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Austria

(3,749 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard
[German Version] I. General – II. Non-Christian Religions – III. Christianity I. General Today's Republic of Austria (the official designation since 1920) corresponds, with diminished borders, to the Habsburg estate, i.e. the territories in the Danube and eastern Alpine area acquired by the Habsburgs in the 13th–15th centuries forming the center of the imperial Hausmacht. The name Austria first occurs in 996 in the form “Ostarrichi” (“Eastland”). Originally a reference to what is now Lower …

Cerdo

(180 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard
[German Version] (Gk Kerdon), a Syrian (?) Gnostic who was active as a Christian teacher in Rome c. 140. According to Irenaeus of Lyon ( Haer. I, 27.2f.), Cerdo came from the school of Simon Magus and introduced Marcion, his disciple and successor in Rome, to the distinction between the good god and the just god. (He is also mentioned in Hipp. Haer. VII, 10; 37.1f.; X, 9.1; Ps.-Tert. Adv. omn. haer. 6; and Epiph. Haer. 41; 42.3f.) The line of succession Simon – Cerdo – Marcion, however, is probably an anti-Marcionite fiction. A specific theology of Cerdo …

Adamantius, Dialogue of

(124 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard
[German Version] Adamantius (“Man of Steel”) is the name of the orthodox principal speaker in a Greek dialogue (subtitled De recta in deum fide) that attacks Marcion, Bardesanites (Bardesanes), and Valentinians (Valentinianism). It was composed some time after 325 ce in Asia Minor or Syria. As early as the 4th century, Adamantius was identified with Origen and considered the author of the dialogue (cf. the Latin translation by Rufinus). The work is dependent on Methodius. Its value as a source of information concerning the heresies attacked is disputed. Gerhard May Bibliography CPG 1,…

Marcion/Marcionites

(1,720 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard
[German Version] Marcion (c. 85 – c. 160) was the most successful heretic of the 2nd century; when the Catholic Church rejected him, he set up his own alternative church, for which he claimed catholicity. Marcion came from Pontus, probably from Sinope on the Black Sea. By profession he was a ship-owner and maritime trader. Otherwise his biographical tradition is colored by its anti-heretical sources. Early theological conflicts in Asia Minor are historically dubious. His excommunication by his own father, the bishop of Sinope, for seducing a virgin is certainly fictional (Epiph. Haer.

Wiener Neustadt

(143 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard
[German Version] (Vienna Newtown), a town in the Viennese basin south of Vienna, established by design in 1194. It became a bishopric in 1469, when Emperor Frederick III received approval for an episcopal see for his Wiener Neustadt residence from Pope Paul II. Internal tensions and inadequate endowment made purposeful development difficult. Outstanding bishops included Leopold v. Kollonitsch (1670–1685), pastor of the Viennese during the Turkish siege of 1683, and the irenic theologian C. de Roja…

Vienna

(1,597 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard
[German Version] I. City and Archbishopric 1. City. Vienna is the capital of the Republic of Austria and (since 1922) a state in the Austrian federation, with a population of 1,723,000 (2009). The Roman legionary fortress of Vindobona was destroyed during the Migration Period along with the neighboring civilian town, but the site was settled continuously until the early Middle Ages (also called Vindomina and Venia). A great expansion took place under the late Babenbergs. Vienna became an ecclesiastical …

Vienna Newtown

(143 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard
[German Version] (Wiener Neustadt), a town in the Viennese basin south of Vienna, established by design in 1194. It became a bishopric in 1469, when Emperor Frederick III received approval for an episcopal see for his Vienna Newtown residence from Pope Paul II. Internal tensions and inadequate endowment made purposeful development difficult. Outstanding bishops included Leopold v. Kollonitsch (1670–1685), pastor of the Viennese during the Turkish siege of 1683, and the irenic theologian C. de Roja…

