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Zenas

(69 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (Ζηνᾶς). Bildhauername auf zwei Porträtbüsten des frühen 2. Jh. n. Chr. aus Rom. Aufgrund des Vaternamens Alexandros bei der einen (IG XIV 1241) und des Zusatzes β bei der anderen Signatur (IG XIV 1242) ist auf zwei verschiedene Bildhauer zu schließen. Der Name weist auf eine Verbindung mit Bildhauern aus Aphrodisias hin (Aphrodisias [1], Bildhauerschule). Neudecker, Richard Bibliography Loewy, Nr. 383 a-b  P. Moreno, s. v. Z., EAA 7, 1247 f.

Tabula Iliaca

(137 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] Arch. t.t. für Marmortafeln mit Illustrationen der homerischen Epen (Homeros [1]). Die kleinen bis zu 25 cm hohen Tafeln sind beidseitig mit miniaturhaften Flachreliefs und Texten bedeckt. Die meisten der 22 erh. Expl. beziehen sich auf die Ilias, eines auf die Odyssee. Die vollständigste Tafel, die sog. Tabula Capitolina (Rom, KM), enthält auch Teile der Aithiopís . Die Tafeln werden in die frühe Kaiserzeit datiert, alle wurden in Rom gefunden. Einige sind von Theodoros als Produzent firmiert. Ein ikonographische…

Zeuxiades

(73 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (Ζευξιάδης). Bronzebildner, Schüler des Silanion (Plin. nat. 34,51). Eine im 19. Jh. bezeugte und verschollene Basis aus Rom bezeugt, daß Z. ein Bildnis des Redners Hypereides geschaffen hatte, das aus histor. Gründen nach 307 v. Chr. zu datieren ist. Die geläufige Identifizierung des Porträts mit einem in Kopien überl. Typus ist abzulehnen. Neudecker, Richard Bibliography Overbeck, 1350  Loewy, Nr. 483  Lippold, 303  P. Moreno, s. v. Z., EAA 7, 1267 f.  Richter, Portraits 2, 210 f.

Sthennis

(118 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (Σθέννις). Bronzebildner aus Olynth, wirkte ab 348 v. Chr. in Athen. Laut erh. Inschriftenbasen schuf er im späten 4. Jh. v. Chr. mit Leochares auf der Akropolis in Athen eine Familiengruppe und in Oropos im frühen 3. Jh. eine Statue für Lysimachos [2]. Lit. sind für S. mehrere Götterstatuen und eine Philosophenstatue bezeugt, die später nach Rom gelangten, sowie flentes matronas et adorantes sacrificantesque (“weinende, anbetende und opfernde Frauen”, Plin. nat. 34,19,90) und Siegerstatuen in Olympia. Obwohl keines der Werke erh. ist,…

Tektaios

(121 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (Τεκταῖος). Griech. Bildhauer des mittleren 6. Jh. v. Chr. Wie sein Bruder Angelion soll T. Schüler von Dipoinos und Skyllis sowie Lehrer des Kalon [1] gewesen sein (Paus. 2,32,5). Mit Angelion schuf er die Kultstatue des Apollon auf Delos; nach Ausweis lit. (Plut. mor. 1136a; Paus. 9,35,3) und bildlicher Zeugnisse auf Siegeln und Reliefs war Apollon als Kuros mit Chariten auf einer Hand und einer Sphinx dargestellt. Zweifelhaft ist die späte Nachricht über eine Artemis in Delos von T. (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel). Neudecker, Richard Bib…

Silanion

(259 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (Σιλανίων). Bronzebildner aus Athen. Nach Plin. nat. 34,51 war 328-325 v. Chr. der Höhepunkt seiner Karriere. S. schuf Statuen der myth. Figuren Achilleus, Theseus und Iokaste sowie in Olympia die Siegerstatuen der Boxer Damaretos, Telestas und Satyros. Ein ihm zugeschriebener “Sportlehrer” ( epistaten exercentem athletas, Plin. nat. 34,82) ist vielleicht als Konnidas, Lehrer des Theseus, zu deuten. Von den Porträts des S. ist die Statue des Platon in der Athener Akademie in röm. Kopien zuverlässig erkannt. Umstritten sin…

Strongylion

(146 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (Στρογγυλίων). Bronzebildner (drittes Drittel 5. Jh. bis erstes Drittel 4. Jh. v. Chr.). Keines seiner lit. bezeugten Werke ist erh. Von einer figurenreichen Darstellung des Trojanischen Pferdes, genannt δούριος ( dúrios, “das Hölzerne”, Paus. 1,23,8), auf der Akropolis in Athen sind Teile der Basis identifiziert; es ist vor 414 v. Chr. zu datieren. Neben einigen Kultbildern schuf S. mit Kephisodotos [4] Musenstatuen auf dem Helikon. In röm. Sammlerkreisen waren Kleinbronzen von S. berühmt, wie der sog. Puer Bruti und eine Amazone mit dem Beinamen eucnemos…

Theke

(94 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (θήκη) bezeichnet im weiteren Sinne jede Art von Behälter. Insbes. sind seit dem 5./4. Jh. v. Chr. in Texten und Inschr. damit nischenförmige Bestattungsplätze gemeint, sei es für Leichenbestattung in Grabbauten (Melos, 4. Jh. v. Chr.) oder Grüften (Hdt. 1,67,3; 2,148,5), sei es für die Aufbewahrung von Aschenurnen (Alexandreia), nicht aber Sarkophage. Lat. theca hingegen bezieht sich ausschließlich auf Behälter für Gegenstände, v. a. Schreibutensilien. Loculi Neudecker, Richard Bibliography E. Saglio, s. v. loculus, DS 3.2, 1904, 1292-1295  A. Hu…

