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Rhinthon

(218 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] (Ῥίνθων). Dichter lit. Phlyaken-Stücke (von denen er 38 [1. test. 2 und 3] geschrieben haben soll) aus Syrakus [1. test. 1], zur Zeit Ptolemaios' [1] I. (322-283 v. Chr., König seit 305) [1. test. 3] in Tarent [1. test. 2 und 3] tätig. Von neun erh. Titeln sind acht als Tragödienparodien (zu Stücken des Euripides [1]: Ἀμφιτρύων/ ‘Amphitryon, Ἡρακλῆς/‘Herakles, Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Αὐλίδι/‘Iphigeneia in Aulis, Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Ταύροις/ ‘Iphigeneia im Taurerland, Δοῦλος Μελέαγρος/‘Meleagro…

Nikomachos

(1,580 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Νικόμαχος). [English version] [1] Heilheros s. Gorgasos und Nikomachos Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] athenischer Amtsträger, 410-404 v.Chr. Angeblich Sohn eines Staatssklaven und erst spät in die athenische Bürgerschaft aufgenommen, war N. 410-404 v.Chr. führend in der Kommission zur Aufzeichnung der Gesetze ( anagrapheís tōn nómōn) tätig. Unter den Dreißig ( triákonta ) vertrieben, kehrte er 403 zurück und wurde erneut anagrapheús. 399/8 warf man N. in einer Anklage vor, er habe Gesetze manipuliert, so zur Verurteilung des Demagogen…

Biottos

(66 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] Nur inschr. bezeugter Komödiendichter, der einmal an den att. Lenäen im Komödienagon den ersten Preis errang [1. test. 3] und in den Jahren 167 und 154 v.Chr. an den Großen Dionysien jeweils Dritter wurde [1. test. 1, 2]. Aus beiden Agonen ist auch noch der Titel von B.' Stück bekannt (‘Der Unwissende, ‘Der Dichter). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 36.

Lynkeus

(490 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Λυγκεύς, zu λύγξ, “Luchs”). [English version] [1] Sohn des Aphareus Sohn des Aphareus [1], des Königs von Messene, und der Arene; Bruder des Idas (L. wird stets mit diesem zusammen erwähnt; das Brüderpaar wird Apharetidai genannt). Die Brüder nehmen an der Fahrt der Argonautai (Apoll. Rhod. 1,151) und an der Kalydonischen Jagd teil (Apollod. 1,67; Ov. met. 8,304). Sie sollen Helene entführt und Theseus übergeben haben (Plut. Theseus 31,1). Im Kampf mit den Dioskuren stirbt L. durch Polydeukes (verschiede…

Euthykles

(24 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] (Εὐθυκλῆς). Dichter der ausgehenden Alten Komödie (?). Zwei Stücktitel und zwei Fragmente sind erhalten. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 541f.

Euthias

(35 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] (Εὐθίας). Attischer Komödiendichter, der um die Mitte des 4. Jh. v.Chr. bei einem Wettkampf den zweiten Platz belegte [1. test.]. Weder Stücktitel noch Fragmente sind erhalten. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 540.

Antiphanes

(679 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
[English version] [1] Komödiendichter, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Att. Komödiendichter, zu dessen Familie und Herkunft recht widersprüchliche Angaben vorliegen [1. test. 1, 2]. Sowohl sein Vater wie sein Sohn (der seinerseits als Komödiendichter noch Stücke seines Vaters aufführte [1. test 1]) hießen Stephanos. A. wurde in der 93. Olympiade (zwischen 408 und 404 v. Chr.) geboren [1. test. 1] und soll bereits zwanzig Jahre später (›nach der 98. Olympiade‹ [1. test. 2]) mit seiner Bühnentätigkeit begonnen haben. Im A…

Ophelion

(55 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] (Ὠφελίων). Att. Komödiendichter des 4. Jh. v.Chr.; erh. sind vier Stücktitel (Δευκαλίων; Ἰάλεμος, ‘Der tumbe Tor; Κάλλαισχρος - bei diesem Namen ist unklar, ob es sich um eine histor. oder fiktive Person handelt; Κένταυρος) und sechs Fr., die bis auf fr. 3 (Platon-Spott) unergiebig sind. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 97-99.

Hipparchos

(1,643 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἵππαρχος). [English version] [1] Zweiter Sohn des Peisistratos, um 530 v. Chr. Zweiter Sohn des Peisistratos und einer Athenerin. Zusammen mit seinem älteren Bruder Hippias [1] und dem jüngeren Thessalos trat H. nach dem Tod des Vaters (528/7 v.Chr.) dessen Erbe an (Thuk. 6,55; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 18,1). Anders als Hippias zeigte H. kein polit. Profil. Er widmete sich der aristokratischen Geselligkeit und Kultur und lud u.a. Anakreon [1] von Teos und Simonides von Keos nach Athen ein (Plat. Hipparch. 228b…

Baton

(220 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Princeton) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
(Βάτων). [English version] [1] Wagenlenker des Amphiaraos Wagenlenker des Amphiaraos. Wie dieser stammte er aus dem Geschlecht des Melampus. Zusammen mit Amphiaraos und seinem Wagen wurde er in der Schlacht von Theben von der Erde verschlungen. Er besaß in Argos ein Heiligtum in der Nähe des Amphiaraos-Heiligtums (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). Die Argiver weihten den Wagen des Amphiaraos mit der Statue des B. nach Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Princeton) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [English version] [2] att. Komödiendichter, 3. Jh. v. Chr. Att. Kom…

Pherekrates

(703 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] (Φερεκράτης). Bedeutender Dichter der att. Alten Komödie. Zunächst als Schauspieler tätig [1. test. 2a], begann er mit eigenen Aufführungen nach Kratinos [1] und Krates [1], aber vor Hermippos [1], Phrynichos [3], Aristophanes [3], Eupolis (vgl. [1. test. 2a, 5, 6]). Ein Sieg (unklar, in welchem Agon) ist für 437 v.Chr. bezeugt [1. test. 2a]; die Lenäensiegerliste schreibt P. zwei Siege zu [1. test. 6]. Er soll 17 [1. test. 1] oder 18 [1. test. 3] Stücke geschrieben haben; erh. s…

