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Philistis

(151 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Φιλίστις/ Philístis, in Hesychius s.v. Φιλιστίδ(ε)ιον/ Philistíd(e)ion). Consort of Hieron [2] II of Syracuse from c. 270 BC. As is evidenced by her name - which derives from Philistus - and that of her father Leptines [5], P. belonged to the descendants of the family of the elder Dionysius [1]. She does not appear in literary sources [1], but in one epigraphical document (Syll.3 429) and on several silver coins minted after 241 bearing her image on the obverse and her name, royal title and a carriage and pair (or four) on the reverse [2]. …

Daimachus

(173 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δαίμαχος; Daímachos). [German version] [1] Historian from Plataeae, 4th cent. BC from Plataeae, Greek historian in the 4th cent. BC. He was the author of a contemporary history and was regarded by Jacoby, who can hardly have been correct in this regard, as the author of the Hellenica of Oxyrhynchus. FGrH 65 (with comm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography F. Jacoby, The Autorship of the Hellenica of Oxyrhynchus, in: CQ 44, 1950, 1-11 S. Hornblower, in: Proc. of the Second Internat. Congr. of Boiotian Studies (1995; defends Jacoby) K. Meister, Die griech. Geschichtsschreibung,…

Athanis

(143 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἄθανις; Áthanis). A. from Syracuse, name form Áthanis in Ath. 3,98d and Plut. Timol. 23,6; Athánas in Diod. Sic. 15,94,4; Áthenis in Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 194. He took part in the expedition of  Dion to Sicily and was together with  Heraclides and Archelaus of Dyme prostátēs tês póleōs (‘Director of the City’) in Syracuse in 356. A. continued the work of  Philistus (FGrH 556), which reached as far as 363/2, and described in 13 books the further destinies of the younger  Dionysius, the events around Dion as well as the history of Timoleo…

Telines

(78 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τηλίνης; Tēlínēs) from Gela, hierophant ( Mystḗria D.) of the chthonic deities, who shortly after the founding of the city in 688 BC led the Gelans, who had been defeated in a civil war and had fled to Mactorium, back to Gela under the protection of the cult apparatus of these deities. This happened under the condition that his descendants, which included Gelon [1], should retain this priestly status (Hdt. 7,153). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Hipparinus

(189 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἱππαρῖνος; Hipparînos). [German version] [1] Syracusan, father of Dion, commander 406/5 BC Syracusan, father of  Dion [I 1], elected commander in 406/5 BC, together with  Dionysius [1] l. (Plut. Dion 3). Supported the coup of Dionysius and gave him his daughter Aristomache to wed (Aristot. Pol. 5,5,6). Praised by Plato (Ep. 8, 353b). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 1, 222f.; 2, 638f. [German version] [2] Syracusan, son of Dionysius, grandson of H. [1] Syracusan, son of Dionysius [1] and Aristomache, grandson of H. [1]. …

Timoleon

(867 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τιμολέων/ Timoléōn). General and ruler in Sicily, originally from Corinth, son of Timodemus and Demariste. In 365 BC, T. approved of the assassination of his brother Timophanes, the tyrant of Corinth (Plut. T. 2 f.; Nep. T. 1; Diod. Sic. 16,65,2-9), retiring after that from the public life for almost 20 years. At the request of the Syracusans, who were threatened by Dionysius [2] II and Carthage, he was sent by the Corinthians as a general in 345, landing with 10 ships and 700 mer…

Diyllus

(163 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δίυλλος; Díyllos) of Athens. Greek historian of the first half of the 3rd cent. BC, son of the atthidographer Phanodemus. Author of Historíai in 27 bks., a universal history in two parts (cf. FGrH 73 T 1 and 2), which continued  Ephorus and covered the period from the 3rd Sacred War (357/6) to the death of Cassander's son Philip. D. was continued in his turn by Psaon of Plataeae (FGrH 78 T 1). According to Plutarch, D., who wrote entirely in the ‘tragic’ manner (Plut. Mor. 345E and F), was ‘not insignificant in historiography’ (Plut. Mor. 862B = T4). …

Atthis

(489 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀτθίς; Atthís). Atthís, plural Atthídes, refers to Athenian local histories; Atthidographers are the authors of these works. The Atthides were antiquarian rather than historically oriented; in an annalistic and chronicle-like representation they provided information about myths, religion, history, culture and literature, as well as the topography of Athens and Attica. In general they treated the entire span of time of their respective authors from the mythic beginnings up to the present. The Atthidographers often functioned as Exegetaí, interpreters of r…

Deinomenids

(57 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Ruling dynasty at first in Gela, later in Syracuse. Founded by  Deinomenes [1] of Gela and continued by his four sons Gelon, Hieron, Thrasybulus and Polyzalus. The marriage of Theron's daughter  Damarete to Gelon resulted in close relations of kinship between the Deinomenids and the Emmenids of Acragas (cf. fig.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Acestorides

(51 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀκεστορίδης; Akestorídēs). From Corinth. Chosen as stratēgos c. 323/2 BC by the Syracusians. In order to reconcile oligarchs and (moderate) democrats with one another, he supposedly tried to remove  Agathocles [2] who was suspected of tyranny (Diod. Sic. 19,5,1). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography K. Meister, CAH 7.1, 21984, 387 f.

Archonides

(99 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀρχωνίδης; Archōnídēs). [German version] [1] King of Herbita on Sicily (2nd half 5th cent. BC) King of Herbita and other Sicilian communities. Participated in the founding of  Cale Acte by Ducetius about 446/5 BC (Diod. Sic. 12,8,2) and died around 414 as a friend of the Athenians (Thuc. 7,1,4). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] King of Herbita on Sicily (End of 5th cent. BC) King of Herbita and a friend of the Athenians (IG II2 32). Concluded in 403/2 a peace with  Dionysius I and founded the town Halaesa Archonideius (Diod. Sic. 14,16). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Ducetius

(344 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] One of the few Sicels known by name, mentioned only by Diodorus (11,76-12,30, drawing on Timaeus) in an overly dramatic account (see [1. 50ff.] and [2. 99ff.]). In 466-461 BC, supported by the Sicels, D. attempted to use the chaotic conditions after the fall of the tyrants to establish a power base in Sicily (cf. Diod. Sic. 11,72,3-73; 76,4-6; 86,2-87). In 461/0 he moved with Syracuse against  Aitne [2] and expelled the mercenaries of the tyrant Hieron. Two years later he founded …

Damarete

(218 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δαμαρέτη; Damarétē). [German version] [1] Wife of Gelon of Syracuse Daughter of Theron of Acragas and wife of Gelon of Syracuse, after his death wife of Polyzalus. Diod. Sic. (11,26,3) and the schol. 15 (29) to Pindar (Ol. 2) report that after the battle of Himera in 480 BC, D. spoke out in favour of making peace with the Carthaginians and treating them humanely. From the proceeds of the golden wreath weighing 100 talents which she received from them for her actions, she had so-called damareteia minted ─ commemorative coins ─ that each had a value of 10 Attic drachmas or 50 litrai (17 specimens…