Archaismus

(606 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] II. Archäologie Definition und Anwendung des von der mod. Forsch. aus der hell. Literaturkritik (ἀρχαισμός/ archaismós, ἀρχαίζειν/ archaízein = “altertümeln”) auf die bildende Kunst übertragenen Begriffes sind umstritten. A. liegt vor, wenn an Bildwerken ab klass. Zeit (ca. 480 v. Chr.) absichtsvoll Merkmale der Spätarchaik (2. H. des 6. Jh. v. Chr.) übernommen werden. Solche erscheinen v. a. an Haar- und Barttracht, an Gewändern (Zickzackfalten) und an Bewegungsmotiven (gespreizte Finger, Stand…

Vulca

(120 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] Etr. Koroplast aus Veii. Nach Plin. nat. 35,157 fertigte V. in Rom das tönerne Kultbild des Iuppiter Capitolinus im Auftrag des Tarquinius [11] Priscus (1. H. 6. Jh. v. Chr.) für den jedoch erst 509 v. Chr. geweihten Tempel. Hypothetisch ist die Zuweisung der weiteren Bauplastik dieses Tempels sowie jener des Tempels von Veii an V. Ein sog. Hercules fictilis des V. in Rom (Plin. nat. l.c.) ist nicht näher definiert und nicht identisch mit einer bei Mart. 14,178 genannten Statuette. Neudecker, Richard Bibliography M. Pallottino s. v. V., EAA 7, 1206 f.  O. W. von Va…

Urne

(540 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] I. Definition Urspr. runder Wasserbehälter, bezeichnet lat. urna den sepulkralen Behälter für Leichenbrand (Asche und Knochen). Morphologisch sind U. von Behältern des Alltagslebens und Kultes nicht immer zu trennen; teilweise imitieren sie Möbel- und Hausformen. In U. aus Terrakotta, Metall oder Stein wurde der Leichenbrand ( ossilegium) in Stoff oder Gefäßen aufbewahrt. Im ant. Mittelmeerraum war die U. aufgrund der vorherrschenden Brandbestattung ab der Eisenzeit (frühes 1. Jt. v. Chr.) der übliche Totenbehälter mit regio…

Teisikrates

(141 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (Τεισικράτης). Bronzebildner aus Sikyon im frühen 3. Jh. v. Chr. Lit. sind Porträtstatuen von Demetrios [2] Poliorketes, von Peukestas [2] und von einem sonst unbekannten senex Thebanus (“alter Thebaner”) bezeugt, inschr. weitere in Theben, Eretria [1] und Oropos sowie eine myth. Gruppe. Mit Piston schuf T. ein Zweigespann (Plin. nat. 34,89). Keines der Werke ist erh.; Versuche, seinen Demetrios in Kopien zu identifizieren, sind fragwürdig. Lehrer des T. war Euthykrates [2], doch sein Stil glich dem d…

Xoanon

(256 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (ξόανον). Ab dem 6. Jh. v. Chr. bezeugter griech. Begriff für Götterbilder (abgeleitet von ξεῖν/ xeín, “glätten”) aus Holz, Elfenbein und Stein, unabhängig von Größe oder Kunstepoche. Der mod. arch. Sprachgebrauch hingegen beschränkt X. häufig auf alte Holzkultbilder, was auf einseitige Verwendung des Begriffs bei Pausanias zurückgeht, der die meisten Nachrichten über Xoana überliefert. Die berühmtesten hölzernen Xoana entstanden im 8.-7. Jh. v. Chr. Die Bildhauer wurden in der ant. Lit. der “dädalischen Schule” (Daidalos [1]) zug…

Theokosmos

(77 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (Θεόκοσμος). Bildhauer aus Megara im späten 5. Jh. v. Chr., Vater des Kallikles [2]. In Megara schuf er mit Hilfe des Pheidias ein goldelfenbeinernes Kultbild des Zeus (Goldelfenbeintechnik), das nach 431 v. Chr. wegen des Peloponnesischen Krieges unfertig blieb. Am Siegesdenkmal des Lysandros [1] in Delphoi (405 v. Chr.) arbeitete Th. die Statue des Hermon [3]. Neudecker, Richard Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 855; 979; 1035  Lippold, 203 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. Th., EAA 7, 1966, 816  A. Jacquemin, Offrandes monumentales à Delphes, 1999, Nr. 322.

Silberfunde

(171 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] Überwiegend aus ant. Silbergegenständen zusammengesetzte Fundkomplexe. Als Schatz wurden diese zum Schutz vor Diebstahl oder Plünderung verborgen (sog. Thesaurierung). Als Grabbeigabe oder Thesauros in Heiligtümern bzw. Kirchenschatz wurde der Schatz tatsächlich oder ideell als Investition zusammengestellt und deponiert. Im privaten Bereich bildete er zu allen Zeiten und generell zugleich Hausinventar und Wertanlage. Überwiegend setzen sich S. aus kostbaren Eß- und Trinkgerät zus…

Smilis

(143 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (Σμῖλις). Sohn des Eukleides, Bildhauer aus Aigina, wohl 6. Jh. v. Chr. Pausanias (5,17,1) sah im Hera-Tempel von Olympia die thronenden Horen des S. und berichtet über das von ihm gefertigte Kultbild der Hera in Samos (7,4,4). Eine späte Notiz (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel) schreibt S. das Kultbild der Hera in Argos zu. Die Überl. reiht ihn unter die mythischen Künstler aus der Zeit des Daidalos [1] ein; Plin. nat. 36,90 schreibt ihm architektonische Wunderwerke zu. Sein Name ist auf σμίλη ( smílē, “Meißel”) zurückzuführen. Überlegunge…

