who forms the subject of his erotic pr…

Dasūḳī or Dusūḳī

(571 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Ibrāhīm b. Abi ’l-Mad̲j̲d ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (or ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd) (633—676 = 1235-1236—1277-1278), native of Dusūḳ, a village of Lower Egypt in the G̲h̲arbīya District; founder of the Dusūḳī Order. According to the commentator on his Ḥizb (Ḥasan S̲h̲amma, Masarrat al-Ainain bi-S̲h̲arḥ Ḥizb Abi ’l-ʿAinain, Cairo n.d.), his father came from a village Mrḳs (Marcus?) on the opposite bank of the Nile, and was himself ¶ a walī; his mother was daughter of another walī Abu ’l-Fatḥ al-Wāsiṭī. He is said to have studied S̲h̲āfiʿī jurisprudence before he followed the Ṣūfīs, to hav…

Nūrbak̲h̲s̲h̲īya

(952 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, religious sect or order called after Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh, called Nūrbak̲h̲s̲h̲ (795—869 a. h.). 1. Life of the founder. Of this person there is a detailed biography in the work Mad̲j̲ālis al-Muʾminīn of Nūr Allāh al-S̲h̲ustarī (Bodleian MS., Ous. 366; see also Brit. Mus. Catalogue of Persian MSS.), chiefly based on a work ( tad̲h̲kira) by Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Samarḳandī. His father was born in Ḳaṭīf, and his grandfather in al-Ḥass, whence in some g̲h̲azals he styles himself Laḥsawī. His father migrated to Ḳāʾin in Ḳuhistān, where his son was born. The …

Ziyānīya

(469 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, branch of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī Order, has its headquarters at Ḳenād̲j̲iā; lists of the heads are given by Rinn, loc. cit., Dupont and Coppolani, Confréries, p. 498, and Cour, loc. cit.; ¶ in the second work a specimen is given of the diploma of muḳaddam conferred by the head of the order, with seal. Their practice is said to differ from those of the other S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīs only in details; their ordinary d̲h̲ikr is reproduced by Rinn, loc. cit., p. 411, and consists in the repetition of certain formulae, a hundred, others a thousand times. Their speciality is the guiding and p…

al-Baṣīr

(261 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Abū ʿAlī al-Faḍl b. Ḏj̲aʿfar b. al-Faḍl b. Yūsuf, poet and letter-writer of the first half of the third century; although Ibn ¶ Maiyāda rated him as a poet above Buḥturī, and his prose style was also greatly admired, he is at present known only by occasional citations and scanty references. From these we learn that his early life was spent at Kūfa, that he belonged to the circle of Abu ’l-ʿAinā and Saʿīd b. Ḥumaid, and that he was patronized by ʿUbaid Allāh b. Yaḥyā, when the latter was at the height of his power (2…

Wahhābīya

(4,799 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Islāmic community founded by Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (1115-1201 = 1703-1787). This name was given to the community by its opponents in the founder’s lifetime, and is used by Europeans; it is not used by its members in Arabia, who call themselves Muwaḥḥidūn “unitarians” and their system ( ṭarīḳa) “Muḥammadan”; they regard themselves as Sunnīs, following the school of Ibn Ḥanbal, as interpreted by Ibn Taimīya, who attacked the cult of saints in many of his writings, especially in a Risāla condemning the visitation of tombs (in his Rasāʾil, Cairo 1323). § 1. Life of the Founder. He w…

al-Rifāʿī

(1,078 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Abu ’l-ʿAbbās, founder of the Rifāʿī ( ṭarīḳa, died 22nd Ḏj̲umādā I, 578 (Sept. 23, 1183) at Umm ʿAbīda, in the district of Wāsiṭ. The date of his birth is given by some authorities as Muḥarram 500 (Sept. 1106), but others say Rad̲j̲ab 512 (Oct.—Nov. 1118), at Ḳaryat Ḥasan, a village in the district of Baṣra. These places being in the region called al-Baṭāʾiḥ [q. v.], he has the further nisba al-Baṭāʾiḥī; al-Rifāʿī is usually explained as referring to an ancestor Rifāʿa, but by some is supposed to be a tribal name. This ancestor Rifāʿa is said to have …

Karrāmīya

(1,216 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, sect, called after Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Karrām (or Karām or Kirām; see Mīzān al-Iʿtidāl, iii. 127, and for further ancestors Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil, vii. 149). Of this person, who ¶ is called al-Sid̲j̲istānī, a fairly full biography is given by al-Samʿānī in the Ansāb, 476b, 477a. According to this, he was of the Banū Nizār, was born in a village of Zarand̲j̲, was brought up in Sid̲j̲istān, and afterwards went to Ḵh̲orāsān, where he attended the courses of Aḥmad b. Ḥarb, the Ascetic (d. 234); at Balk̲h̲ he heard Ibrāhīm b. Yūsuf al-Māk…