Theotimus

(55 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θεότιμος; Theótimos). Greek historian of the Hellenistic period. Author of various works of local history: On Cyrene (FGrH 470 F 1 and 2), Italiká (FGrH 834 F 1), Against Aeelurus (FGrH 470 F 3-5), a Rhodean specialist author of unknown period (Aieluros FGrH 528). FGrH 470 and 834. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Marmor Parium

(369 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Hellenistic chronicle on marble from Paros; two extensive parts have survived: In the year 1627, fragment A (lines 1-93) from Smyrna came into the possession of Earl Thomas Howard of Arundel, but lines 1-45 were lost during the turmoil under Charles I. and are only known from the editio princeps by J. Selden [1]. Lines 46-93 have been in Oxford since 1667. In 1897, fragment B (lines 101-132, FHG 1, 542-555) was discovered on Paros; today, it is kept at the local museum there. The Marmor Parium represents a Greek universal chronicle with the purpose of educating a…

Xenetus

(63 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξένετος; Xénetos). Prominent citizen of Locri [2] in Lower Italy. In a double wedding in 398 BC Dionysius [1] I of Syracuse married both X.' daughter Doris and the Syracusan Aristomache, bestowing his favour on both women equally. Later he held X.' wife responsible for Aristomache's infertility and had her killed (Diod. 14,44,6-45,1; Plut. Dion 3,3-6). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Anticlides

(52 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀντικλείδης; Antikleídēs). [German version] [from Athens] Historian (around 300 BC) ‘More antiquarian than actual historian’ (Jacoby). Lived at the beginning of the era of the Diadochi, c. 300 BC and was probably influenced by the Peripatetics (fr. 15-16). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography Work Perì Alexándrou, Deliaká, Nóstoi (FGrH 140 with comm.)

Philochorus

(352 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Φιλόχορος/ Philóchoros). P. of Athens, son of Cycnus, born c. 340 BC, the last and most eminent Atthidographer ( Atthís ). His works - a short biography in the Suda lists 21 works (FGrH 328 T 1); six more are known from other evidence - comprise the entire breadth of the history, literature and religion of Athens. The variety of themes, the unadorned style and the systematic method of collection betray peripatetic influence (Peripatos) and make him 'the first scholar among the Att…

Sophaenetus

(205 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σοφαίνετος/ Sophaínetos). From Stymphalus; despite his advanced age one of the leaders of Cyrus [3] the Younger's mercenaries in his struggle with his brother Artaxerxes [2] II (Xen. An. 5,3,1; 6,5,13): He recruited mercenaries among the Greeks (1,1,11; 1,2,1) and took 1000 hoplites to Cyrus in Sardis or Celaenae (1,2,3 or 1,2,9). On the return journey he led a convoy of ships from Trapezus to Cerasus (5,3,1), but because of his casual attention of finances had to pay a fine (5,8,1). Only Stephanus [7] from Byzantium mentions an Anábasis Kýrou by S. (F 1-4). It is he…

Terillus

(87 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τήριλλος; Tḗrillos). Son of Crinippus, tyrant of Himera, was deposed by Theron c. 483 BC. A call for help by T. and his father-in-law Anaxilaus [1] of Rhegium led in 480 to an invasion of Sicily by the Carthaginians under Hamilcar [1], a guest-friend of T.; Hamilcar and his army were decisively defeated by Gelon [1] and Theron at Himera (Hdt. 7,165-167). Of the later fate of T. nothing is known. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 134, 156.

Xenodicus

(195 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ξενόδικος; Xenódikos). [German version] [1] Uncle of the tyrant Theron of Acragas Son of the Emmenid Telemachus and uncle of Theron of Acragas. His sons Hippocrates and Capys rebelled against Theron in 476 BC, who defeated them at Himera, whereupon they settled in Sicanian Camicus (schol. Pind. P. 6,5a and O. 2,173f-g). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 135. [German version] [2] From Acragas, second half of the 4th cent. BC X. (also Xenodocus) from Acragas (both forms of the name can be found in Diod. 20,31,4; 32,2; 56…

Xenion

(88 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξενίων; Xeníōn). Author of an historical treatise on Crete, Κρητικά ( Krētiká ) or Περὶ Κρήτης ( Perì Krḗtēs ). Pol. 6,45,1, where X. should probably be read instead of Xenophon [2] as the informant on the Cretan constitution, can probably be added to the fragments in FGrH 460 cf. [1]. It would result in X.'s being dated 'before Polybius', i.e. before the end of the 3rd cent. BC. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 K. Ziegler, Ein neues Fragment des Historikers X., in: Hermes 82, 1954, 498 f.

Hereas

(95 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἡρέας; Hēréas). From Megara, author of Megariká, evidently more recent than Dieuchidas. The current view is that the fragments in Plutarch's Theseus and Solon derive ultimately from the Megariká (via Ister and Hermippus!) or another (anti-Athenian) work by H. He is probably identical with the theoros mentioned in IG VII 39 (beginning of 3 BC), but highly unlikely to be Heragoras, another author of Megariká as has been commonly assumed since [1.8]. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Comm. gramm. 1880/1881. Fragments: FGrH 486…

Pasiphilus

(77 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Πασίφιλος; Pasíphilos). General of Agathocles [2], for whom he took Messana in 312/11 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,102,1-3). When Deinocrates [1] and Philonides occupied Galeria at Exiles' Point, P. retook the castle (Diod. Sic. 19,104,1-2). At the end of the African campaign in 306/5 he desserted to Deinocrates [2] (Diod. Sic. 20,77,1-2), and was murdered but a year later in Gela (Diod. Sic. 20,90,2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography K. Meister, Agathokles, in: CAH 7,1, 1984, 384-405.

Ephorus

(711 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἔφορος; Éphoros) from Cyme in Asia Minor; Greek universal historian, lived c. 400-330. On the basis of his style, in antiquity he was held to be a student of Isocrates. He was a contemporary of Theopompus (FGrH 70 T 3-5; 8; 28), and was said to have refused Alexander's invitation to accompany him on his campaign in 334 BC (T 6). Works: Epichṓrios lógos (‘History of our homeland’): an encomium to Cyme, which E. even made the homeland of Homer (F 1). ‘On inventions’: to be assigned to the realm of ‘sophist polyhistory’ (cf. Ed. Schwartz), it c…

Sicanus

(74 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σικανός; Sikanós). From Syracuse, son of Execestus; in the autumn of 415 BC he, Hermocrates [1] and Heracleides [2] were elected plenipotentiary strategoi (Thuc. 6,73). Sent in 413 to conquer Acragas, he returned without achieving anything (Thuc. 7,36; 7,50,1). His attempt to set fire to the ships salvaged by the Athenians from a lost sea battle (at the beginning of September 413) failed (Thuc. 7,70-74). Peloponnesian War Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Gellias