Apollodoros

(2,959 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος). Politisch tätige Personen [English version] [1] Athen. Politiker (4. Jh. v. Chr.) Sohn des Pasion aus Acharnai, athenischer Rhetor und Anhänger des Demosthenes (394/93, † nach 343 v. Chr.). A. gehörte nach 370 zu den reichsten Bürgern Athens, leistete aufwendige Trierarchie-Leiturgien (vgl. IG II2 1609,83 und 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Demosth. or. 50,4-10; 40 und 58) und errang 352/51 einen Sieg als Choregos (IG II2 3039,2). Dennoch gelang es ihm nur begrenzt, eine seinem Vermögen entsprechende polit. Stellung zu erringen. Zw. 370 und 350 v. Chr.…

Canticum

(400 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] Mit C. sind in Plautus-Hss. alle Szenen überschrieben, die in einem anderen Metrum als dem iambischen Senar stehen (zu Ausnahmen s. [3. 220, Anm.]), d.h. alle durch Musik begleiteten Teile (vgl. Plaut. Stich. 758-768: während der Flötenspieler eine Trinkpause macht, wechselt das Metrum in den Senar). C. umfaßt also auch Partien, die aus aneinandergereihten trochäischen und iambischen Septenaren und Oktonaren bestehen und im allg. als Rezitative aufgefaßt werden (vgl. aber [3]); als C. im engeren Sinn (von Don. comm. Adelph. pr. 1,7 mit MMC = Mutatis Modis Cantica

Philemon

(1,485 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Köln) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Φιλήμων). [English version] [1] Gemahl der Baukis Gemahl der Baukis. Junk, Tim (Kiel) [English version] [2] Dichter der att. Neuen Komödie, um 300 v. Chr. Sohn des Damon aus Syrakus [1. test. 1, 11], wurde (vor 307/6 v.Chr.; vgl. [1. test. 15]) athenischer Bürger [1. test. 2-12. 15]. Bedeutender Dichter der att. Neuen Komödie mit Bühnendebüt einige Jahre vor Menandros [4] (vor 328: [1. test. 2]); ob diese etwas frühere Chronologie oder der andere Charakter seiner Stücke dazu geführt hat, daß Ph. einmal als ‘Dichter der…

Myllos

(112 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] Angeblich ein früher att. Komödiendichter (weder Stücktitel noch Fr. sind überliefert), teils mit Euetes [2] und Euxenides in der Zeit des Epicharmos [1. test. 1], teils mit Susarion und Magnes [3] [1. test. 2] zusammengestellt; anderswo wird ein Schauspieler M. genannt, der mit Mennige gefärbte Masken verwendet haben soll [1. test. 5]. M. verdankt seine Existenz vielleicht nur einem Vers des Kratinos [1] (fr. 96 K.-A.), in dem es um eine komische Figur (dem Maison vergleichbar?)…

Menippos

(1,637 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Μένιππος). [English version] [1] nach Plutarch Unterfeldherr des Perikles Bei Plut. Perikles 13,10 (vgl. Plut mor. 812d) als Freund und Unterfeldherr des Perikles erwähnt (wohl zw. 443 und 430 v.Chr.). Wie dieser war er Zielscheibe des Komödienspotts. Ob M. tatsächlich als Stratege tätig war, ist ungewiß. Plutarchs Bezeichung für ihn ( hypostratēgṓn) ist die griech. Entsprechung zum lat. Begriff legatus (Develin, 103). Aristoph. Av. 1294 erwähnt einen M., den die Scholien als Pferdehändler identifizieren. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography PA 10033  Traill, PAA 646185 (vgl…

Kriton

(311 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
(Κρίτων). [English version] [1] Freund des Sokrates Wohlhabender gleichaltriger Freund des Sokrates, wie dieser aus dem Demos Alopeke (Plat. apol. 33d; Plat. Krit. 44b; Xen. mem. 2,9,2; 2,9,4); Gesprächspartner des Sokrates in Platons ‘Kriton und ‘Euthydemos und bei Xen. mem. 2,9,1-3. In Platons ‘Kriton rät K. Sokrates erfolglos zur Flucht aus dem Gefängnis. Der Epikureer Idomeneus behauptete, in Wirklichkeit habe nicht Kriton, sondern Aischines [1] aus Sphettos dies getan (Diog. Laert. 2,60; 3,36). Di…

Epinikos

(179 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München)
(Ἐπίνικος). [English version] [1] Komödiendichter Komödiendichter, von dem noch zwei Stücktitel und zwei Fragmente erhalten sind. Seine Datierung (späteres 3./frühes 2. Jh.v.Chr.) ergibt sich aus dem Stücktitel Mnēsiptólemos: Er bezeichnet den Hofhistoriographen (FGrH 164) Antiochos' III. (223-187 v.Chr.) und stellt damit ein bemerkenswert spätes Beispiel für das namentliche Verspotten (ὀνομαστὶ κωμῳδεῖν) dar. In fr. 1 wird Mnesiptolemos selbst redend eingeführt und in seiner verschnörkelten, fast dithyrambisierenden Art,…

Prokleides

(37 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] (Προκλείδης). Att. Komödiendichter, der an den Dionysien von 332 v. Chr. [1. test. 1] und an einem Lenäenagon [1. test. 2] siegte; sonst ist nichts bekannt. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 582.

Alexis

(405 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] Aus dem unterital. Thurioi stammender att. Komödiendichter, der der Onkel und Lehrmeister des Menandros gewesen sein soll [1. test. 1.2]. Ein Sieg beim Komödienagon der großen Dionysien von 347 v. Chr. ist das früheste sichere Zeugnis von A.' Laufbahn [1. test. 6], doch gibt es Hinweise, daß er schon früher aufführte: Auf der inschr. Liste der Lenäensieger erscheint er nur vier Plätze nach Antiphanes [1. test. 8]; in fr. 19 ist von dem schlechten Dichter Argas (tätig in der erste…

Lukianos

(3,682 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg)
(Λουκιανός). [English version] [1] L. von Samosata griech. Satiriker und Rhetor, 2. Jh. Bedeutender griech. rhet.-satirischer Schriftsteller der röm. Kaiserzeit. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [English version] A. Leben und Werdegang Geb. wurde L. zw. 115 und 125 n.Chr. [4. 8] in Samosata am Euphrat, am östlichen Rand des röm. Syrien. Περὶ τοῦ ἐνυπνίου ἦτοι Βίος Λουκιανοῦ (‘Über den Traum, oder: Das Leben Lukians, Somn.) schildert plastisch (aber nicht unbedingt wahrheitsgetreu) L.' Entscheidung für einen an den groß…