S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya

(2,333 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, or S̲h̲ād̲h̲alīya, pronounced in Africa S̲h̲ādulīya, Ṣūfī sect called after Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī, whose title is variously given as Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn and Taḳī al-Dīn (593-656 a.h.). For the life of this personage see the art. al-s̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī. His system. Al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī does not appear to have composed any large work, but many sayiūgs, spells and an ode are ascribed to him, and since some of the first are recorded in the work of his ¶ disciple’s disciple, Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Iskandarī, composed in 694, they may be to some extent genuine (see the art. al-s̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī).…

Čis̲h̲tīya

(753 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Indian Order or Caste of faḳīrs, founded according to some by one Abū Isḥāḳ, descended in the ninth generation from ʿAlī, who migrating from Asia Minor, settled at Čis̲h̲t, a village of Ḵh̲urāsān, or, in another account, settled in Syria and was buried at Acre; according to others by Banda Nawāz, who is buried at Kalbarga; according to others by Ḵh̲wād̲j̲ā Aḥmad Abdāl of Čis̲h̲t (d. 355 = 965—966) brought to India by Muʿīn al-Dīn Čis̲h̲tī, a native of Sid̲j̲z, who migrated thither in the time of Muʿizz al-Dīn b. Sām (589 = 1193) and settled in Ajmeer (Sir D. Ibbetson, Panjab Castes, 1916, p. 22…

Mawlawīya

(1,959 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(Turkish pronunciation Mewlewīya), Order of Derwishes called by Europeans Dancing or Whirling Derwishes. 1. Origin of the Order. Its name is derived from mawlānā (“our master”), a title given par excellence to Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn al-Rūmī (e. g. by the Turkish writers Saʿd al-Dīn and Pečewī, cited below), of which the Persian equivalent was according to the Manāḳib al-ʿĀrifīn (translated by Huart as Les Saints des Derviches Tourneurs, Paris 1918—1922) bestowed on Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn [q. v.] by his father, with whom this hagiography commences. According to the same author…

Baibars

(313 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, al-Manṣūrī al-Ḵh̲aṭaʾī, (about 645—725), Mamlūk minister and historian. Ḳalāūn, who purchased and manumitted him, promoted him to the governorship of Kerak, whence he was dismissed by the Sulṭān Ḵh̲alīl; on the accession of Nāṣir in 693 he was made chief of the dīwān al-ins̲h̲ā with the title dawādārkabīr, which he retained till 704. In 703 he was employed to repair the ravages caused by the earthquake in Alexandria. He was cashiered in 704 by the viceroy Sallār in consequence of a charge of insolence brought by one of the latter’s secreta…

S̲h̲aṭṭārīya

(421 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Ṣūfī order included in the list of 161 orders furnished to S. Anderson by the Imperial Board of Derwīs̲h̲es at Constantinople ( Moslem World, 1922, p. 56). It is called mad̲h̲hab-i s̲h̲uṭṭār (or s̲h̲aṭṭār) in the Persian work cited below; since a person named S̲h̲aṭṭār is not mentioned in the chief biographical dictionaries of saints, the former vocalization may be correct, as the plural of s̲h̲āṭir, according to Redhouse “a mystic who has broken with the world”, though this sense is not recognized by Sami Pas̲h̲a. The order is mentioned by Abu ’l-Faḍl ( Āīn-i Akbarī, transl. Jarrett, ii…

Zain al-Dīn

(250 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Ḵh̲awāfī, founder of an order called after him Zainīya, which traced itself to Ḏj̲unaid, was born in 757 (1356) at Ḵh̲awāf (between Bus̲h̲and̲j̲ and Zuzan) in Ḵh̲urāsān, and was buried in 838 (1435) at the village Mālīn (two parasangs from Herāt), whence his remains were transferred to Darwīs̲h̲ābād, and thence to the ʿĪdgāh of Herāt, where a mosque was built over them. He obtained authorization ( id̲j̲āza) in Egypt ¶ from Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Miṣrī ( Nafaḥāt al-Uns, N°. 505), and returned to Central Asia, but visited Egypt again, whenc…

Hamad̲h̲ānī

(640 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(358—398) Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusain b. Yaḥyā b. Saʿīd b. Bis̲h̲r, called Badiʿ al-Zamān, poet and elegant writer. He studied at his native place Hamad̲h̲ān with the grammarian Aḥmad b. Fāris and others, and in 380 went to Raiy, where he for a time secured the favour of the Ṣāḥib b. ʿAbbād, thence to Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān where he found a patron in Abū Saʿīd Muḥammad b. Manṣūr. In 382 he went to Nīsābūr, which he reached destitute, having been attacked by brigands on the way; he was less warmly received than he had hoped by Abū Bakr Ḵh̲wārizmī, the leading adīb of the time, and was presently invited…

Ḳādiriyya

(3,408 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Order ( ṭarīḳa ) of dervishes called after ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [ q.v.]. 1.—Origin. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (d. 561/1166) was the principal of a school ( madrasa ) of Ḥanbalī law and a ribāṭ in Bag̲h̲dād. His sermons (collected in al-Fatḥ al-Rabbānī ) were delivered sometimes in the one, sometimes in the other; both were notable institutions in the time of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, and Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb , v, 274) records a bequest of books made to the former by a man who died in 572/1176-7. Both appear to have come to an end at the sack of Bag̲h̲…
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