Statue

(1,215 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] I. Begriff und Allgemeines Von lat. statuere (“aufstellen”) abgeleitet, bezeichnet S. in der Bildhauerei die vollplastisch gestaltete Figur. Diese Form der autonomen Darstellung von Mensch, Tier und Übermensch steht im Zentrum des griech. Kunstschaffens. Im arch. Sprachgebrauch sind auch in eine Architektur eingebundene S. in den Begriff einbezogen (Giebel, Akroter), nicht aber Reliefs. Einzelne S. können inhaltlich und in der Ausführung zu einer S.-Gruppe verbunden sein. Das Format de…

Styppax

(66 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] Bronzebildner aus Kypros im 5. Jh. v. Chr. Berühmt wurde seine Statue des “Splanchnoptes” (Plin. nat. 34,19,81), eines Sklaven, der beim Opfer das Feuer zum Rösten der Eingeweide anbläst. Sie wurde als Weihung im Auftrag des Perikles [1] errichtet, nachdem dessen Sklave beim Tempelbau verletzt und wundersam geheilt wurde. Das Werk ist nicht erh. Neudecker, Richard Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 868-869  P. Moreno, s. v. S., EAA 7, 1966, 535-536.

Theokles

(75 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] (Θεοκλῆς). Sohn des Hegylos, Bildhauer aus Sparta. Th. war Schüler von Dipoinos und Skyllis, somit im mittleren 6. Jh. v. Chr. tätig. Von ihm und seinem Sohn stammte eine Darstellung des “Herakles bei den Hesperiden” in Zedernholz im Schatzhaus von Epidamnos in Olympia; die Hesperiden standen zur Zeit des Pausanias im Heratempel (Paus. 6,19,8). Neudecker, Richard Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 328 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. Th., EAA 7, 1966, 816  H. Marwitz, Hegylos?, in: AA 1969, 106 f.  Fuchs/Floren, 215.

Sphyrelaton

(210 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard
[English version] Arch. t.t. für eine Metalltechnik (“mit dem Hammer getrieben”), ant. nicht belegt. Wie bei Paus. 3,17,6 beschrieben, werden aus Br. oder Edelmetall gehämmerte Platten über einem Holzkern mit Nägeln zusammengefügt. Die Technik ist ein Versuch, im 7. Jh. v. Chr. - vor der Erfindung des Hohlgusses Anf. 6. Jh. v. Chr. - rundplastische Großbronzen herzustellen. Nachr. über S. betonen das hohe Alter solcher Kultbilder, etwa bei dem vom Himmel gefallenen und mit Metall verkleideten Holz…

Smilis

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σμῖλις/ Smîlis). Son of Euclides, a sculptor from Aegina, probably 6th cent. BC. Pausanias (5,17,1) saw S.' enthroned Horae in the temple of Hera at Olympia and gives an account of his cult image of Hera in Samos (7,4,4). A late source (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel) ascribes to S. a cult image of Hera in Argos. Ancient tradition places him among the mythical artists of the period of Daedalus [1]; Plin. HN 36,90 ascribes architectural marvels to him. His name can be derived from  σμίλη ( smílē, ‘chisel’). Speculation on S.' technical inventions …

Dipoenus

(123 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Crete. Like his brother Scyllis, assumed to be a pupil or son of the legendary  Daedalus and one of the original exponents of the art of marble sculpture. Tales of his flight from Cyrus and his first commissions in Sicyon reflect the fact that the ‘Daedalic’ marble-sculpture of the Greek islands preceded that of the mainland and date its arrival on the mainland to the earlier half of the 6th cent. BC. Even in ancient literature, some archaic works were attributed to …

Periclytus

(113 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Περίκλυτος; Períklytos). Sculptor, pupil of  Polyclitus [2]. P. is named as the teacher of an Antiphanes active in Delphi in 359 BC. Pausanias (2,22,7) mentions a brother of Naucydes, but the name is given variously in MSS as P. or Polyclitus. Hence P. plays a part in the reconstruction of the family tree of Polyclitus [2] and [3], whereas of his work nothing is known. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 985, 995  D. Arnold, Die Polykletnachfolge, 1969, 6; 12-14  A. Linfert, Die Schule des Polyklet, in: H. Beck (ed.), Polyklet. Der Bildhauer der gri…

Eutychides

(185 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Εὐτυχίδης; Eutychídēs) Sculptor and painter from Sicyon, pupil and son of  Lysippus. His acme was dated to 296-293 BC. His fame is based on the bronze statue ─ known in many replicas and copies ─ of Tyche of Antioch on the Orontes, which he created not long after the city's refoundation in 300 BC. It is one of the keystones for the chronology of Hellenistic sculpture, and was trendsetting in its composition in the round and its iconography of personifications of cities. E.'s work …

Tabula Iliaca

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archeological technical term for marble plates with illustrations of the Homeric epics (Homerus [1]). The small plates with a height of up to 25 cm are covered on both sides with low reliefs in miniature with accompanying texts. Most of the 22 extant plates refer to the Iliad, one to the Odyssey. The most complete plate, the so-called Tabula Capitolina (Rome, KM), contains parts of the Aethiopís as well. The plates are dated to the early Imperial Period and were all found in Rome. Some are attested to have been produced by T…

Frontality

(258 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] The term introduced by J. Lange in 1892 as in the ‘law of frontality’ originally referred to a pre-Greek mode of portrayal, which, developed from the plane, displays all the essential individual forms paratactically in front view. Frontality was a label for an allegedly primitive form, which in evolutionary statements on style also seemed applicable to the early, pre-classical portrayal of people in Greek sculpture. In archaic statues frontality was supposedly expressed by mirror-…

Damocritus

(82 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Δαμόκριτος/ Damókritos; also: Democritus [Δημόκριτος/ Dēmókritos]). Sculptor from Sicyon, active during the first half of the 4th cent. BC. Pausanias saw a victor's statue of his in Olympia. Pliny chose the Attic form of the name, for a Democritus, who made statues of philosophers. In Rome his name was found on the statue of Lysis from Miletus in a lost collection of copies of 4th cent. works. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 463, 466-468 (sources) Loewy, no. 484 Lippold, 247-248.