Diophantos

(1,043 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Folkerts, Menso (München)
(Διοφαντός). [English version] [1] Komödiendichter Komödiendichter unbekannter Zeit; ein Fragment und ein Stücktitel (Μετοικιζόμενος) sind erhalten. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 42. [English version] [2] Feldherr des Mithridates VI. Eupator aus Sinope, Sohn des Asklepiodotos, Feldherr Mithridates VI. Eupator. 110 v.Chr. unterstützte er die Bewohner der Stadt Chersonesos mit mil. und diplomatischem Geschick erfolgreich gegen die Skythen (Strab. 7,3,17). Dafür erhielt er eine Ehreninschr. (SIG3 709; SEG 30, 963, dazu [1]). Er erobe…

Alkimenes

(269 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀλκιμένης). [English version] [1] Bruder des Bellerophontes Bruder des Bellerophontes, auch Peiren oder Deliades, wurde von seinem Bruder getötet, was Anlaß der Flucht nach Argos war (Apollod. 2,30; Tzetz. Lykophr. 17). Graf, Fritz (Princeton) [English version] [2] Sohn Iasons und Medeias Sohn des Iason und der Medeia, Bruder des Teisandros, die beide in Korinth von Medeia getötet wurden; nur Thettalos, der Zwillingsbruder des A., entkam. Die beiden sind im Temenos der Hera begraben und wurden als Heroen verehrt (Diod. 4,54,1; 4,55,1 f.). Graf, Fritz (Princeton) …

Chairion

(55 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] Nur inschr. bezeugter Komödiendichter, der offenbar einmal an den att. Dionysien im Komödienagon den ersten Preis errang [1. test. *2] und im Jahr 154 v.Chr. ebenfalls an den Großen Dionysien mit dem Stück ‘Der sich selbst falsch Anklagende Zweiter wurde [1. test. 1]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 69.

Pandaites

(23 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] (Πανδαίτης). Nur inschr. auf der Lenäensiegerliste bezeugter att. Komödiendichter des 3. Jh. v.Chr. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 100.

Euangelos

(36 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] (Εὐάγγελος). Komödiendichter des 3. Jh. v.Chr. (unsicher), aus dessen Ἀνακαλυπτομένη noch ein Fragment in trochäischen Tetrametern erhalten ist: ein Hausherr und ein Koch bereiten eine Hochzeit vor. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 184f.

Kratinos

(1,015 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
(Κρατῖνος). [English version] [1] att. Dichter der Alten Komödie, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Sohn des Kallimedes, bed. Dichter der att. Alten Komödie. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [English version] A. Zur Person K.' erstes Auftreten ist für die späteren 450er Jahre v.Chr. bezeugt [1. test. 4ab; vgl. test. 5]; sein Tod fällt wahrscheinlich zw. 423 (terminus post quem: sein letztes Stück, die Pytínē/‘Die Flasche; vgl. [1. test. 3]) und 421 (in Aristoph. Pax 700-703 wird er als tot bezeichnet [1. test. 10]); er wurde angeblich 94 Jahre alt [1. test. 3]. In sei…

Ameinias

(60 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] Dichter der att. Neuen Komödie, der 311 v. Chr. beim Komödienagon der Großen Dionysien mit einer Ἀπολείπουσα dritter wurde [1 test. 2] und 280 v. Chr. an Komödienaufführungen auf Delos teilnahm [1 test. 3]. Auch ein Sieg am Komödienwettbewerb der Lenäen ist für ihn bezeugt [1 test. 1]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 196.

Demetrios

(6,917 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der maked. König D. [2] Poliorketes; der Politiker und Schriftsteller D. [4] von Phaleron; der jüd.-hell. Chronograph D. [29]. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] Offizier unter Alexander d.Gr. Offizier unter Alexandros [4], kämpfte bei Gaugamela als Führer einer Ile der Hetairoi und in Indien als Kommandeur einer Hipparchie. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 256. [English version] [2] D. Poliorketes Sohn von Antigonos [1], geb. 337/6 v.Chr. (Diod. 19,96,1). Er heiratete 320 Ph…

Hermippos

(948 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἕρμιππος). [English version] [1] Dichter der Alten Komödie, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Dichter der att. Alten Komödie, Bruder des Komödiendichters Myrtilos. Der Beginn seiner Schaffenszeit dürfte um 440 v.Chr. liegen: Ein Dionysiensieg ist für 435 v.Chr. bezeugt [1. test. 3], auf der inschr. Dionysien-Siegerliste steht H. hinter Pherekrates, sowie vor Aristophanes [1] und Eupolis [1. test. 4], auf der Lenäensiegerliste hinter Kratinos und Pherekrates und vor Phrynichos, Myrtilos und Eupolis [1. test. 5]. Neben dem Dio…

Myrtilos

(416 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Genf) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μυρτίλος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Hermes und der Phaëthuse Sohn des Hermes und der Phaëthuse, Klymene, Myrto (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,752) bzw. Theobule (Hyg. fab. 224,5) oder des Zeus und der Klymene (schol. Eur. Or. 998); Wagenlenker des Oinomaos [1] (evtl. schon in der Alkmaiōnís erwähnt, vgl. fr. 6 PEG I, und als Figur am Ostgiebel des Zeustempels von Olympia dargestellt). Vor dem Wagenrennen um die Hand der Hippodameia [1] entfernt M. einen Radpflock an Oinomaos' Wagen (Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 37; Ps.-Apollod. epit. 2,4-9; Hyg. fab…

Agathenor

(41 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] Nur inschr. [1] belegter Komödiendichter aus Ephesos, der zu Beginn des 1. Jh. v. Chr. an den Ludi Romani in Magnesia am Mäander mit einer Milesia den Sieg davontrug. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 1.