Hermogenes

(164 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 150 – c. 210), a painter by profession, was a Christian teacher in Syria (Antioch?), later in Carthage. The most important sources for his writings, which have been lost, are Tertullian Adversus Hermogenem and Hippolytus Refutatio omnium haeresium VIII 17. Influenced by Middle Platonism, Hermogenes taught that the world was created from eternal matter (citing Gen 1:1f.) and sought to defend the unity and goodness of God. For him evil was associated with matter. Other notions resemble Gnostic ideas (Gnosis/Gosticis…

Apelles

(129 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard
[German Version] (died after 180), the most important disciple of Marcion, was a Christian teacher in Alexandria and Rome. He moderated his master's dualism: below the highest, good God there are two angelic deities, namely the creator of the world and the “fiery” God of the OT. Christ forms his body from the matter of the heavenly bodies. Apelles applied rationalist criticism to the OT. His norms were Marcion's “NT” canon (and a gospel of his own?), as well as the Revelations ( phaneroseis) of the prophetess Philumene. The latter are no longer extant, nor are his Syllogisms. Gerhard May Bibli…

Modestus/Modestos

(110 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 180), is mentioned by Eusebius of Caesarea as an orthodox author ( Hist. eccl. IV 21) and especially as the author of an anti- Marcionite writing (IV 25). The context points to a date of c. 180. Jerome ( Vir. ill. 32) confirms this statement: he has Modestus write during the reigns of Marcus Aurelius (161–180) and Commodus (180–192). According to Eusebius, Modestus, in his writing against Marcion, exposed the heretic's error “better than the others.” The work is lost, and it is not known where Modestus lived. Gerhard May Bibliography A. v. Harnack, Marcion, TU 45, 1921, 219…

Dogma, History of

(3,213 words)

Author(s): May, Gerhard
[German Version] I. History of Dogma before the Enlightenment – II. History of Dogma as a Historical-Theological Discipline – III. Present and Future Tasks of the History of Dogma I. History of Dogma before the Enlightenment 1. What is meant by the history istory of dogma is, first, the process of the origin and reception of binding ¶ ecclesiastical decisions on doctrine and, second, the historical-theological discipline of their study. Roman Catholic theology usually speaks of the development of dogma and reserves the term “history of dogma” for the historical discipline. 2. The r…

Mainz

(1,829 words)

Author(s): Jürgensmeier, Friedhelm | May, Gerhard
[German Version] I. City and Bishopric – II. University I. City and Bishopric Mainz, laid out as a military camp between 18 and 13 bce, became the capital of the Roman province Germania prima; by the 4th century at the latest, it was an episcopal see. Medieval lists identify its first bishop as Marinus or Martinus. In the 10th century, in competition with Trier and Cologne, its episcopal succession was traced back to Crescens (2 Tim 4:10). The Roman civitas, coextensive with the see, collapsed during the migration period. A Frankish settlement since the 5th or 6th centur…

Chaplain

(577 words)

Author(s): Schmälzle, Udo Friedrich | May, Gerhard | Maxson, Rachel E.
[German Version] I. History – II. Canon Law – III. Meaning in the English-speaking World I. History (Middle Lat.: capellanus; Ger: Kaplan), cleric at the Carolingian royal court (Carolingians) (first attested 741) with wide-ranging rights (accompanying the king on campaigns, capacity of registrar, diplomatic service, pastoral care at the capella regis); reduced after the ¶ Investiture Controversy following the papal decretal, Ad Audientiam of Alexander III, to clerical functions (responsibility for enforcing attendance at services and distribution o…

Heresy

(7,453 words)

Author(s): Feldtkeller, Andreas | Mell, Ulrich | le Boulluec, Alain | Jorissen, Hans | Schuck, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Philosophy and Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Practical Theology – IV. Church Law – V. Judaism – VI. Islam I. Philosophy and Religious Studies The word “heresy” derives from Gk αἵρεσις/ haíresis (“act of choice,” “decision”). In the Hellenistic period, when a plurality of philosophical schools had developed, the word was used to express the need of budding philosophers to choose between these schools. Hence it came to be used to denote both a philosophical school and the school's teaching; in…