Styppax

(83 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Cyprus in the 5th century BC. He was famous for his statue of a splanchnoptes (Plin. HN 34,19,81), a slave who blows on the fire to roast the entrails at a sacrifice. It was erected on the orders of Pericles [1] as a votive offering after his slave was injured during the building of a temple and miraculously healed. The work does not survive. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 868-869  P. Moreno, s. v. S., EAA 7, 1966, 535-536.

Praxiteles

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πραξιτέλης/ Praxitélēs). [German version] I. Biography Sculptor from Athens, active c. 370-320 BC. Since Timarchus and Cephisodotus [5] were P.’ sons, Cephisodotus [4] is assumed to be his father. By using later namesakes, a family of sculptors can be pieced together extending into the 1st cent. BC. However, this is just as controversial as the suppositions about the wealth and political influence of the family in the 4th cent. P.’ anecdotal biography and fame sound a note of caution with regard to c. 55 named works. Even so, the abundance of sources has led to many, often i…

Marble sculptures

(417 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Crystalline limestone marble was the preferred stone material in Graeco-Roman sculpture. Marble was partially painted or gilded, otherwise impregnated with a coating of wax and oil ( gánōsis). Coloured marble was used to match the colour of clothing and hair; painted effects were achieved by adding metals to jewellery, weapons, hairpieces and eyes. The term akrolithon is used for elaborate mixed techniques. Stucco was often added to economize with material or time. The proportions of the blocks often called…

Cypselus chest

(251 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Container ( kypsélē, kibōtós, lárnax) made from cedar wood decorated with ivory and gold plaques and carvings, described by Pausanias (5,17,5-19,10) as a votive gift from  Cypselus [2] or the  Cypselides in the temple of Hera in Olympia. Legend declared the chest to be the vessel in which Cypselus [2] was saved from the Bacchiadae as a child, or rather as its replica. It was probably manufactured in the mid 6th cent. BC. Because of the description provided by Pausanias, the Cypselus chest is an important source for the exploration of archaic imagery. A…

Myrmecides

(94 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Μυρμηκίδης; Myrmēkídēs). Sculptor in marble and toreutics . His creative period is not known, it probably lay in the 6th cent. BC. Mostly named in conjunction with Callicrates [2], he had a legendary reputation for producing microscopically small works in marble, iron and ivory. There are descriptions of a quadriga small enough to fit under the wings of a fly, a ship the size of a bee and a sesame seed enscripted with Homeric verses. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 293, 2168, 2192-2201  P. Mingazzini, s.v. M., EAA 5, 1963, 313-314.

Pyrilampus

(92 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πυρίλαμπος; Pyrílampos). Bronze sculptor, son of Agias from Messene. A preserved Exedra base with signature of P. was dated in the 2nd or 1st century BC. It is uncertain whether this refers to the same P. of whom Pausanias (6,3,13; 6,15,1; 6,16,5) saw three victory statues in Olympia. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 1565-1567  Loewy, no. 274  Lippold, 380  EAA 6, s. v. Pyrilampus, 1965, 572-573  G. Maddoli, Pyrilampes, dimenticato scultore di Sicione, e la cronologia di Pyrilampes di Messene, in: Dialoghi di archeologia 7, 2, 1989, 65-69.

Critius

(308 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Κρίτιος; in written sources: Κριτίας). Bronze sculptor in Athens. C. is always mentioned together with Nesiotes. His prime was in 448-444 BC, Pliny's date is too late. C. was a contemporary of  Hegias [1]. In antiquity his style was considered antiquated and dry. He became famous as the master of the  Severe Style (1st third of the 5th cent. BC) with his statues of  Harmodius [1] and  Aristogeiton, the Tyrannicide group, which in 477/6 BC was set up in the Agora to replace a grou…

Tectaeus

(134 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Τεκταῖος; Tektaîos). Greek sculptor of the mid-6th century BC. Like his brother Angelion, T. is supposed to have been a pupil of Dipoenus and Scyllis and teacher of Calon [1] (Paus. 2,32,5). He and Angelion created a cult statue of Apollo on Delos; on the basis of  literary (Plut. Mor. 1136a; Paus. 9,35,3) and pictorial evidence of seals and reliefs Apollo was represented as a kouros with Charites on one hand and a Sphinx. A later account (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel) of an Artemis by T. in Delos is of doubtful veracity. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibl…

Agesander

(34 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγήσανδρος; Agésandros) (Hagesandrus), son of Paeonius, sculptor from Rhodes. Together with  Athanadorus and Polydorus, he produced famous groups of Hellenistic sculptures in Rome. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography B. Andreae, Praetorium Speluncae, 1994.