Komödie

(5,159 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Lefèvre, Eckhard (Freiburg)
I. Griechisch [English version] A. Anfänge Die plausibelste Etym. von K. ist “Komos-Lied”; Kṓmoi (Umzüge von Menschengruppen bzw. Chören) sind seit dem frühen 7. Jh.v.Chr. auf Vasen dargestellt; darauf erscheinen u.a. Tänzer in (zum Teil an Bauch und Gesäß ausgestopften) Trikots und Tierkostümen (vgl. die späteren Tierchöre der att. Alten K.). Manche Vasenbilder zeigen auch die Phallos-Prozessionen, die laut Aristoteles (poet. 4,1449a 10f.) am Beginn der K. standen. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [English version] B. Frühformen außerhalb Athens Für die Entwicklun…

Phlyaken

(259 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] (Φλύακες). Laut dem hell. Historiker Sosibios Lakon (FGrH 595 F 7) die im griech. Unterit. gebräuchliche Bezeichnung für die Darsteller der dortigen Spielart der dorischen Volksposse. Der Name wird in der Ant. gern von φλυαρεῖν ( phlyareín, “Unsinn reden”) abgeleitet (Hesych. s.v.; vgl. Poll. 9,149); richtiger ist wohl die Herleitung von φλέω ( phléō, “strotzen”); Phleon (nebst ähnlichen Formen) ist ein alter Beiname für Dionysos als Vegetationsgott [2]. Seit den letzten Jahrzehnten des 19. Jh. [4. 52] wurden die Ph.-Stücke in Verbindung gebracht…

Damoxenos

(74 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] (Δαμόξενος). Att. Komödiendichter des 3. Jh.v.Chr., von dem ein Dionysiensieg [1. test. 2] und zwei Stücke bezeugt sind. Aus seinen Σύντροφοι stammt die längste aus einer Komödie erh. Rede eines Kochs (fr. 2: 68 Verse); der Sprecher stellt sich als Schüler des Demokrit und vor allem des Epikur vor und blickt auf alle herab, die dies nicht sind, auch auf die Stoiker. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 1-7.

Aristomenes

(520 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστομένης). [English version] [1] Messenischer Freiheitsheld (2.H. 7. Jh. v. Chr.) Messenischer Freiheitsheld, der den Aipytiden zugeordnet wird. A. soll mit Unterstützung von Arkadern und Argivern einen langjährigen messenischen Aufstand gegen Sparta geleitet haben. Nach Paus. 4,14,6-24,3 zog er sich, als er nach ersten Erfolgen in der sog. Schlacht am “Großen Graben” durch den Verrat des arkad. Königs Aristokrates [1] geschlagen wurde, auf die nordmessenische Bergfestung Hira zurück, von wo aus er di…

Euages

(36 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] (Εὐάγης). Komödiendichter unbekannter Zeit von der Insel Hydrea (bei Troizen). E. soll zunächst ein ungebildeter Hirte gewesen, dann aber ein guter Komödiendichter geworden sein [1. test.]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 183.

Protarchos

(253 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος). [English version] [1] Komödiendichter aus Thespiai, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Komödiendichter aus Thespiai, der im 1. Jh. v. Chr. einmal an den Soteria von Akraiphia siegte und Sohn oder Vater des Ependichters Protogenes war; sonst ist nichts bekannt. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [English version] [2] Epikureer aus Bargilia, 2. Jh. v. Chr. P. aus Bargilia. Lehrer des Demetrios [21] Lakon (Strab. 14,20; 2. Jh. v. Chr.), vielleicht in Milet. Daß er epikureisches Schuloberhaupt des “Gartens” ( kḗpos ) war, ist unwahrscheinlich. Dorandi, …

Menekrates

(1,022 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης). [English version] [1] att. Komödiendichter, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Att. Komödiendichter des 5. Jh.v.Chr., von dem noch zwei Stücktitel, Ἑρμιονεύς (oder Ἑρμιόνη?) und Μανέκτωρ (wohl ‘Manes als Hektor), überliefert sind [1. test. 1] sowie aus letzterem ein anapästischer Tetrameter (fr. 1). Ob M. einmal an den Dionysien gewann, ist unsicher [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [English version] [2] Tragiker, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Griech. Tragiker, siegte an den Großen Dionysien 422 v.Chr. (TrGF 35 T 1), vielleicht i…

Diverbium

(106 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[English version] Mit d. (vgl. Donat II p. 5 W.) sind in Plautus-Hss. alle Szenen überschrieben, die im iambischen Senar stehen (zu einzelnen Ausnahmen: [2. 220]), d.h. alle Teile des Stücks, die ohne Musikbegleitung gespielt wurden (vgl. Plaut. Stich. 758-768: während der Flötenspieler pausiert, wechselt das Metrum in den Senar), so schon die älteste Belegstelle (Liv. 7,2,10). Der spätant. Grammatiker Diomedes (1,491,22-24) hingegen versteht d. - in wörtlicher Übers. aus dem Griech. - als “Dialog” (und Canticum als “Monolog” [2. 220]), bleibt damit jedoch allein. Nesselrath, …

Criton

(316 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κρίτων; Krítōn). [German version] [1] Wealthy friend of Socrates, of the same age Wealthy friend of  Socrates and of the same age, also from the Alopece demos (Pl. Ap. 33d; Pl. Crit. 44b; Xen. Mem. 2,9,2; 2,9,4); discussion partner of Socrates in Plato's ‘Criton’ and ‘Euthydemus’ and in Xen. Mem. 2,9,1-3. In Plato's ‘Criton’ he unsuccessfully advises Socrates to flee his prison. The Epicurean  Idomeneus claimed that not Criton but Aeschines [1] of Sphettus had done this (Diog. Laert. 2,60; 3,36). Diogenes Laërtios (2,121) lists the titles of 17 dialogues composed by C.  Socratics. Dörin…

Eumedes

(69 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐμήδης; Eumḗdēs). Comic poet of the 3rd cent. BC ─ two victories at the Lenaea are attested for him in an inscription; on the list of prize-winners his name is entered after that of  Diodorus [10], the brother of  Diphilus [5] [1st test.]. Of his Σφαττόμενος ( Sphattómenos; ‘The Tormented One’) only one fragment in an extremely poor condition is extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 277.