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Γελλίας; Gellías). Wealthy Acragantian, whose unique hospitality and generosity were extolled by Diodorus (13,83) when portraying the prosperity of Acragas in the 5th cent. BC (Diod. Sic. 13,81,4-84,7 = Timaeus FGrH 566 F 26a). Cf. also Ath. I 4 and Val. Max. 4,8 ext. 2. G. died when Acragas was destroyed by the Carthaginians in 406/5. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Agroetas

(52 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀγροίτας; Agroítas). Greek historian of the Hellenistic era (from Cyrene?). Author of Libyka in at least three books. The few preserved fragments display a rationalistic reshaping of mythology. A. apparently influenced the mythological handbook cited by Diod. Sic. 4,26,2-4 and used at 3,52 ff. (FGrH 762). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Deinias

(83 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δεινίας; Deinías). From Argos, lived in the 3rd cent. BC; he was the author of Argoliká in at least nine books. They ranged in scope from extensive treatment of the mythical period to the battle of Cleonae ( c. 235), at which  Aratus [2] defeated the tyrant Aristippus of Argos (FGrH 306 F 5). His identity with the D. who murdered the tyrant Abantidas of Sicyon in 251/50 (T 1), is not established. FGrH 306 (with comm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Nereis

(102 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Νηρηίς/ Nērēís). Daughter of the Molossian king Pyrrhus II. In 233/2 BC, for dynastic reasons, Hiero [2] II married her to his son Gelo [2]; she bore three sons, including Hieronymus [3], and one daughter. The name of the queen is inscribed in the theatre of Syracuse (Syll.3 429). N. also had statues of her family erected at Delphi and Olympia (Syll.3 453; Pol. 7,4,5; Liv. 24,6,8; Paus. 6,12,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 110f. 2 G. de Sensi Sestito, Gerone I…

Theron

(366 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θήρων/ Thḗrōn). Tyrant of Acragas from the line of the Emmenids; he lived c. 540/530-472 BC. His children from his first marriage were Thrasydaeus and Demarete, the consort of Gelo [1]; from c. 485 BC T. was married a second time to a daughter of Polyzalus (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 93; scholium Pind. Ol. 2,29b-d; see stemma in Deinomenids). T. gained control of Acragas in 488 BC (Diod. Sic. 11,53,1) and in 483 BC took the town of Himera by driving out Terillus (Hdt. 7,165); he entrusted the town to his son Thrasydaeus. The cry for help fro…

Xenomedes

(94 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξενομήδης/ Xenomḗdēs) of Ceos. Logographer of the 5th cent. BC (Dion. Hal. de Thucydide 5). Author of a history of his home island (title unknown!), from which Callimachus [3] (Aetia 3, fr. 75 Pfeiffer) took the famous story of Acontius and Cydippe [1]. Other themes treated by X. are mentioned by Callimachus (fr. 75,54-77, also [1]). X. may also have been used by Aristotle [6] for his Keíōn politeía (fr. 511 Rose, cf. also 611,26-29). Logographos Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 G. Huxley, Xenomedes of Keos, in: GRBS 6, 1965, 235-245. FGrH 442 with comm.

Sosylus

(119 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σωσύλος; Sōsýlus). Greek historian, from Laconia, like Silenus [1] in Hannibal's retinue, "as long as fate allowed"; he was also Hannibal's Greek teacher (Nep. Hann. 13,3 = FGrH 176 T 1). Author of an 'official' history of Hannibal in 7 books (Diod. 26,4 = FGrH 176 T 2): S. is sharply criticised by Polybius (3,20,5 = FGrH 176 T 3) for factual errors, but his description, preserved in one of the Würzburg papyri (PGraec. 1), of a complex nautical manoeuvre from a sea battle gives a far more favourable view of his historical writing. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography FGrH 176…

Dinon

(101 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δίνων; Dínōn) of Colophon, the 4th cent. BC, father of Cleitarchus, a historian of Alexander (FGrH 690 T 2), and the author of the Persiká in at least three parts ( syntáxeis) with several books each (F 3) from Semiramis (at least) to the reconquest of Egypt by Artaxerxes [3] III (343/2). The often novel-like and sensationalist representation (cf. F 10; 17; 22) was influenced by Ctesias and was used, e.g., by Pompeius Trogus and Plutarch (Artaxerxes). FGrH 690. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography O. Lendle, Einführung in die griech. Geschichtsschreibung, 1992, 271 H. …

Lindian Chronicle

(237 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] The Anagraphé of Lindus (on Rhodes), discovered in 1904, is an outstanding example of a local history work with a special topic. The inscription was set up upon application by Hagesitimus, the son of Timachidas, through a decision of the council at the sanctuary of Athena Lindia in 99 BC: it contains the wording of this decision (= A), an inventory of 45 votive offerings that were set up (allegedly) in the temple (= B and C), and the description of four epiphanies (‘manifestations…

Psaon

(42 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ψάων; Psáōn) of Plataeae, author of a universal history, continuing the work of  Diyllus (Diod. 21,5). It therefore begins in 297/6 BC; its end point is unknown: Only 3 fragments survive (FGrH 78 with comm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Clytus

(42 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Κλύτος; Klýtos) of Miletus, pupil of Aristotle [6] and author of Perí Milḗtou in at least two bks, quoted only by Athenaeus (12,540c; 14,655c). Perhaps used by Aristotle in the Milēsíōn politeía. FGrH 490 with comm. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Themistus

(98 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θέμιστος; Thémistos). Syracusan, married to Harmonia, the daughter of Gelon [2] II and granddaughter of Hieron [2] II (Liv. 24,24,2 and 6; 25,7 and 10). He was presumably a member of the regency council established by Hieron for his underage grandson Hieronymus [3] and after Hieronymus was killed took part in a coup planned by Adranodorus  (Liv. 24,24,2; 24,25). At the command of the strategoi, who had been informed of the plot, however, he was executed - as was Adranodorus - in 214 BC (Liv. 24,24,4). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Hieron II., 1959, 86…

Hippys

(246 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἵππυς; Híppys) of Rhegium. Since [1], a much discussed and controversial author: According to the Suda s.v. = T 1, the oldest West Greek historian, alive during the Persian Wars of 480/479 BC. He wrote the following works: Sikeliká in 5 bks., Ktísis Italías (‘Founding History of Italy’), Chroniká in 5 bks., Argoliká in 3 bks. Later, a certain Myes is claimed to have epitomized the work. Due to the fact that the fragments are mostly mysterious (e.g. F 1-3 with the comm. of Jacoby) and that later authors such as Dionysius from Hali…

Hyperochus

(51 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὑπέροχος; Hypérochos) from the Lower Italian Cyme, period unknown (according to Jacoby, commentary on H., FGrH 576) 3rd cent. BC at the earliest, 2nd cent. AD at the latest). Author of a local history of Cyme ( Kymaiká), of which only 3 fragments are extant. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Hypsicrates

(86 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὑψικράτης; Hypsikrátēs) of Amisus. Historian and grammarian who lived to be 92 years old ([Lucian] Macrob. 22). The few fragments of his historical work point to the period of Caesar or Augustus (end of the 1st cent. BC). He also wrote about Homer, whom he viewed as a contemporary of Hesiod, and gave etymologies of Greek and Latin words that Varro rejected. In so doing, he derived Latin vocabulary from the Greek. FGrH 190. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography R. Giomini, Ipsicrate, in: Maia 8, 1956, 49-55.

