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Masoretes

(806 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[German Version] Most books of the Old Testament were originally transmitted in several recensions. In the centuries after the destruction of the Second Temple, a specific text family with a limited number of internal variant readings came to be accepted as the normative majority text in the Jewish communities of Palestine and Mesopotamia. In the 7th century, scholars of both ¶ regions, the so-called Masoretes, began to vocalize, accent, and divide into verses and sections the proto-Masoretic text, which had until then been transmitted only in consonantal…

Judeo-Arabic Language

(226 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[German Version] As a result of the Arab conquest of extensive areas of the Mediterranean in the 7th and 8th centuries, the Jewish communities in these areas gave up their ancestral languages (Aram., Gk, Romanic); by the end of the 8th century at the latest, they were using Arabic as their written and spoken language. Judeo-Arabic represents a mixture of normative Standard Arabic and local dialects; it was written in Hebrew characters. The larger consonant stock of Ara-¶ bic meant that one Hebrew character often had to represent two Arabic equivalents. Hebrew kaf, for example, was used…

Samuel ha-Nagid

(118 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[German Version] (Ibn Nagrela; 2nd quarter to sometime after the mid-11th cent.), Jewish vizier and military commander for the Berber kings of Granada. He wrote drinking songs, love poetry, and war poetry in Hebrew. The war poems reflect his military experiences in the battles of the minor Muslim kings in the Arab part of Spain. He also wrote a work on Talmudic and non-Talmudic law, a grammar of Hebrew, and a criticism of the Qurʾān. In his Arab environment he nevertheless championed a politically…

Notariqon

(104 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[German Version] Notariqon is understood in Judaism until the end of the talmudic period as a common ¶ method of Scripture interpretation by which the letters of individual words in the Bible text indicate the first letters of independent words. For example, the consonants of the word nimreṣet (1Kgs 2:8) produce the words noʾef (adulterer), moʾābı (Moabite), roṣeaḥ (murderer), ṣorer (threatener) and tôʿbāh (horror). The starting word indicates, according to a talmudic interpretation, the insults which Shimei had poured on King David. Hans-Georg v. Mutius Bibliography G. Stemberge…

Salomo ben Isaak

(325 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[English Version] (Akronym: Rashi; 1040 Troyes – 1105 ebd.). Der wohl bedeutendste Bibelexeget und Talmudkommentator des 11.Jh. studierte in den 60er Jahren in den Talmudakademien zu Mainz und Worms. Nach seiner Rückkehr eröffnete er in Troyes ein Lehrhaus für Bibel- und Talmudstudien, das er bis zu seinem Todesjahr 1105 leitete. S.s Bibelkomm. sind von der Tendenz gekennzeichnet, die traditionelle rabb. Midrashauslegung zwar nicht zu verdrängen, aber zugunsten des Bemühens um den Sensus litterali…

Nathan ben Jechiel

(127 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[English Version] von Rom (1035–1100) vf. im letzten Drittel des 11.Jh. ein umfangreiches Lexikon über den hebr.-aram. Wortschatz der beiden Talmude und der Midrashliteratur. In seinen ausführlichen Worterklärungen geht er oft auch auf realienkundliche Dinge ein und verarbeitet u.a. die Exegese der Talmudhochschulen Babyloniens, Nordafrikas und des Rheinlands. Seine Midrashzitate enthalten gelegentlich einzigartige Variantenlesarten oder zitieren aus ansonsten völlig verlorengegangenen Werken. Das …

Notarikon

(90 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[English Version] . Unter N. versteht man eine im Judentum bis zum Ausklang der talm. Zeit geläufige Schriftauslegungsmethode, wonach die Buchstaben einzelner Bibeltextworte selbst wiederum die Anfangsbuchstaben eigenständiger Worte andeuten. Aus den Konsonanten des Wortes nimræṣæt (1Kön 2,8) ergeben sich zum Beispiel die Worte no'ef (Ehebrecher), mo'ābi^ (Moabiter), roṣe aḥ (Mörder), ṣorer (Bedränger) und to^‘ebāh (Greuel). Das Ausgangswort deutet nach einer talm. Auslegung die Beleidigungen an, mit denen Simei König David überschüttet hatte. Hans-Georg v. Mu…

Responsen, rabbinische

(411 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[English Version] . Nachdem der bab. Talmud am Ende des Früh-MA zum maßgeblichen Gesetzbuch der jüd. Diasporagemeinden avanciert war, ergaben sich in der alltäglichen Rechtssprechung für die jüd. Gerichte oft Probleme in der Umsetzung der talm. Rechtsnormen, zumal immer neue Fälle zu behandeln waren, auf die der Talmud keine oder keine klare Antwort gab. In dieser Lage schrieb das befaßte Gericht oft einen namhaften auswärtigen Gelehrten an, schilderte ihm den Fall und bat ihn um die Erteilung ein…