Chionides

(189 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Χιωνίδης; Chiōnídēs). Earliest Attic comedy-writer known by name. As πρωταγωνιστής, prōtagōnistḗs (the sense of the term as used here is disputed [2. 132]) of the Old  Comedy, C. is said to have had a play performed as early as ‘eight years before the Persian wars’ (i.e. 486 BC counting inclusively) [1. test. 1]; this date is usually regarded as the beginning of the state-organized comedic agones at the Great Dionysia [2. 82]. Aristotle, too, places C., along with  Magnes, at the beginnings of Attic Comedy [1. test. 2]. Three titles of plays …

Plato

(7,761 words)

Author(s): Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πλάτων/ Plátōn). [German version] [1] The philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Athenian philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) [German version] A. Life The Seventh Letter (which is not intended to constitute a complete autobiography) and scattered reports from various ancient authors (of these, Plutarchus' [2] Life of Dion and Philodemus' Academica Gaiser/ Academicorum Historia Dorandi are particularly instructive) are our most important sources of information on the life of P. To these should be added the chronological accounts in Apuleius, De Platone et eius d…

Pherecrates

(809 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Φερεκράτης; Pherekrátēs). Important poet of Attic Old Comedy. First worked as an actor [1, testimony 2a], his own performances beginning after Cratinus [1] and Crates [1], but before Hermippus [1], Phrynichus [3], Aristophanes [3], Eupolis (cf. [1, testimony 2a, 5, 6]). There is a reference to a victory (it is unclear in which agon) for 437 BC [1, testimony 2a]; the Lenaea victory list ascribes two victories to P. [1, testimony 6]. He is said to have written 17 [1, testimony 1] or…

Diophantus

(1,146 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Διοφαντός; Diophantós). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies Author of comedies, dates unknown; one fragment and the title of one play (Μετοικιζόμενος) have been preserved. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 42. [German version] [2] Commander under Mithridates VI Eupator From Sinope, son of Asclepiodotus, commander to Mithridates VI Eupator. In 110 BC he provided skilful military and diplomatic support to the inhabitants of the city of Chersonesus and thus enabled them to withstand the Scythians (Str. 7,3,1…

Epicharmus

(990 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἐπίχαρμος; Epícharmos). Earliest and most important writer of Doric comedy. [German version] A. Life Widely varying accounts are given for his origin: Syracuse, the Sicanian city of Crastus or Samos [1. test.1], Cos [1. test. 1. 3] or Megara Hyblaea in Sicily [1. test. 1. 2] have been mentioned; it is most probably a place in Sicily. Establishing dates for E. has to rely on the following details: he is said to have been active as a playwright ‘six years before the Persian Wars’, i.e. 486/5 BC [1. test. 1], o…

Euphanes

(59 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐφάνης; Euphánēs). Writer of Middle Comedy who is entered on the list of victors of the Lenaea directly before  Alexis [1. test. 1] and for whom two play titles and two fragments are attested; fr. 1 from the Μοῦσαι ( Moûsai; ‘The Muses’) presents a number of contemporary Athenian gluttons. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 280f.

Eriphus

(70 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἔριφος; Ériphos). Poet of the Middle Comedy of whom three titles of works and seven fragments have still survived. In the Μελίβοια ( Melíboia), E. appears to have taken up verses of  Antiphanes [1] and varied them (fr. 2; cf. Antiphanes fr. 59); in Πελταστής ( Peltastḗs), a miles gloriosus probably appeared (fr. 6 [2. 326f.]). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 178-182 2 H.-G. Nesselrath, Die att. Mittlere Komödie, 1990.

Anaxandrides

(395 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἀναξανδρίδης; Anaxandrídēs). An Attic writer of comedies from Rhodes or [1. test. 1] Colophon (apparently he also produced dithyrambs [1. test. 2]), of whom, thanks to IGUR 218 [1. test. 5], more exact dates are known than of any other of his rivals: from this inscription it is clear that A. was an active theatre poet at least between 376 and 349 BC and also in the years in-between frequently performed; even earlier was the Protesilaus, which reflects the great wedding of the Athenian general Iphicrates to a Thracian princess (an event of the early 380s…

Epinicus

(207 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἐπίνικος; Epínikos). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies Comic poet; two titles of his plays and two fragments are extant. The dating of his life (late 3rd/early 2nd cent. BC) is based on the title of his play, Mnēsiptólemos: it refers to the court historiographer (FGrH 164) of Antiochus III (223-187 BC), a remarkably late example for the mockery of a named character (ὀνομαστὶ κωμῳδεῖν; onomastì kōmōideîn). Fr. 1 sees Mnesiptolemus speaking for himself, parodying the ornate, almost dithyrambic style, in which he describes the banalest of acts performed by his sovereign. Nesselrath…

Hipparchus

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἵππαρχος; Hípparchos). [German version] [1] Second son of Peisistratus, around 530 BC Second son of  Peisistratus and an Athenian woman. Together with his older brother  Hippias [1] and the younger Thessalus, H. assumed his inheritance (528/527 BC) after his father's death (Thuc. 6,55; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 18,1). In contrast to Hippias, H. exhibited no political profile. He dedicated himself to aristocratic social life and culture and invited, among others,  Anacreon [1] of Teos and  Simonides of Ceos to A…

Diverbium

(111 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] With few exceptions [2.220] all scenes in the manuscripts of Plautus’ plays that are written in iambic senarii bear the direction diverbium (cf. Donat. II p. 5 W.), marking those sections of the play to be performed without musical accompaniment (cf. Plautus Stichus 758-768: the metre changes to the iambic senarius during a pause by the flautist). The oldest testimony (Liv. 7,2,10) confirms this. In late antiquity the grammarian Diomedes (1,491,22-24) was alone in taking diverbium in its literal Greek sense of ‘dialogue’ (and  canticum as ‘monologue’ [2. 220]). Nesse…

Baton

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βάτων; Bátōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Amphiaraus  Amphiaraus' charioteer. Both B. and Amphiaraus were descendants of Melampus. In the battle of Thebes, he was swallowed by the earth together with Amphiaraus and his chariot. In Argus, he was given a sanctuary near the Amphiaraus sanctuary (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). The Argives consecrated Amphiaraus' chariot with B.'s statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 3rd cent. BC Attic author of comedies in the 3r…

Eteagoras

(40 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἐτεαγόρας; Eteagóras). Writer of comedy in the 3rd cent. BC; one comedy is epigraphically attested to have won the Lenaea. Neither the titles nor fragments of his plays have survived. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG V, 183.

