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Edwards, Jonathan

(560 words)

Author(s): McDermott, Gerald R.
[German Version] (Oct 5, 1703, East Windsor, CT – Mar 22, 1758, Princeton, NJ). American philosopher-theologian who described the revival (Revival/Revival movements) in his Northampton (MA) parish in A Faithful Narrative (1737) and defended the Great Awakening in The Distinguishing Marks (1741) and Some Thoughts Concerning the Revival (1743). In 1746 he published an analysis of religious experience, Religious Affections. After losing his pulpit (1750) in a controversy over communion qualifications, Edwards led a mission to Indians in Sockbridge (MA), where he wrote Freedom of …

Clarke, John

(274 words)

Author(s): McDermott, Gerald R.
[German Version] (Oct 8, 1609, Westhorpe, England – Apr 28, 1676, Newport, RI), most prominent Baptist leader in New England's first century. Clarke studied medicine and theology in England and emigrated to Massachusetts Bay in 1637. After supporting A. Hutchinson in the antinomian controversy (Antinomism), he joined other refugees from persecution in Boston and helped buy land from the Indians on Aquidneck Island in Narragansett Bay in 1638. Clarke served as preacher and physician to the settlement at Portsmouth. After a conflict with William Hutchinson (Anne's husband) ¶ and Samu…

Cotton, John

(187 words)

Author(s): McDermott, Gerald R.
[German Version] (Dec 4, 1584, Derby, England – Dec 23, 1652, Boston, MA), foremost preacher in the first ¶ generation of preachers in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Educated at Cambridge, Cotton won renown for his twenty years of powerful preaching in Boston, Lincolnshire, before he emigrated in 1630. He helped inspire the Great (Puritan) Migration to the New World by preaching that God was leading his flock to a place where they could practice freely “his holy Ordinances.” Cotton laid emph…