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Technology

(5,115 words)

Author(s): Berg, Christian | Meisinger, Hubert | Krüger, Oliver | Schmidt, Jan C. | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Definitions 1. Technique In antiquity, τέϰνη/ technē originally meant special skill in handwork; it also denoted competence in reasonable action in other practical, artistic and philosophical areas. For Aristotle it is reasonable behavior directed to the production of praxis and poiesis ; technē imitates natural events, being distinct from them but embedded in them. In the modern period ¶ (Modernity), with criticism of Aristotelian metaphysics, the understanding of technique also changed. Technique became a key concept of modern culture…

Emanation

(1,076 words)

Author(s): Lorenz, Günther | Clark, Stephen R.L. | Meisinger, Hubert
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics I. History of Religion Lat. emanatio, “outflow,” translation of Gk ἀπορροή/ἀπόρροια ( apórrhoḗ/apórrhoia), a keyword and figure of thought in the doctrinal structure of Gnosis/Gnosticism (in Irenaeus's Lat. trans. emissio: Haer. II 13.1–14.1 etc.). ¶ Probably inspired by Platonic thought, in the 3rd to 1st century bce Wis 7:25 calls wisdom an “emanation of the glory of the Almighty.” The image of the water that flows out of a spring …

Sociobiology

(579 words)

Author(s): Meisinger, Hubert
[German Version] Sociobiology has improved our understanding of the social life of human beings and animals on the basis of a neo-Darwinian theory of evolution (Neo-Darwinism; cf. Meisinger, 187ff., with bibl.). Grounded in ethology (Behavioral research) and building on population genetics and the theory of kin selection, sociobiology was popularized in the 1970s by Edward O. Wilson and Richard Dawkins, becoming a separate area within biology. It was intended to take its place as a fundamental dis…

Cultural Anthropology/Social Anthropology

(811 words)

Author(s): Laubscher, Matthias Samuel | Meisinger, Hubert
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Natural Sciences I. Religious Studies Ethnology in the German-speaking realm corresponds roughly to cultural anthropology in the USA and social anthropology in the British realm of influence. Different disciplinary classification in the three scientific regions has led to specific configurations. Common to all is the object of investigation: human culture and comparison of (as an ideal, all) individual cultures. The Ame…

Cultural Evolution

(389 words)

Author(s): Meisinger, Hubert
[German Version] is gaining in significance in the description of culture. It not a matter of social Darwinism (Darwinism: IV) nor of a simple transfer of the principles of biological evolution, neither analogy nor parallelism, but structural isomorphy, which depicts relations of various levels to one another. One can speak of a general theory of evolution as a positive heuristic for physical, biological and social processes. A plausible model must describe the s…

Christology

(26,944 words)

Author(s): Karrer, Martin | Williams, Rowan D. | Hauschild, Wolf Dieter | Flogaus, Reinhard | Gunton, Colin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Primitive Christianity – II. History of Doctrine – III. Dogmatics – IV. Forms of Extra-ecclesial Christology I. Primitive Christianity 1. History of research and preliminary questions a.  The term Christology, which originated in the early 17th century, was coined for systematic reflection concerning Jesus Christ. Initially, conceptions and Christologies dealing with the salvation history of the whole Bible beginning with the Old Testament were as highly valued as the New Testament (cf. e.g. G.F. Händel's Messiah). NT Christology went its own way…

Soziobiologie

(520 words)

Author(s): Meisinger, Hubert
[English Version] . S. hat das Verständnis für das Sozialleben von Tier und Mensch basierend auf einer neodarwinistischen Evolutionslehre (Neodarwinismus) gefördert (vgl. Meisinger 187ff. mit Lit.). Von der Ethologie (Verhaltensforschung) herkommend und auf der Populationsgenetik und der Theorie der Verwandtschaftsselektion aufbauend, wurde S. in den 70er Jahren durch Edward O. Wilson und Richard Dawkins populär und zu einem eigenen Bereich der Biologie. S. sollte als Grundlagenwiss. der Sozialwis…

Technik/Technologie

(4,351 words)

Author(s): Berg, Christian | Meisinger, Hubert | Krüger, Oliver | Schmidt, Jan C. | Herms, Eilert
[English Version] I. Begrifflich 1.Technik In der Antike meinte τε´χn̆η/téchnē urspr. handwerkliches Spezialistenwissen, konnte dann aber auch die Kompetenz für vernünftiges Vorgehen in anderen praktischen, künstlerischen oder philos. Gebieten bez. Bei Aristoteles ist téchnē die auf ein Hervorbringen (Praxis/Poiesis) gerichtete vernünftige Haltung; téchnē imitiert das Naturgeschehen, von dem sie zwar unterschieden, in das sie aber eingebettet ist. Mit der Kritik der aristotelischen Metaphysik wandelt s…