Protarchus

(265 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος/ Prṓtarchos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Thespiae, 1st cent. BC Comic poet from Thespiae, victorious on one occasion in the 1st cent. BC at the Soteria of Acraephia, and son or father of the epic poet Protogenes; otherwise, nothing is known of him. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [German version] [2] Epicurean from Bargilia, 2nd cent. BC P. of Bargilia. Teacher of Demetrius [21] Lacon (Str. 14,20; 2nd cent. BC), perhaps in Miletus. It is unlikely that he was the head of the Epicurean 'Garden' ( kḗpos ). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bi…

Evangelus

(43 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐάγγελος; Euángelos). Comic poet of the 3rd cent. BC (uncertain), of whose Ἀνακαλυπτομένη ( Anakalyptoménē) a fragment in trochaic tetrameters has survived: the master of the house and a cook make preparations for a wedding. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 184f.

Euthycles

(28 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐθυκλῆς; Euthyklês). Poet of the late Old Comedy (?). Two titles of plays and two fragments are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 541f.

Lysippus

(811 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Λύσιππος; Lýsippos). [German version] [1] Writer of the Old Comedy, c. 400 BC Poet of the Old Comedy who perhaps as early as the 430s BC won at the Dionysia [1. test. *2] and about whom further victories are attested in 409 and later [1. test. 3]. Only three titles of plays are extant; fragments (apart from three without a title) are only attributed to the ‘Bacchae’ (Βάκχαι): In fragment 1 a man by the name of Hermon (who had been thrown into a well by his father) talks to his brother. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1PCG V, 1986, 618-622. [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Eunicus

(57 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εύνικος; Eúnikos) Poet of Attic Old Comedy, of whom we have two play titles (and two fragments, the second uncertain). For a play about hetaerae, Ἄντεια/ Ánteia (test. ii), Philyllius is also cited as the author while for the Πόλεις/ Póleis Philyllius and Aristophanes are also named as authors. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 5, 278f.

Xenarchus

(885 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | A.FA.
(Ξέναρχος; Xénarchos). [German version] [1] Comedy writer, 4th cent. BC Comedy writer of the (probably late) 4th cent. BC. Eight play titles (quite typical of this period) and 14 fragments have been preserved (exclusively in Athenaeus [3]). In fragment 1, a speaker (perhaps a slave, also the eponym character, Butalíōn) laments in exuberant dithyrambistic language, that there is no means of curing his master's impotence [2. 263]; in fragment 4 (Πένταθλος/ Péntathlos, 'Pentathlete') a brothel-keeper sings a song in praise of prostitutes and risk-free love-for-s…

Alcenor

(68 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Attic writer of comedies, who is known to us only by way of inscription [1] and who, shortly before  Timocles, won a victory at the Lenaea comedy contest with a play that is no longer known to us; he is probably therefore to be assigned to the period after the middle of the 4th cent. BC. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 16.

Aristomenes

(638 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστομένης; Aristoménēs). [German version] [1] Messenian hero and freedom fighter (2nd half of 7th cent. BC) Messenian hero and freedom fighter, seen as a descendant of the Aepytids. With the support of Arcadians and Argives, A. was the supposed leader of a Messenian revolt against Sparta which lasted for many years. Paus. 4,14,6-24,3 reports that on his defeat, after initial successes, in the so-called battle of the ‘Great Trench’ because of the treachery of the Arcadian king  Aristocrates [1], A. retreated…

Iolaus

(547 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἰόλαος; Iólaos). [German version] [1] Nephew of Heracles Nephew of  Heracles, son of the latter's half-brother  Iphicles and the (shadowy) Automedusa. He accompanies Heracles on practically all his adventures (mainly as chariot driver), becomes the first Olympic champion (image in Olympia, Paus. 5,17,11), receives  Megara as wife from Heracles and finally kills  Eurystheus in Attica (Paus. 1,44,10, grave), for which he was specially rejuvenated for one day (Eur. Heracl. 843-863, perhaps following Aesch…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Rhinthon

(243 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ῥίνθων/ Rhínthōn). Poet, composer of literary Phlyakes plays (of which he is said to have written 38 [1. test. 2 and 3]), from Syracuse [1. test. 1], active at Tarentum [1. test. 2 and 3] in the reign of Ptolemy I (Ptolemaeus [1]) (322-283 BC, reigned from 305). Of nine surviving titles, eight are identifiable as parodies of tragedies by Euripides [1]: Ἀμφιτρύων/ Amphitryon , Ἡρακλῆς/ Heracles , Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Αὐλίδι/ Iphigeneia at Aulis, Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Ταύροις/ Iphigeneia among the Taurians, Δοῦλος Μελέαγρος/ Meleager the Slave, Μήδεια/ Medea , Ὀρέστας/ Orestes , Τήλεφο…

Sosigenes

(297 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Σωσιγένης; Sōsigénēs). [German version] [1] S. of Caunus is attested as oikonómos of Ptolemaeus [1] I in Lycia (SEG 27,929, Limyra) in 288/7 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 2nd cent. BC Comedy writer, only attested epigraphically as a participant of the Attic Dionysiac agon in 157 BC, where he took sixth place with the play Λυτρούμενος ( Lytroúmenos, 'The ransomed man'). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 603. [German version] [3] Astronomer, computed the Julian calendar for Caesar Astronomer charged by Caesar w…

Procleides

(40 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Προκλείδης; Prokleídēs). Attic comedic poet, victorious at the Dionysia in 332 BC [1. test. 1] and at an agon at the Lenaea [1. test. 2]; otherwise nothing is known. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 582.

Ameinias

(69 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Poet of the Attic New Comedy, who in 311 BC at the comedy agon of the Greater Dionysia gained third place with an Ἀπολείπουσα [1 test. 2] and in 280 BC participated in comedy performances on Delos [1 test. 3]. Also a victory in the comedy competition of the Lenaea is attested for him [1 test. 1]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 196.