Athanadorus

(210 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Son of Agesander; sculptor from Rhodes. Worked with  Agesander and  Polydorus; his marble copies of Hellenistic bronze groups were celebrated even in antiquity. The workshop's creative period was at first set in the mid 1st cent. BC, on the basis of Rhodian inscriptions, but after the discovery of the extensive sculpture complex of Sperlonga, most probably going back to the time of Tiberius, it can be fixed in the early Imperial period. The Scylla group is signed. Also by him are …

Sthennis

(136 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σθέννις/ Sthénnis). Bronze sculptor from Olynthus, active in Athens from 348 BC. According to surviving inscribed bases, he and Leochares created a family group on the Acropolis in Athens in the late 4th cent. BC, and a statue for Lysimachus [2] in Oropus in the early 3rd cent. There is literary evidence for several statues by S. of gods and one of a philosopher, which were later moved to Rome, one of flentes matronae et adorantes sacrificantesque (‘weeping, adoring and sacrificing women’, Plin. HN 34,19,90) and victor statues in Olympia. Although none…

Phidias

(1,377 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Φειδίας/ Pheidías, Latin Phidias). [German version] I. General remarks Son of Charmides, Athenian sculptor. In Antiquity,  Hegias [1] was named as P.' teacher, others suggested Ageladas. P.' artistic efforts were seen as closely associated with the Athenian statesman Pericles [1] and lasted from about 460 to 430 BC; main period of productivity: 448-445 BC. Ancient reports of P.' life and work are rife with scandal (sources in [1]). Between 438/7 and 433/2 BC, P.' connections with Pericles resulted in ch…

Bupalus

(166 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor and architect from Chios, son of  Archermus. The anecdote about a pejorative portrait by the poet  Hipponax dates him around 550-525 BC. With his brother Athenis he created statues of  Artemis in Iasos, Delos and Athens and an Artemis mask with ‘changing facial expression’ in Chios. From the Charites, which were erected later in Pergamum under King Attalus, the base signature has possibly been preserved. The Tyche in Smyrna was apparently first represented by B. with a cr…

Butades

(51 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor of kouroi from Sicyon who in ancient sources is credited with the invention of figurative antefixes (7th cent. BC) and of portraiture. Until 146 BC, one of his works, probably a mask, was displayed in Corinth. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 196. 211 Overbeck, no. 259. 260 (sources).

Heraclidas

(115 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Atrax in Thessaly, active in the 4th cent. BC. Together with Hippocrates he signed a victory votive of the Pharsalians in Delphi, where it was set up in the mid 4th cent. BC. Because of the measures at the base, it may have been the bronze group of Achilles on horseback and Patroclus, which Pausanias (10,13,5) describes. However, because the base bears a rededication to Claudius there can be no certainty. Pausanias may not have seen the original work. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Daux, Pausanias à Delphes, 1936, 141-143 J. Marcadé, Recueil de…

Herms

(610 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Hermai (ἕρμαι/ hérmai, ‘Hermes heads’), also hermádion (‘small Hermes’), schêma tetrágōnon, tetráglōchis, describes in Graeco-Roman art a special form of anthropoid freestanding sculpture. The herm consists of a pillar with a head, mostly with wooden lateral beam stumps instead of arms ( cheîres, cunei) and a male sexual organ attached at the front that is always ithyphallic in early herms. Double herms bear two heads turned away from each other. Three- and four-fold herms on one pillar are also to be found. In Arcadian he…

Branchidae

(81 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term used, since their discovery in 1765, for statues from the oracle sanctuary of Apollo Branchos in  Didyma. The 15 extant statues of seated males date from 590-540 BC, record the names of their sculptors and were placed on the sacred road linking  Miletus to the sanctuary. They are significant examples of Ionian sculpture style and of the oriental influence on Greek iconography. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 374-375 K. Tuchelt, Die archa. Skulpturen von Didyma, IstForsch 27, 1970.

Appliqués (pottery)

(158 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term for attached decorative items representing figures or plants. On bronze vessels of the 7th cent. BC, they are attached as protome (e.g. griffin cauldron). In Hellenistic and imperial times, crustae on tableware are highly valued masterpieces of  toreutics, and also on clothing, luxurious armour such as gladiators' helmets, on horse harness and carriage components. On kline rests ( fulcra), bronze animal protomes can be found, appliqués of ivory on furniture. Wooden sarcophagi in Taranto and south Russia of the 4th cent. BC had relief…

Praxias

(141 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πραξίας/ Praxías). Son of Lysimachus, sculptor from Athens, pupil of Calamis. His pediment groups on the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, which are described by Pausanias (10,19,4), survive. They were completed by Androsthenes from 335-327 BC, after P.'s death. Signatures of P. from the period 368-338 BC survive from Oropus and Athens; others in Delos and Thasos are from his son of the same name. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 857, 860  Lippold, 193, 243  J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, vol. 2, 1957, 109-113  EAA 6, s. v. P. …

Caecosthenes

(101 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Καικοσθένης; Kaikosthénēs). Son of Apollonides, bronze sculptor from Athens. Eight bases from the early 2nd cent. BC are inscribed with his and his brother Dies' signature. Some originate from portrait statues, which is why C. is usually identified as Chalcosthenes, who, according to Pliny, is supposed to have mostly sculpted statues of actors and athletes. In the Athenian Kerameikos, one could find ‘rough’ statues of gods and goddesses made of terracotta, perhaps the clay models for bronze statues. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck no. 1380-1381 Lo…

Cresilas

(294 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor of Cydonia. According to the evidence of inscriptions on existing socles, C. worked c. 450-420 BC in Delphi, Hermione and Athens. He created the most famous portrait of  Pericles in antiquity, ‘worthy of the epithet Olympian’ (Plin. HN 34,74). It was regarded as identical with the portrait statue of Pericles seen by Pausanias on the acropolis and which is clearly identified in copies. A statue by C. depicting a mortally wounded figure ( volneratum deficientem) was described by Pliny and is usually equated with the bronze statue depicting D…

Eumares

(128 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Εὐμάρης; Eumárēs). Painter in Athens. He was considered to be the inventor of the distinction between male and female figures, probably by means of the skin colour, and of a new flexibility of the bodies. If he can be correctly associated with this stage of development achieved around 600 BC, he cannot be equated with the bearer of this common artist's name who appears as the father in a signature of  Antenor and his brother and who himself placed his signature on a work on a base of the Acropolis around 520 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 295 Overbeck…

Dontas

(78 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Sparta, active as an alleged student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis about the middle of the 6th cent. BC. The treasury of the Megarians at Olympia contained a wooden relief set in gold by him depicting Hercules and figures of the gods. According to Pausanias it was clearly older than the late 6th cent. building. The treasury's sculpture therefore cannot be attributed to D. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 215 Overbeck, no. 330-331 (sources).