Pilpul

(182 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[English Version] . Unter P. versteht man in der talm. und nachtalm. Gesetzesauslegung des Judentums die scharfsinnige Analyse von halakhischen Texten (Halakha), die die Widersprüche und Unklarheiten einer vorliegenden Diskussion eruiert und sie zu lösen versucht. Zur Lösung der Schwierigkeiten setzt der Gelehrte mehr den eigenen innovativen Verstand ein, als auf vorgegebene Lösungsmöglichkeiten aus der Tradition zurückzugreifen. Im 16./17.Jh. bekommt der Begriff in der dt. und polnischen Judenhei…

Samuel ha-Nagid

(106 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[English Version] (Ibn Nagrela; 2. Viertel bis nach der Mitte des 11.Jh.). Der jüd. Wesir und Feldherr der Berberkönige von Granada schrieb Trinklieder, Liebeslyrik und Kriegsgedichte in hebr. Sprache. Letztere verarbeiteten seine Feldzugserfahrungen bei den Kämpfen der musl. Kleinkönige im arab. Teil Spaniens. Er vf. ein Werk zum talm. und nachtalm. Recht, eine Grammatik zur hebr. Sprache sowie eine Korankritik. Nichtsdestoweniger vertrat er vor der arab. Umwelt einen polit. motivierten Ökumenism…

Pilpul

(203 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[German Version] is understood in talmudic and post-talmudic exposition of the law of Judaism to mean the astute analysis of halakhah texts, that investigates and attempts to solve contradictions and obscurities in ongoing discussion. In order to solve the difficulties, the scholar employs his own innovative understanding, rather than referring back to possible solutions handed down in the tradition. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the term acquires a negative connotation in German and Polish Juda…

Meïr ben Baruch

(259 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[German Version] (acronym MaHaRam; c. 1220, Worms – 1293, Fortress of Ensisheim, Alsace). Probably the most important law scholar in German Judaism in the 13th century, he studied in Würzburg and northern France and spent the greater part of his life in Rothenburg ob der Tauber. When endeavoring to emigrate to the Holy Land in 1286, he was arrested in northern Italy and held prisoner by King Rudolf of Habsburg until his death in 1293. His numerous legal documents (Responsa) convey a detailed pictu…

Rashi

(386 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[German Version] (Solomon ben Isaac [Rashi is an acronym]; 1040, Troyes – 1105, Troyes), probably the most important exegete of the Bible and commentator on the Talmud in the 11th century; he studied in the 1060s in the Talmud academies in Mainz and Worms. After returning to Troyes, he opened a teaching institution for study of the Bible and Talmud, and directed it until his death in 1105. Rashi’s biblical commentaries are marked by a tendency to limit traditional rabbinic Midrash exposition – not by any means discarding it, but paying particular attention to the sensus litteralis of the v…

Responsa

(436 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[German Version] At the close of the early Middle Ages, after the Babylonian Talmud had become the normative law code of the Jewish Diaspora communities, in everyday jurisprudence the Jewish courts often faced problems in applying the legal norms of the Talmud, especially because new questions kept arising for which the Talmud had no (clear) answers. In such cases, the court would often write to a prestigious outside authority, describe the case to him, and ask him to deliver an opinion, which he …

Nathan ben Yehiel

(143 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[German Version] (1035–1100) wrote a comprehensive lexicon of the Hebrew-Aramaic vocabulary employed by the two Talmuds and by midrashic literature (Midrash), in the last third of the 11th century. In his detailed analyses of words, he frequently also delves into the real nature of things and draws, among other sources, on the exegesis of the talmudic academies of Babylonia, North Africa, and the Rhineland. His excerpts from the Midrash sometimes contain unique variant readings, or quote from works that are otherwise entirely lost. His lexicon was already widely read in the ¶ Middle Ag…

Ordination

(8,047 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Sänger, Dieter | Peters, Christian | Brandt, Reinhard | Meßner, Reinhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. Dogmatics – V. Liturgy – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Law and Legal History – VIII. Judaism I. Old Testament The search, mainly from a Protestant perspective, for antecedents of ordination in the Old Testament does not seem very promising, since no direct equivalent to Christian ordination as public commissioning of office-bearers by the community is to be found in the Hebrew Bible. Relevant research is mainly limited to the OT Jewish background of…

Ordination

(6,887 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Sänger, Dieter | Peters, Christian | Brandt, Reinhard | Meßner, Reinhard | Et al.
[English Version] I. Altes TestamentDie v.a. aus prot. Perspektive unternommene Suche nach Vorformen der O. im AT erscheint wenig aussichtsreich, da sich in der HB keine direkten Äquivalente zur christl. O. als öfftl. Beauftragung von Amtsträgern durch die Gemeinde finden. Entsprechende Untersuchungen beschränken sich vorwiegend auf den atl.-jüd. Hintergrund der frühchristl. O. (Lohse). Ntl. Berichte über die Einsetzung in Gemeindeämter (Apg 6,1–6; 13,1–3; 2Tim 1,6f.; s.u. II.) und rabb. Stellen zu…