Alcimenes

(280 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀλκιμένης, Alkiménēs). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: brother of Bellerophontes Brother of Bellerophontes, also Peiren or Deliades, was killed by his brother, providing the reason for the flight to Argus (Apollod. 2,30; Tzetz. Lycophr. 17). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Figure of Greek myth: son of Jason and Medea Son of Jason and Medea, brother of Teisander, both of whom were killed in Corinth by Medea; only Thettalus, A.'s twin brother, escaped. Both of these are buried in the Temenus of Hera and were venerated as heroes (Diod. Sic. 4,54,1; 4,55,1 f.). Gra…

Sciras

(88 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σκίρας/Skíras). Poet of 'Italic comedy' [1. test. 1] from Tarentum, who in a late record [1. test. 2] is, along with the phlyakes poet Rhinthon and the poet (of Menippian satire?) Blaesus named as a Pythagorean, which is not very credible. Of his work, only two iambic trimeters from the mythological play Μελέαγρος (Meléagros) have survived, a parody of Eur. Hipp. 75f. Hardly any clues exist regarding S.' biographical dates. He is usually associated with Rhinthon (c. 300 BC) Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 CGF 190.

Phlyakes

(281 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Φλύακες; Phlýakes). According to the Hellenistic historian Sosibius Laconus (FGrH 595 F 7) the usual term in Graeca Magna for the performers of a local variety of Doric folk burlesque. In antiquity the name is usually derived from φλυαρεῖν/ phlyareîn, 'talk nonsense' (Hsch. s.v.; cf. Poll. 9,149). A derivation from φλέω/ phléō, 'teem, abound' is probably more correct. Phleon (and similar forms) is an old epithet for Dionysus as god of vegetation [2]. Since the late 19th cent. [4. 52], the P. plays have been connected with the representations of comic …

Timotheus

(2,915 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Τιμόθεος; Timótheos). [German version] [1] T. of Metapontum Greek physician, c. 400 BC Greek physician, fl. c. 400 BC. According to the Anonymus Londiniensis (8,8), T. believed that disease was the result of the blockage of passages through which residues would have been excreted. Residues that have risen up from the entire body are forced to remain in the head until they are transformed into a saline, acrid fluid. They then break out and cause a wide variety of disease, whose character is determined by the place or places to which they flow.. Humoral theory Nutton, Vivian (London) …

Chaerion

(51 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Writer of comedies, attested only epigraphically; he evidently once won first prize at the Attic Dionysia [1. test. *2], and also in 154 BC second place at the Great Dionysia with the play ‘The false self-accuser [1. test. 1]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 69.

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Thymoteles

(32 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Θυμοτέλης; Thymotélēs). Athenian comic poet of the late 2nd cent. BC recorded only in inscriptions; nothing is known of his work. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 753.

Diphilus

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος; Díphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian operator of a silver mine c. 330 BC Athenian operator of a silver mine. In 330 BC, he was charged by Lycurgus with illegally mining the mesokrineís (pillars), which served both as markers to separate the various leases within the mine but also as safety props, and sentenced to death. His assets of 160 talents were confiscated and distributed amongst the citizens (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 843D).  Mining Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237 M. H. Hansen, Demography…

Eubulus

(967 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὔβουλος; Eúboulos). [German version] [1] Athenian about 400-330 BC E., son of Spintharus of the deme Probalinthus, c. 400 to before 330 BC, possibly identical with the Athenian who in 369 applied for permission for Xenophon to return (Ister FGrH 334 F 32) and a thesmothete attested in Athens about 370/69 (SEG 19,133,4). If that is the case, he was a member of the Areopagus. After 354/3 he achieved significant political influence in Athens as an administrator of the theorikon treasury, and because of his abilities as an orator, his membership in the Areopagus and good con…

Archicles

(71 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] see Little-master cup see  Little-master cup Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] [2] Attic comic poet There is epigraphical evidence only of this Attic writer of comedies who, in 181 BC (earlier than Eudoxus), probably won the agon of comedies at the Great Dionysia [1. test. 2], and was also twice a winner at the Lenaea [1. test. 1]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 537.

Hermippus

(1,024 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἕρμιππος; Hérmippos). [German version] [1] Poet of the Old Comedy, 5th cent. BC Writer of Attic Old Comedy, brother of the comedian  Myrtilus. Active probably around 440 BC: a Dionysian victory is attested for 435 BC [1. test. 3], on the epigraphical list of Dionysian victors H. ranks after  Pherecrates and before  Aristophanes [1] and  Eupolis [1. test. 4], and on the list of Lenaean victors after  Cratinus and Pherecrates and before  Phrynichus, Myrtilus and Eupolis [1. test. 5]. Apart from the Dionysian …

Thugenides

(63 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Θουγενίδης; Thougenídes). Poet of the Old Comedy (I. C.); it is uncertain whether he was on the list of victors at the Dionysia in fifth place after Cratinus [1. test. *1]. Of his only recorded play, Δικασταί ( Dikastaí, ‘The Judges), two short fragments survive; five other play fragments without titles are also uninformative. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 750-752.

Sannyrion

(126 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σαννυρίων/ Sannyríōn). Attic comedic poet of the end of the 5th cent. BC, mocked by his competitors for his skinniness [1. test. 3]. The titles of three plays and 13 fragments with a total of eight and a half verses have been handed down: the Γέλως ( Gélōs, 'Laughter') featured a talking god (fr. 1) and mocked the tragedian Meletus [3] (fr. 2) and Aristophanes [3] (fr. 5); in the Δανάη ( Danáē), dated to 407-404 BC, Zeus considers what shape would be best for him to get to his Danae and in the process makes fun of the tragedic actor Hegelochus (fr. 8); the Ἰώ ( Iṓ), also on a mythical…

Antheas

(84 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] A bon viveur and poet originally from Lindus in Rhodes, who was the first person to use collated poetic (dithyrambic?) expressions and is said to have written ‘comedies’ as well as many other works; Jacoby (in FGrH 527 F 2) doubts his actual existence. A.'s period cannot be determined more precisely; he is said to have been a ‘relative’ of Cleobulus of Lindus, one of the Seven Sages. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 SH, 1983, no. 46 2 PCG II, 1991, 307.

Augeas

(42 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Attic comic poet documented only through a short article in the Suda [1. test.]; the Suda counts him as belonging to the Middle Comedy and lists three titles of plays. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 17.

Pandaetes

(30 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Πανδαίτης; Pandaítēs). Attic comic writer of the 3rd cent. BC only attested in inscriptions on the Lenaean victors' list. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 100.