Reproduction techniques

(677 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] were used in antiquity from the Geometric Period on for the serial production of art. It exists when a model created specifically for the purpose is used to manufacture a not always specified number of repetitions. The intention may be economic, aesthetic (if identical products are desired) or, in the particular case of coins, dictated by the very purpose of the objects. It is crucial to distinguish this from the subsequent repetition of an original which is itself of value, as se…

Pasticcio

(587 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Italian for 'pie, hotchpotch'). The figurative meaning, which arose in the 17th cent., referred to works in which elements of style or motifs of different artists were imitated, as charming features or for purposes of deception. In figurative art, pasticcio first referred to the combination of ancient friezes with plaster-work on Roman palazzi of the 17th and 18th cents. Pasticcio thereafter described esp. modern combinations of various ancient fragments with new works. In archaeology, the term was used mostly pejoratively for eclectic wo…

Antignotus

(67 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor in Athens. Preserved are his initials of the memorial statues for the Thracian kings Raskouporis (around 13 BC) and Kotys. Making statues of philosophers and athletes, an A. mentioned in Pliny is more likely to be a sculptor of the 4th cent. BC when taking a dated base into account. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Loewy, no.314-316 s. v. A., EAA Suppl. 61.

Dameas

(135 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] [1] (also: Demeas) Sculptor from Croton (also: Demeas). Sculptor from Croton. In 532 BC he created the victor's statue of Milon in Olympia that is described by Pausanias; there is a base with fragmentary inscriptions that is seen as going together with it. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 428 Loewy, no. 414 Overbeck, no. 484 (sources). [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Cleitor, c. 405 BC Bronze sculptor from Cleitor, student of Polycletus. In Delphi he created, for the victory statue of the Spartans who went to Aigosp…

Sphyrelaton

(247 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archaeological term for a metal-working technique ('embossed with a hammer'), not documented in Antiquity. As described in Paus. 3,17,6, sheets hammered out of bronze or precious metals are joined together with nails over a wooden core. The technique is an attempt in the 7th cent. BC - before the invention of hollow casting at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC - to make large-scale free-standing bronzes. Accounts of sphyrelata emphasize the great age of such cult images, e.g. the …

Hermathena, Hermeracles

(98 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Cicero called the  Herms of Athena and Hercules, which Atticus had obtained in 67-65 BC for Cicero's Tusculanum (Cic. Att. 1,1; 4; 8; 9; 10), Hermathena and Hermeracles. The bronze heads were set on marble pillars and were considered an appropriate ornamentum for his peristyle, which was compared to the Academia and a gymnasium. These terms are Cicero's creation. Setting up Herms of this type in the gardens of Roman villas became a common practice. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography R. Neudecker, Die Skulpturenausstattung röm. Villen in Italien, 1988, 11-18 H. Wr…

Cippus

(273 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] As a stone monument with or without inscription, the cippus was used in particular for territorial delineation. Made as a free-standing sculpture, it marked burial sites and was linked as reference to the dead to magical ideas and should not be confused with steles. The basic form was phallic, 30-50 cm high and it was represented in diverse ways especially in Etruria ( Etruscan Archaeology). Mostly onions, spheres or eggs top a pillar or cylinder. Special regional types in the 6th…

Calon

(250 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(also Callon; Kά(λ)λων, Kál(l)ōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Aegina Sculptor from Aegina. C. was considered a contemporary of  Hegesias and a pupil of Tectaeus and  Angelion; his style was seen as archaic compared to that of  Canachus. An extant base from the Acropolis is dated to c. 500 BC. Pausanias describes a bronze tripod made by C. at Amycae -- a Spartan dedication after a victory against Messene -- featuring Kore as its support. It appears that other tripods, by  Gitiades, were also part of the offering, so that this tripod c…

Micciades

(99 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Μικκιάδης; Mikkiádes). Father of Archermus, of Chios. Pliny (HN 36,11) places him at the head of a Chian family of sculptors, erroneously giving him as the son of one Melas [4]. However, the source which Pliny misread (and which survives), a votive epigram from Delos, dated to approx. 550 BC, does not say that M. was a sculptor. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 314 Loewy, No.1 J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, Vol. 2, 1957, 75 B. S. Ridgway, The Nike of Archermos and Her Attire, in: J. Boardman (ed.), Chios, 1986, 259-274.

Alxenor

(47 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Naxos. He signed a grave stele from Orchomenus to be dated around 500-490 BC, which shows the deceased in a standing pose with his dog. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography LSAG, 292 pl. 55 Lippold, 114 G. Richter, Archaic Greek Art, 1949, fig. 255.