Zoippus

(108 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζώιππος/ Zṓippos) from Syracuse. Husband of Heraclea, the daughter of Hieron [2] II. On the latter's initiative he, Adranodorus and others were appointed guardians of the young king Hieronymus [3] (Liv. 24,4-5). By turning towards Carthage he brought about a reorientation of Syracuse's former Rome-friendly policy (Pol. 7,2,1). At the report of the death of Hieronymus in 214 BC, while he was on a diplomatic mission to Ptolemaeus [I 7] IV Philopator in Alexandria [1], he never again returned to Syracuse (Liv. 24,26,1). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography G. de Sens…

Six hundred

(238 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] ( tò tōn hexakosíōn synédrion). From the death of Timoleon in 337 BC until Agathocles' [2] coup d'état in 316 the oligarchy of the Six Hundred played a prominent part in the politics of Syracusae. Owing to the disparate sources, the origins, competence, composition and statutory status of the SH are unclear (cf. summary in [1]). Diodorus [18] (19,5,6), for instance, describes the SH sometimes as a regular constitutional body and sometimes as a political faction (Hetairia [2]), which h…

Aristocritus

(47 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀριστόκριτος; Aristókritos, of Miletus?). Dating uncertain but before Parthenius (1st cent. BC). Wrote 1 book Peri Miletou: urban history or periegesis. Identification with the author of the book ‘Against Heracleodorus’ according to Jacoby is ‘entirely doubtful’ (FGrH 493 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Cleidemus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Κλείδημος; Kleídēmos, also Cleitodemus, Κλειτόδημος; Kleitódēmos). From Athens, according to Pausanias (10,15,5 = FGrH 323 T 1) the earliest Atthidographer (  Atthis ). C. wrote c. 350 BC an Atthís in at least 4 books, which is also quoted in the Protogonía (‘History of the First-Born People’) and was distinguished by dramatic vividness according to Plutarch (Mor. 345E). It extended from the mythological creation of the world to the  Peloponnesian war: the last event recorded was in 415 BC (F 10). C., himself an exēgētḗs (‘interpreter’) of sacred law, also wrote an Exēg…

Androtion

(230 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀνδροτίων; Androtíōn). From Athens, author of an Athenian local history, student of  Isocrates. As the only one among the  Atthidographers also politically active: he began his career in 387 BC (T 3), occupied a military commanding role in the Social War (T 7) and was in 355/4 a member of a delegation to  Mausolus, which was to clear the way for the Persian war (T 8). As a moderate democrat already in 355/4 and 353/2 fought by  Demosthenes (or. 22 bzw. 24), he was finally banned to Megara in 343/2 (T 14). There arose his Atthis, which in eight books reaches back to the myt…

Hellenica Oxyrhynchia

(604 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Two series of papyrus fragments, both 2nd cent. AD.: P Oxy. 842 = PLond., year of discovery 1906, ed. by Grenfell and Hunt (who called the anonymous author P. = Papyrus) and PSI 1304 = PFlor., year of discovery 1942, belonging to one and the same work of history from the first half of the 4th cent. BC and comprising a total of c. 20 pages of Greek history (with gaps!). There is also possibly another new fragment, cf. [1]. Contents: events in the Ionian-Decelean war ( Decelea), particularly the naval battle of Notium in 407/6 (= PFlor.). Political atmosphere…

Adranodorus

(116 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀδρανόδωρος; Adranódōros). Son-in-law of Hieron II of Syracuse. In 215 BC (with others) made guardian of Hieronymus, the 15-year-old grandson and successor of Hieron II, he was responsible for the radical turning of Syracusian politics to the Carthaginians. After the death of Hieronymus in 214, he secured Ortygia and received the office of   strategos . His plan to attain leadership of Syracuse, which was supported by his wife Demarete, led in the same year to his murder in the city hall of Syracuse (Pol. 7,2,1; 5,4 f.; Liv. 24,4,3 f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliogra…

Dieuchidas

(93 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Διευχίδας; Dieuchídas). Son of Praxion of Megara, 4th cent. BC. Author of the Megariká in at least five vols. with broad treatment of the early period. The terminal date is uncertain, as is the chronological relationship with  Ephorus. In accounts of the temple of Delphi, a D. appears in the college of the naopoioí (‘temple builders’) in 338-329 (Syll.3 241 C 141; 250 I 21). He is usually identified with this D. contrary to [1. 13ff.]. Only 11 fragments preserved. FGrH 485 (with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 L. Piccirilli, Megarika, 1975.

Aristomache

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀριστομάχη; Aristomáchē). Older sister of Dion, after 397 BC a spouse of  Dionysius I (Diod. Sic. 14,44,8). Arete, a daughter from this marriage, later married Dionysius. After his assassination in 354, A. and Arete were imprisoned. They were freed in the following year, but died on the sea voyage to the Peloponnese (Plut. Dion 57 f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Leandr(i)us

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Λεάνδρ(ι)ος; Leándr(i)os). L. of Miletus, author of Milesiaká in at least 2 books that were repeatedly used by Callimachus [3]. Often, the name Leandr(i)us is considered a corruption and equated to Maeandrius of Miletus (also attested in inscriptions: Syll.3 599 and IPriene 37ff.), the author of the Historíai. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography Editions: FGrH 491 and 492 with commentary

Philistus

(658 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Φίλιστος; Phílistos). [German version] A. Life P. of Syracuse, c. 430-356 BC, confidant, advisor, officer and historian of Dionysius I and II. P. helped Dionysius [1] I seize power in 406/5 (FGrH 556 T 3), commanded the tyrant's fortress on Ortygia for many years (T 5 c) and was entrusted with building the Adriatic colonial empire (T 5 a). Around 386, he was banished for personal reasons, probably only returning under Dionysius [2] II, whereupon he became the latter's most trusted advisor. P. was a stau…

Callixeinus

(115 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλλίξεινος; Kallíxeinos) of Rhodes, probably 2nd cent. BC. Wrote ‘On Alexandria’ in at least four bks. Two longer quotes are preserved in Athenaeus (5,196a-206c): F 2 on a splendid procession ( pompḗ) of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (279/78? BC), the other F 1 on the grand shipbuilding of Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-204). The work was neither a local history nor a perihegesis ( Periegetes) of Alexandria, but rather a collection of reports on special events ordered according to content. FGrH 627. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography G. Grimm, Alexandreia. Die erste K…

Lindische Tempelchronik

(200 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] Die Anagraphḗ von Lindos (auf Rhodos), 1904 entdeckt, ist ein hervorragendes Beispiel für ein lokalgesch. Werk, das einem Spezialthema gilt. Die Inschr. wurde 99 v.Chr. auf Antrag des Hagesitimos, Sohn des Timachidas, durch Beschluß des Rates im Heiligtum der Athena Lindia aufgestellt: Sie enthält den Wortlaut dieses Beschlusses (= A), ein Inventar von 45 Weihgeschenken, die (angeblich) im Tempel aufgestellt waren (= B und C), und die Beschreibung von vier Epiphanien (“Erscheinung…

Akestoridas

(48 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀκεστορίδης). Aus Korinth. Ca. 323/2 v. Chr. von den Syrakusiern zum Strategen gewählt, um Oligarchen und (gemäßigte) Demokraten miteinander zu versöhnen, suchte er angeblich den der Tyrannis verdächtigten Agathokles [2] zu beseitigen (Diod. 19,5,1). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography K. Meister, CAH 7.1, 21984, 387 f.