Comedy

(5,622 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Lefèvre, Eckhard (Freiburg)
I. Greek [German version] A. Beginnings The most plausible etymology of comedy is ‘komos song’; kṓmoi (processions of groups of people or choruses) are depicted on vases from the early 7th cent. BC onwards; there appear, inter alia, dancers in leotards (partly padded on the waist and buttocks) and animal costumes (cf. the later animal choruses of Attic Old Comedy). Many pictures on vases also show the phallus-processions that according to Aristotle (poet. 4,1449a 10f.) were the origin of comedy. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] B. Early forms outside Athens The …

Timocles

(419 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Τιμοκλῆς/ Timoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian author of comedies, 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC Important Athenian author of comedies in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC to whom the Suda [1 test. 1] attributes 20 plays (divided into two authors by the same name who in reality are identical). 28 titles have been transmitted (uncertain: Geōrgós, 'The Farmer') and altogether 42 fragments. Only one win is recorded on the Lenaean list of winners [1 test. 3], two places ahead of Menander [4]. T.' active period lasted from the 340s (allusion to the Halon…

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…

Philemon

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Φιλήμων; Philḗmōn). [German version] [1] Husband of Baukis Husband of Baucis. Junk, Tim (Kiel) [German version] [2] Writer of the Attic New Comedy, c. 300 BC Son of Damon of Syracuse [1. test. 1, 11], became (before 307/6 BC; cf. [1. test. 15]) an Athenian citizen [1. test. 2-12. 15]. Important writer of Attic New Comedy with his stage debut several years before Menander [4] (before 328: [1. test. 2]); it is uncertain whether this somewhat earlier chronology or the different nature of his plays led to P. once being call…

Myrtilus

(452 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μυρτίλος; Myrtílos). [German version] [1] Son of Hermes and Phaethusa Son of Hermes and Phaethusa, Clymene, Myrto (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,752) or Theobule (Hyg. Fab. 224,5) or of Zeus and Clymene (schol. Eur. Or. 998); charioteer to Oenomaus [1] (possibly already mentioned in the Alkmaiōnís , cf. fr. 6 PEG I, and depicted as a figure on the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia). Before the chariot race to win the hand of Hippodameia [1] M. removes a lynch pin from  Oenomaus' chariot (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 37; Ps.-Apollod. Epit. 2,4…

Timoxenus

(144 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Τιμόξενος/ Timóxenos). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Achaean League, 3rd cent. BC Achaean, political friend of Aratus [2], several times  stratēgós of the Achaean League (Achaeans): in 225/4 BC and/or 224/3 (Pol. 2,53,2; Plut. Kleomenes 20,8; Plut. Aratos 38,3; cf. [1. 254 f.; 2. 149]), 221/0 (Pol. 4,6,4; Plut. Aratos 47,3) and 216/5 (Pol. 5,106,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 F. W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, vol. 1, 1970 2 R. Urban, Wachstum und Krise des Achäischen Bundes von 280 bis 222 v. Chr., 1979. [German version] [2] Athen…

Parabasis

(569 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (παράβασις, parábasis; Lat. parabasis). Characteristic component peculiar to Old Attic comedy, recognizable in the plays of Aristophanes [3] and in fragments of other comedic poets (no certain evidence before Cratinus [4. 24]). The term derives from parabaínein (παραβαίνειν πρὸς τὸ θέατρον, 'stepping towards the audience'), with which Aristophanes's chorus repeatedly begins the parabasis (Aristoph. Ach. 629; Equ. 508; Pax 735): they also divest themselves of parts of their clothing (Ach. 627) or other accessories (Pax 729), while …

Onesicles

(44 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ὀνησικλῆς; Onēsiklês). Author of unknown date, documented only in inscriptions in Cilicia, who was a poet of various genres (epic, New Comedy, iambic poetry) as well as a writer of prose encomia. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 96.

Ophelion

(65 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ὠφελίων/ Ōphelíōn). Attic comedian from the 4th cent. BC. The titles of four plays have survived (Δευκαλίων/ Deukalíōn; Ἰάλεμος/ Iálemos or ‘Simple Simon; Κάλλαισχρος/ Kállaischros - it is unclear from this name whether the play is about a historical or fictitious person; Κένταυρος/ Kéntauros). There are six fragments extant which are ineffectual except for fragment 3 (parody of Plato). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 97-99.

Euthias

(38 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐθίας; Euthías). Attic comic poet, who came second in a contest around the mid 4th cent. BC [1. test.]. Of his plays, neither titles nor fragments are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 540.

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/12 (Plut. Nicias 20,6-8; Thucyd. 7,69,4; Diod. 13, 13,2). Possibly identical with the M. who fought in Abydus in 409 (Xen. Hell. 1,2,16). He was stratēgós with Tydeus (405/4) in the defeat at Aigos potamoi (X…

Myllus

(120 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Said to be an early Attic writer of comedies (neither names of plays nor fragments have been preserved), considered variously a contemporary of Euetes [2] and Euxenides in the time of Epicharmus [1. test. 1], or of Susarion and Magnes [3] [1. test. 2]; elsewhere an actor M. is mentioned who supposedly used masks dyed with minium [1. test. 5]. Perhaps M. owes his existence only to a verse by Cratinus [1] (fr. 96 K.-A.) that seems to concern a comic figure (comparable to Maison?) wh…

Antiphanes

(765 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀντιφάνης; Antiphánēs). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 4th cent. BC Attic writer of comedies; concerning his family and lineage the information is quite contradictory [1. test. 1, 2]. His father as well as his son were called Stephanus, (his son as a writer of comedies, staged works of his father [1. test 1]). A. was born in the 93rd Olympiad (between 408 and 404 BC) [1. test. 1] and is said to have already begun his stage activity at 20 years, (‘after the 98th Olympiad’ [1. test. 2]). He is said …

Eudoxus

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Εὔδοξος; Eúdoxos). [German version] [1] of Cnidus Ancient mathematician and astronomer One of the most important ancient mathematicians and astronomers, he was presumably born in 391/390 BC (on the problem of dating see [7. 137-139]). He studied mathematics with  Archytas [1] and medicine with  Philistion. At the age of 23 he went to Athens and it is said that, among other things, he attended lectures there with  Plato. At the expense of his Cnidian friends, presumably in 365/4 [11], E. went with a letter…
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