Canachus

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάναχος; Kánachos). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Sicyon Sculptor from Sicyon, lived and worked in the late archaic period. Sources describe his style as hard and strict. His most famous work, the bronze statue of Apollo Philesios in Didyma holding a movable deer in one hand, was looted in 494 BC by the Persians. C. created a copy out of cedar wood for the temple of Apollo Ismenios in Thebes. Reliefs and coins depict the statue which was also recognized in Roman reproductions. In Sicyon, C. create…

Pasiteles

(289 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πασιτέλης; Pasitélēs). Sculptor, from Magna Graecia, Roman citizen probably from 89 BC and according to the sources active there at the time of Cn. Pompeius Magnus in the middle of the 1st cent. BC. Of P.'s work nothing has survived apart from one signature on the base of a statue, but his significance in the artistic expression of late Republican Rome seems to have been great, not in the least because of his treatise on opera nobilia (mirabilia) totius orbis ('noble (wonderful) works of the whole world'), which is not preserved. Since P. is mentioned as t…

Strongylion

(176 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Στρογγυλίων/ Strongylíōn). Bronze sculptor (last third of the 5th cent. to the first third of the 4th cent. BC). None of his works attested in literature survives. Parts of the base of a detailed depiction of the Trojan horse, named δούριος ( doúrios, ‘The wooden one’, Paus. 1,23,8), have been identified on the Acropolis in Athens; it can be dated to before 414 BC. As well as some devotional images, S. and Cephisodotus [4] created some statues of the Muses on Mt Helicon. Small bronzes by S. were famous among Roman collectors, such as the so-called Puer Bruti and an Amazon, o…

Silver hoards

(206 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Compound hoards composed predominantly of ancient silver objects. As treasure these were hidden to protect them from theft or plundering (known as hoarding). As grave goods or thesauroi in sanctuaries or church treasures the treasure was collected and deposited in fact or ideally as an investment. In the private domain at all times and generally it acted simultaneously as both house contents and an investment. SH were predominantly composed of valuable eating and drinking utensils. Their importance to schol…

Silanion

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σιλανίων; Silaníōn). Bronze sculptor from Athens. According to Plin. HN 34,51 he was the height of his career in 328-325 BC. S. created statues of the mythical figures Achilles, Theseus and Jocasta, and in Olympia the victor statues of the boxers Damaretus, Telestas and Satyrus. A 'sports instructor' ( epistaten exercentem athletas, Plin. HN 34,82) ascribed to him can perhaps be interpreted as Connidas, Theseus' teacher. Of S.'s portraits a statue of Plato in the Athenian Academy is recognised has been reliably identified in Roma…

Angelion

(77 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor in archaic times who, together with  Tectaeus, is regarded as a pupil of  Dipoenus and Scyllis. Plutarch describes the wooden cult statue of Apollo on Delos with a discus in his hand on which the three Charites stood; it was produced together with Tectaeus. Later, gold wreaths were added to the Charites by queen Stratonice. The statue is shown on later Athenian coins. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 179-180 Overbeck, no. 334-337 (sources).

Agoracritus

(246 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγοράκριτος; Agorákritos). Sculptor from Paros, master of the high-classical period in Athens. Uncertain attributions to A., his rival  Alcamenes and their teacher  Phidias are reflected in anecdotes of ancient literature, which makes attributing the œuvre difficult. When it came second in a contest with Alcamenes, A. is said to have sold a statue of Aphrodite to a buyer in Rhamnus as one of Nemesis, or that Phidias had one of his own statues signed by A. The signature was discove…

Akrolithon

(149 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archaeological term for statues where the exposed body parts are made of marble and the robes of metal, both attached to a wooden core. The term first occurs in temple inventories in the 2nd cent. BC, later in Vitruvius for colossal statues. The technique can be traced back to the earliest cult idols with clothing and, since the classical period, is often used for cult statues. Numerous descriptions of akrolitha are contrasted by just a small number of preserved fragments, such as…

Tisicrates

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Τεισικράτης; Teisikrátēs). Bronze sculptor from Sicyon in the early 3rd cent. BC. There is literary evidence of portrait statues of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes, Peucestas [2] and an otherwise unknown Senex Thebanus ('elderly Theban man') and inscriptional evidence of others in Thebes, Eretria [1] and Oropus as well as a mythological group. T. and Piston created a chariot and pair (Plin. HN 34,89). None of his works survives; attempts to identify his Demetrius in copies are questionable. T.'s teacher was Euthycr…

Clipeus

(258 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] [1] Bust on a round shield ( clipeata imago). The bust on a round shield, in antiquity usually designated as clipeus et imago or εἰκὼν ἐν ὅπλῳ, is to be distinguished from relief medallions in the art of miniatures. Clipei painted on terracotta come from tombs (Centuripe); the earliest marble clipei attached to buildings come from Delos (Mithridates monument, c. 100 BC). The clipeus became widespread from the 1st cent. BC in Rome. Written sources on their invention suggest an origin in ancestor worship and military honours, though reports on Punic clipei of Hasdrubal ar…

Leochares

(431 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Λεωχάρης; Leōchárēs). Greek sculptor; his surviving works date from the mid 4th cent. BC to 320 BC; the period of main activity given by Pliny, 372-369 BC, is therefore too early. L.'s reputation rested on idols and portraiture, and led to a corruption of the evidence. Among the literary inventions are a statue of Apollo attributed to the still young L., which Plato is said to have sent to Dionysius II (around 365 BC). In 354 BC at the latest (death of work's commissioner Timotheu…

Daitondas

(51 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Sicyon. He created victors' and portrait statues in Olympia and Thebes in the later 4th cent. BC, as well as one of Aphrodite in Delphi. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Lippold, 299 J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, 1, 1953, no.25 Overbeck, no. 1582 (sources).