Charax

(136 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Χάραξ; Chárax). A. Claudius C. from Pergamum; Greek historian. He lived during the 2nd cent. AD under Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, was a priest and in AD 147 consul. C. wrote a universal history in 40 books, covering especially Greek and -- from book 12 -- Roman history up to the period of ‘Nero and his successors’ (Suda s.v. = T 1). The work was later summarized and used by Stephanus of Byzantium under the title Chroniká. The fragments relate mostly to mythological times, as it was mainly for his euhemeristic and allegorical interpretation…

Phylarchus

(390 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] P. from Athens or Naucratis (FGrH 81 T 1), Greek historian of the 3rd cent. BC, one of the main representatives of 'tragic' or 'mimetic' historiography (II C) [1. 93-108; 2. 95-102; 222 note 22]. P. wrote Historíai in 28 books, extending from the death of Pyrrhus (272 BC) to the death of king Cleomenes [6] III of Sparta (220/119 BC) (FGrH 81 T 1). 60 fragments survive (FGrH 81 with comm.). His work continues that of Duris of Samos (see historiography II C) and Hieronymus [6] of Cardia. Polybius [2] (Pol. 2,56-63 =…

Promathidas

(78 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Προμαθίδας; Promathídas). Greek local historian from Heraclea [7] on the Pontus. As a source for Apollonius [2] of Rhodes (cf. FGrH 430 T 1) he can be dated before c. 250 BC; he was also probably used by Nymphis and Memnon [5]. Some fragments of his work Heraclea, about the mythical era, survive. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography FGrH 430 with comm.  P. Desideri, Studi di storiografia eracleota, in: Studi Classici e Orientali 16, 1967, 366-416.

Polycritus

(54 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Πολύκριτος/ Polýkritos) of Mende, historian from western Greece c. middle of the 4th cent. BC and author of a History of (the Young) Dionysius [2] and a History of Sicily (Sikeliká), whose compass, perspective and extent in time are unknown; only 3 fragments survive (FGrH 559 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Phanodemus

(149 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανόδημος; Phanódēmos). Atthidographer, father of the historian Diyllus and follower of Lycurgus' [9] restoration policy (FGrH 325 T 2-5). As a member of the Council he was honoured with a gold wreath in 343/2 BC (IG II2 223 = Syll.3 227). Several inscriptions from the years 332/1 to 329/8 (IG VII 4252-4254) testify to his espousing the cult of Amphiaraus of Ephesus. His Atthís, comprising at least 9 books, which appeared in about 330 and of which 27 fragments survive, also reveals a strong interest in issues of cult. The fragment datable as…

Nymphis

(221 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Νύμφις; Nýmphis). N. from Heraclia [7] on the Pontus, son of Xenagoras, historian, b. c. 310 BC, d. after 246. He played an eminent role among the exiles who returned to their home in 281 BC after the end of the tyranny under Clearchus [3] and the death of Lysimachus [2] (FGrH 432 T 3 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 7,3). In 250, N. was the leader of the delegation that induced the Galatians to withdraw from Heracleotis (T 4 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 16,3). Works: 1) ‘On Heraclia in 13 bks.: Extensive local history of his home town, connected with the ‘great’ history and pr…

Heloris

(139 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἕλωρις; Hélōris). Syracusan, close friend, perhaps even the adoptive father of the older  Dionysius [1] (Diod. Sic. 14,8,5). During an uprising of the Syracusans against the tyrant in 404/3 BC he uttered, according to Diodorus (loc. cit.), the remark that was quoted right through to late antiquity: ‘Tyranny is a beautiful shroud’ ( kalòn entáphiòn estin hē tyrannís). Later banished for unknown reasons, he fought in 394 in Rhegium against Dionysius, laid siege to Messana in vain in 393 and defended Rhegium successfully in 392 against th…

Agatharchides of Cnidus

(340 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀγαθαρχίδης; Agatharchídēs). [German version] A. Life Historian and geographer. Particulars about his life and work in a vita by Photius 213. As a consequence of a self-attestation in Photius 250 in 132/1 BC (or already 145?) an old man. Birth therefore before 200. Active as reader and secretary of Heracleides Lembos in Alexandria. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] B. Works 1. History of Asia ( Asiatiká) in 10 books, reaching up to the era of the Diadochi. From book two (as well as book eight of Artemidorus' description of the earth) comes the depict…

Local chronicles, local history

(563 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Historical or antiquarian works on particular areas or localities, often dated according to eponymous officials. According to [1], Greek local chronicles and local historiography grew out of official lists and indices (officials, priests, victors in competitions) in which notes on all sorts of events were scattered. From these preliterary town chronicles, local chronicles and histories supposedly developed in the 6th/5th cents. BC, with the Hóroi (Annual Books) of Samos being the earliest; later the Atthís followed. This opinion, whic…

Damocles

(90 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δαμοκλῆς; Damoklês). Courtier and sycophant of the tyrant  Dionysius [1] I (according to Timaeus FGrH 566 F 32 of Dionysius II). The anecdote of the ‘sword of Damocles’ became famous through Cicero (Tusc. 5,61f.): as D. considered the powerful and rich tyrant to be the happiest person in the world, the latter had a sumptuous meal prepared for him but above his head had a sword suspended on a horse hair in order to demonstrate to him the true ‘happiness’ of a tyrant. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Mnesiptolemus

(93 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Μνησιπτόλεμος/ Mnēsiptólemos). Son of Calliarchus from Cyme, a city in Asia Minor (IG XI 697), Greek historian at the court of king Antiochus [5] III of Seleucia (222-187 BC). In his Historía, now completely lost, he was ‘probably more concerned with the deeds of Antiochus the Great than with the entire history of the Syrian kings’ [1]. Because of the many trivial details about the court in his writings, he was ridiculed in comedy (cf. Ath. 10,40 p. 432bc = T 2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 FGrH 164 with commentary.

Terias

(48 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τηρίας; Tērías). River on the eastern coast of Sicilia with Leontini on its upper reaches (Scyl. 13; Diod.  Sic. 14,14,3;  cf. Thuc. 6,50,3; 6,94,2; Plin. HN 3,89), modern San Leonardo di Lentini. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 125.

Pasiphilos

(73 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Πασίφιλος). Feldherr des Agathokles [2], für den er 312/1 v.Chr. Messana gewann (Diod. 19,102,1-3). Als Deinokrates [1] und Philonides an der Spitze der Verbannten Galeria besetzten, eroberte P. das Kastell zurück (Diod. 19,104,1-2). Nach dem E. des afrikan. Feldzuges lief er 306/5 zu Deinokrates über (Diod. 20,77,1-2), wurde aber bereits ein Jahr später in Gela ermordet (Diod. 20,90,2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography K. Meister, Agathokles, in: CAH 7,1, 1984, 384-405.

Archonides

(90 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀρχωνίδης). [English version] [1] König von Herbita auf Sizilien (2.H. 5. Jh. v. Chr.) König von Herbita und anderer sizilischer Gemeinden. Beteiligte sich an der Gründung von Kale Akte durch Duketios ca. 446/5 v. Chr. (Diod. 12,8,2) und starb ca. 414 als Freund der Athener (Thuk. 7,1,4). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [English version] [2] König von Herbita (Ende 5. Jh. v. Chr.) König von Herbita und Freund der Athener (IG II2 32). Schloß 403/2 Frieden mit Dionysios I. und gründete die Stadt Halaisa Archonideios (Diod. 14,16). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Deinias

(73 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Δεινίας). Aus Argos, lebte im 3. Jh.v.Chr.; er war Verf. von Argoliká in mindestens neun Büchern. Sie reichten von der breit behandelten mythischen Zeit bis zur Schlacht von Kleonai (ca. 235), in der Aratos [2] den Tyrannen Aristippos von Argos besiegte (FGrH 306 F 5). Seine Identität mit D., der 251/50 den Tyrannen Abantidas von Sikyon ermordete (T 1), ist nicht gesichert. FGrH 306 (mit Komm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Nerëis

(97 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Νηρηίς). Tochter des Molosserkönigs Pyrrhos II. 233/2 v.Chr. von Hieron [2] II. aus dynastischen Gründen mit seinem Sohn Gelon [2] verheiratet, gebar sie drei Söhne, darunter Hieronymos [3], und eine Tochter. Der Name der Königin findet sich inschr. im Theater von Syrakus (Syll.3 429). Ferner ließ N. Standbilder ihrer Familie in Delphoi und Olympia aufstellen (Syll.3 453; Pol. 7,4,5; Liv. 24,6,8; Paus. 6,12,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 J. Seibert, Histor. Beitr. zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hell. Zeit, 1967, 110f. 2 G. de Sensi Sestito, G…

Androtion

(213 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀνδροτίων). Aus Athen, Verf. einer athenischen Lokalgesch., Schüler des Isokrates. Als einziger unter den Atthidographen auch polit. tätig: Er begann seine Laufbahn 387 v. Chr. (T 3), hatte im Bundesgenossenkrieg ein mil. Kommando inne (T 7) und war 355/4 Mitglied einer Gesandtschaft an Maussollos, die den Perserkrieg vorbereiten sollte (T 8). Als gemäßigter Demokrat bereits 355/4 und 353/2 von Demosthenes bekämpft (or. 22 bzw. 24), wurde er schließlich 343/2 nach Megara verbannt (T 14). Dort entstand seine Atthis, die in 8 B. von den mythischen Anfängen…

Athanis

(135 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἄθανις). A. von Syrakus, Namensform Áthanis bei Athen. 3,98d und Plut. Timol. 23,6; Athánas bei Diod. 15,94,4; Áthenis bei Theop. FGrH 115 F 194. Er nahm an der Expedition des Dion nach Sizilien teil und war 356 in Syrakus zusammen mit Herakleides und Archelaos von Dyme prostátēs tēs póleōs (“Vorsteher der Stadt”). A. setzte das Werk des Philistos (FGrH 556) fort, das bis 363/2 reichte, und beschrieb in 13 B. die weiteren Schicksale des jüngeren Dionysios, die Ereignisse um Dion sowie die Gesch. des Timoleon mindestens bis zu des…

Aristomache

(61 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀριστομάχη). Ältere Schwester Dions, seit 397 v. Chr. eine der Gemahlinnen Dionysios' I. (Diod. 14,44,8). Arete, eine Tochter aus dieser Ehe, heiratete später Dionysios. Nach seiner Ermordung 354 kamen A. und Arete ins Gefängnis. Sie wurden zwar im folgenden Jahr befreit, kamen aber auf der Seefahrt nach der Peloponnes um (Plut. Dion 57 f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Damarete

(195 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δαμαρέτη). [English version] [1] Frau des Gelon von Syrakus Tochter des Theron von Akragas und Frau des Gelon von Syrakus, nach dessen Tod des Polyzalos. Diodor (11,26,3) und die schol. 15 (29) zu Pindar (O. 2) berichten, D. sei nach der Schlacht von Himera 480 v.Chr. für den Frieden mit den Karthagern und deren humane Behandlung eingetreten. Vom Erlös des goldenen Kranzes im Gewicht von 100 Talenten, den sie dafür von diesen erhielt, habe sie sog. Damareteia, Gedenkmünzen im Wert von 10 att. Drachmen b…

Ephoros

(611 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἔφορος) aus Kyme in Kleinasien, griech. Universalhistoriker, lebte ca. 400-330. Er galt wegen seines Stils in der Ant. als Schüler des Isokrates, war Zeitgenosse des Theopompos (FGrH 70 T 3-5; 8; 28) und schlug angeblich die Einladung zum Alexanderzug 334 v.Chr. aus (T 6). Werke: Epichórios lógos (“Heimatgeschichte”): Enkomion auf Kyme, das E. sogar zur Heimat Homers machte (F 1). ‘Über Erfindungen: Der “sophistischen Polyhistorie” (so Ed. Schwartz) zuzurechnen, behandelte u.a. den Ursprung der griech. Buchstaben (F 97 u. 2…

Hypsikrates

(77 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ὑψικράτης) von Amisos. Historiker und Grammatiker, der 92 J. alt wurde ([Lukian.] makrob. 22). Die wenigen Fragmente seines Geschichtswerkes weisen auf die Zeit des Caesar bzw. Augustus (E. 1. Jh. v.Chr.). Er schrieb auch über Homer, den er als Zeitgenossen Hesiods betrachtete, und gab Etymologien griech. und lat. Worte, die Varro ablehnte. Dabei leitete er den lat. Sprachschatz aus dem griech. her. FGrH 190. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography R. Giomini, Ipsicrate, in: Maia 8, 1956, 49-55.

Agatharchides von Knidos

(301 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀγαθαρχίδης). [English version] A. Leben Historiker und Geograph. Angaben über Leben und Werk in einer Vita bei Photios 213. Einem Selbstzeugnis bei Photios 250 zufolge 132/1 v. Chr. (oder schon 145?) ein alter Mann. Geburt daher vor 200. Als Vorleser und Sekretär des Herakleides Lembos in Alexandria tätig. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [English version] B. Werke 1. Geschichte Asiens ( Asiatiká) in 10 B., bis in die Diadochenzeit reichend. Aus B. 2 (sowie aus B. 8 von Artemidors Erdbeschreibung) stammt die Schilderung Äthiopiens bei Diodor (3,2-10); ebenfall…

Psaon

(38 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ψάων) von Plataiai, Verf. einer Universalgesch. in Fortsetzung des Diyllos (Diod. 21,5). Sie beginnt somit 297/6 v. Chr., ihr Endpunkt ist unbekannt: Nur 3 Fr. sind erh. (FGrH 78 mit Komm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Dinon

(92 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Δίνων) aus Kolophon, 4. Jh.v.Chr. Vater des Alexanderhistorikers Kleitarchos (FGrH 690 T 2) und Verf. von Persiká in mindestens drei Teilen ( syntáxeis) mit jeweils mehreren Büchern (F 3) von Semiramis (wenigstens) bis zur Rückeroberung Ägyptens durch Artaxerxes [3] III. (343/2). Die oft romanhafte und sensationsbetonte Darstellung (vgl. F 10; 17; 22) war durch Ktesias beeinflußt und wurde u.a. von Pompeius Trogus und Plutarch, Artoxerxes, benutzt. FGrH 690. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography O. Lendle, Einführung in die griech. Geschichtsschreibun…

Philochoros

(334 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Φιλόχορος). Ph. aus Athen, Sohn des Kyknos, geb. ca. 340 v.Chr., letzter und bedeutendster Atthidograph ( Atthís ). Seine Arbeiten - eine kurze Lebensbeschreibung in der Suda nennt 21 Werke (FGrH 328 T 1), weitere sechs sind aus sonstigen Zeugnissen bekannt - umfassen die gesamte Breite der Gesch., Lit. und Rel. Athens. Die Vielfalt der Themen, der schmucklose Stil und die Systematik des Sammelns lassen auf Einfluß der peripatetischen Schule (Peripatos) schließen und ihn als ‘…

Hyperochos

(40 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ὑπέροχος) aus dem unterital. Kyme, Zeit unbekannt (nach Jacoby, Komm. zu H., FGrH 576) frühestens 3. Jh. v.Chr., spätestens 2. Jh. n.Chr.). Verfasser einer Lokalgeschichte von Kyme ( Kymaiká), von der nur 3 Fr. erh. sind. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Hereas

(92 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἡρέας). Aus Megara, Verf. von Megariká, offenbar jünger als Dieuchidas. Die Fragmente in Plutarchs Theseus und Solon stammen nach gängiger Auffassung letztlich (über Istros und Hermippos!) aus den Megariká oder einer anderen (antiathenischen!) Schrift des H. Wahrscheinlich ist H. mit dem in IG VII 39 (Anf. 3. Jh. v.Chr.) erwähnten Theoros identisch, schwerlich aber, wie seit [1. 8] gemeinhin angenommen wird, mit Heragoras, einem weiteren Verf. von Megariká. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Comm. gramm. 1880/1881. Fr.…

Dieuchidas

(83 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Διευχίδας). Sohn des Praxion aus Megara, 4. Jh.v.Chr. D. war Verf. von Megariká in mindestens fünf B. mit breiter Behandlung der Frühzeit. Der Endpunkt ist unsicher, ebenso das zeitliche Verhältnis zu Ephoros. Auf Abrechnungen des Tempels in Delphi erscheint im Kollegium der naopoioí (“Tempelbauer”) 338-329 ein D. (Syll.3 241 C 141; 250 I 21), der meist mit diesem D. identifiziert wird; anders [1. 13ff.]. Nur 11 Fragmente erhalten. FGrH 485 (mit Komm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 L. Piccirilli, Megarika, 1975.

Deinomeniden

(51 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] Ursprünglich geloische, später syrakusische Herrscherdynastie, begründet von Deinomenes aus Gela und weitergeführt von dessen vier Söhnen Gelon, Hieron, Thrasybulos und Polyzalos. Durch die Hochzeit von Therons Tochter Damarete mit Gelon traten die Deinomeniden in enge verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen zu den Emmeniden von Akragas (vgl. Abb.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Leandr(i)os

(59 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Λεάνδρ(ι)ος). L. von Milet, Verf. von Milesiaká in mind. 2 B., die mehrfach von Kallimachos [3] benutzt wurden. Häufig wird der Name Leandr(i)os als Korruptel betrachtet und der Autor mit dem (auch inschr. bezeugten: Syll.3 599 bzw. IPriene 37ff.) Maiandrios von Milet, Autor von Historíai, gleichgesetzt. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography Ed.: FGrH 491 bzw. 492 mit Komm.

Daimachos

(160 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δαίμαχος). [English version] [1] aus Plataiai, Historiker, 4. Jh. v. Chr. aus Plataiai, griech. Historiker im 4. Jh.v.Chr. Er war Verf. einer Zeitgeschichte, von Jacoby schwerlich zu Recht als Autor der Hellenika von Oxyrhynchos betrachtet. FGrH 65 (mit Komm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography F. Jacoby, The Autorship of the Hellenica of Oxyrhynchus, in: CQ 44, 1950, 1-11  S. Hornblower, in: Proc. of the Second Internat. Congr. of Boiotian Studies (erscheint demnächst; verteidigt Jacoby)  K. Meister, Die griech. Geschichtsschreibung, 1990, 65f. [English version] [2] aus …

Adranodoros

(117 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀδρανόδωρος). Schwiegersohn Hierons II. von Syrakus. 215 v. Chr. (mit anderen) zum Vormund des Hieronymus, des 15jähr. Enkels und Nachfolgers Hierons II., bestellt, war er für die radikale Hinwendung der syrakusanischen Politik zu den Karthagern verantwortlich. Nach dem Tod des Hieronymus 214 befestigte er Ortygia und erhielt das Strategenamt (Strategos). Der auch von seiner Gemahlin Demarete unterstützte Plan, die Herrschaft über Syrakus zu erringen, führte noch im gleichen Jah…

Nymphis

(197 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Νύμφις). N. aus Herakleia [7] am Pontos, Sohn des Xenagoras, Historiker, geb. um 310 v.Chr., gest. nach 246. Spielte eine herausragende Rolle unter den Verbannten, die nach dem Ende der Tyrannis des Klearchos [3] und dem Tod des Lysimachos [2] 281 v.Chr. in die Heimat zurückkehrten (FGrH 432 T 3 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 7,3). Um 250 war er Anführer der Gesandtschaft, welche die Galater zum Abzug aus der Herakleotis bewog (T 4 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 16,3). Werke: 1) ‘Über Herakleia in 13 B.: Umfangreiche Lokalgesch. seiner Heimatstadt, der “großen” Gesch. na…

Lokalchronik, Lokalgeschichte

(499 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] Histor. bzw. antiquarische Spezialdarstellungen über bestimmte Gebiete bzw. Orte, die oft nach eponymen Beamten datierten. Nach [1] erwuchs die griech. Lokalchronik und dann die Lokalgeschichtsschreibung (L.) aus amtlich geführten Listen und Verzeichnissen (Beamte, Priester, Sieger in Wettkämpfen), in die Notizen über allerhand Ereignisse eingestreut wurden. Aus diesen vorlit. Stadtchroniken sei im 6./5. Jh.v.Chr. die lit. Chronik bzw. L. enstanden, wobei die Hóroi (Jahrbücher) von Samos den Anfang machten; später folgte die Atthís

Polykritos

(47 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Πολύκριτος) von Mende, westgriech. Historiker ca. Mitte 4. Jh. v. Chr. und Verf. einer ‘Gesch. des (Jüngeren) Dionysios [2] sowie einer ‘Sizilischen Gesch. ( Sikeliká), deren Umfang, Tendenz und zeitl. Ausdehnung unbekannt sind; erh. sind nur 3 Fr. (FGrH 559 mit Komm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Promathidas

(77 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Προμαθίδας). Griech. Lokalhistoriker aus Herakleia [7] am Pontos. Als Quelle des Apollonios [2] von Rhodos (vgl. FGrH 430 T 1) ist er vor ca. 250 v. Chr. zu datieren; verm. wurde er auch von Nymphis und Memnon [5] benutzt. Aus seinem Werk ‘Über Herakleia sind einige, die mythische Zeit betreffende Fr. erh. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography FGrH 430 mit Komm.  P. Desideri, Studi di storiografia eracleota, in: Studi Classici e Orientali 16, 1967, 366-416.

Kallixeinos

(113 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Καλλίξεινος) von Rhodos, wohl 2. Jh. v.Chr. Schrieb ‘Über Alexandreia in mind. 4 B. Daraus sind zwei längere Zitate bei Athenaios (5,196a-206c) erh.: F 2 über einen prächtigen Festzug ( pompḗ) des Ptolemaios II. Philadelphos (279/78? v.Chr.), F 1 über großartige Schiffsbauten Ptolemaios' IV. Philopator (221-204). Die Schrift war weder eine Lokalgesch. noch eine Perihegese ( periēgētḗs ) Alexandreias, vielmehr eine Slg. von Berichten über bes. Ereignisse, die nach sachlichen Gesichtspunkten geordnet waren. FGrH 627. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography G. …

Agroitas

(52 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀγροίτας). Griech. Historiker aus hell. Zeit (von Kyrene?). Verf. von Libyká in mindestens 3 Büchern. Die wenigen erh. Fragmente lassen eine rationalistische Umgestaltung des Mythos erkennen. A. hat anscheinend das von Diod. 4,26,2-4 zitierte und von ihm 3,52 ff. benützte myth. Handbuch beeinflußt (FGrH 762). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Gellias

(60 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Γελλίας). Reicher Akragantiner, dessen einmalige Gastlichkeit und Freigebigkeit von Diodoros (13,83) anläßlich der Schilderung des Wohlstandes von Akragas im 5. Jh. v.Chr. (Diod. 13,81,4-84,7 = Timaios FGrH 566 F 26a) gerühmt werden. Vgl. auch Athen. I 4 und Val. Max. 4,8 ext. 2. G. starb bei der Zerstörung von Akragas durch die Karthager 406/5. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Marmor Parium

(323 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] Hell. Marmorchronik aus Paros; zwei umfangreiche Partien sind erhalten: Frg. A (Z. 1-93) kam im J. 1627 aus Smyrna in den Besitz des Grafen Thomas Howard von Arundel, doch gingen Z. 1-45 während der Wirren unter Karl I. verloren und sind nur aus der Editio princeps von J. Selden [1] bekannt; Z. 46-93 befinden sich seit 1667 in Oxford. 1897 wurde auf Paros Frg. B (Z. 101-132, FHG 1, 542-555) entdeckt, es wird h. im dortigen Museum aufbewahrt. Beim M.P. handelt es sich um eine griech. Universalchronik, die der Unterrichtung und Unterhaltung einer breiten Öff…

Philistos

(615 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Φίλιστος). [English version] A. Leben Ph. von Syrakusai, ca. 430-356 v.Chr., Vertrauter, Berater, Offizier und Historiker von Dionysios I. und II. Ph. verhalf 406/5 Dionysios [1] I. zur Macht (FGrH 556 T 3), kommandierte lange Zeit die Tyrannenburg auf Ortygia (T 5 c) und wurde mit dem Aufbau des adriatischen Kolonialreiches betraut (T 5 a). Um das J. 386 aus persönlichen Gründen verbannt, kehrte er wohl erst unter Dionysios [2] II. zurück und wurde dessen einflußreichster Berater. Ph. war entschied…

Hellenika Oxyrhynchia

(536 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] Zwei Reihen von Papyrusfragmenten, beide 2. Jh. n.Chr.: POxy. 842 = PLond., Fundjahr 1906, hrsg. von Grenfell und Hunt (die den anonymen Autor P. = Papyrus nannten) und PSI 1304 = PFlor., Fundjahr 1942, ein und demselben Geschichtswerk aus der ersten Hälfte des 4. Jh. v.Chr. angehörend und insgesamt ca. 20 Seiten griech. Gesch. (mit Lücken!) umfassend. Dazu kommt vielleicht ein neues Fr., vgl. [1]. Inhalt: Ereignisse des ionisch-dekeleischen Krieges (Dekeleia), bes. Seeschlacht von Notion 407/6 (= PFlor.). Polit. Stimmung in Griechenland 397…

Antikleides

(46 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀντικλείδης). [English version] [aus Athen] Geschichtsschreiber (um 300 v. Chr.) ›Mehr Antiquar als eigentlicher Historiker‹ (Jacoby). Lebte zu Beginn der Diadochenzeit um 300 v. Chr. und war wohl peripatetisch beeinflußt (fr. 15-16). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography Werk Perí Alexándru, Deliaká, Nóstoi (FGrH 140 mit Komm.)

Kleidemos

(107 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Κλείδημος; auch Kleitodemos, Κλειτόδημος). Aus Athen, nach Pausanias (10,15,5 = FGrH 323 T 1) ältester Atthidograph ( Atthís ). K. verfaßte um 350 v.Chr. eine Atthís in mind. 4 B., die auch als Protogonía (‘Gesch. des erstgeborenen Volkes) zitiert wird und sich nach Plutarch (mor. 345E) durch dramat. Anschaulichkeit auszeichnete. Sie reichte von der myth. Weltschöpfung bis zum Peloponnesischen Krieg: spätestes Ereignis 415 v.Chr. (F 10). K., selbst exēgētḗs (“Ausleger”) des Sakralrechts, schrieb auch ein Exēgētikón (F 14). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliograph…
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