Xoanon

(305 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (ξόανον; xóanon). Greek term, attested from the 6th cent. BC, for gods' images (derived from ξεῖν/ xeín, 'to polish') made of wood, ivory and stone, regardless of size or artistic period. The modern archaeological usage, however, often limits the term xoanon to an ancient cult figure made of wood, which goes back to the restricted use of the term by Pausanias, who has handed down most of the information on xoana. The most famous wooden xoana were created in the 8th-7th cents. BC. In ancient literature, their sculptors (Theocles, Angelion) were considered…

Alexander Sarcophagus

(174 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Modern technical term for the most opulent of all Greek relief sarcophagi ( Relief;  Sarcophagi). Found in 1887 in the royal necropolis of Sidon, it is attributed to the local regent  Abdalonymus (333-312 BC). It belongs to the group of house sarcophagi with architectural decor and is famous for the relief images on which residues of painting have been preserved. It is usually believed that Alexander is the warrior with the lion's trophy in the battle against the Persians, and tha…

Statue

(1,377 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Term and general Derived from the Latin statuere ('to set up'), in sculpture, 'statue' denotes a completely three-dimensionally designed figure. This form of stand-alone depiction of people, animals and the more than human is at the centre of Greek artistry. In archaeological usage, statues which are integrated into architecture are also included in the term (pediment, akroterion ), but reliefs are not. Individual statues can be combined in a group in content and execution. The format of the statue ranges from sm…

Chaerestratus

(105 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Son of Chaeredemus; Attic sculptor from  Rhamnus. On a prosopographical basis, his creative period has been deduced to have been in the early 3rd cent. BC, but by some to c. 320 BC. This is significant for the chronology of early Hellenistic developments in style, as the statue of Themis in the sanctuary of Nemesis at Rhamnus (Athens, AM) is signed by C. Further works are attributed to him by way of style. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculpteurs grecs, 1, 1953, no. 11-12 P. Moreno, Scultura ellenistica, 1994, 168-172 fig. B.…

Naucydes

(242 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ναυκύδης; Naukýdes). Bronze sculptor from Argos, son of Patrocles, teacher of Polyclitus and Alypus. The position of  N. in Polyclitus's family tree is a matter of dispute; two sculptors of the same name are also postulated. Daedalus [2] and Periclytus are recorded as the brothers of N., the latter also as ‘Polyclitus’. Pliny gives N.'s prime as  400-397 BC. N. created several  victor statues (after  448 BC). The most famous was a discobolus (discus thrower), which is commonly identified with the ‘discobolus at rest’ (Rom, VM), dating from c. 400 BC, which survives …

Alypus

(95 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of  Naucydes. By collaboration on the Delphic monument of the Spartans after Aegospotami (‘Lysander-anathema’, 405 BC,  Delphi), he is categorized under the so-called Polyclitus succession. Signature and base with traces of its support are preserved. Identifications of the four victors' statues by A., as seen by Pausanias in Olympia, are hypothetical. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography D. Arnold, Die Polykletnachfolge, JDAI supplement 25, 1969, 84-85, 187-188 J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs gr…

Athenis

(41 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Chios, son of  Archermus. He worked in the late 6th cent. BC on Delos, in Iasos, Chios and in Athens with his brother  Bupalus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 335-337 Overbeck, no. 314, 315, 318 (sources).

Corinthian alloy

(247 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Corinthium aes, according to Plin. HN 34,6-8 an alloy of  copper,  gold and  silver, with an artificial patination that made it gleam like gold. Attempts to identify Corinthian alloy (CA) with so-called ‘black gold’ and ‘niello’ are not convincing, as only a lesser sort of CA was dark in colour. The term CA was always associated with legendary invention, names of old masters, and dubious authenticity. Juridical sources (Dig. 32,100,3), however, distinguish CA from plain bronze, ref…

Argeadas

(50 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Argus. In Olympia, he was a collaborator on the substantial votive offering by one Praxiteles, dated between 484 and 461 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography W. Dittenberger, Die Inschr. von Olympia, 1896, no. 266, 630, 631 F. Eckstein, Ἀναθήματα, 1969, 61-64 Loewy, no. 30 p. XVIII.

Portraits

(1,884 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. General remarks By the modern definition, a portrait is a rendering of an individual person's appearance. Typological and physiognomic characterizations serve this end. However, portraits recognizable as portraits only through their intention or by furnishing a name lack such characteristics. A typological portrait uses canonical features to indicate that its subject belongs to a certain group. A physiognomic portrait guarantees the identification of its subject by reproducing phy…

Theke

(104 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (θήκη; thḗkē) is a term for any kind of container. In particular, from the 5th/4th cent. BC onwards it is used in texts and inscriptions for niche-shaped burial places, whether for burials in funerary buildings (Melos, 4th cent. BC) and vaults (Hdt. 1,67,3; 2,148,5), or for storing cinerary urns (Alexandria), but not sarkophagoi (Sarcophagus). Latin theca , in contrast, refers exclusively to holders for objects, primarily writing implements. Loculi Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography E. Saglio, s. v. loculus, DS 3.2, 1904, 1292-1295  A. Hug, s. v. T., RE …

Theocosmus

(90 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Θεόκοσμος; Theókosmos). Sculptor from Megara in the late 5th cent. BC, father of Callicles [2]. With the help of Pheidias he created a gold-ivory cult image of Zeus (Gold-ivory technique) in Megara, which remained unfinished after 431 BC because of the Peloponnesian War. On the victory monument of Lysander [1] in Delphi (in 405 BC) T. made the statue of Hermon [3]. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 855; 979; 1035  Lippold, 203 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 816  A. Jacquemin, Offrandes monumentales à Delphes, 1999, Nr. 322.

Urn

(621 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Definition Originally a round water container, the Latin urna denotes the sepulchral vessel in a cremation (ashes and bones). Morphologically speaking, urns are not always distinguishable from vessels of everyday life or cult. They sometimes imitated furniture and building designs. The gathered bones and ashen remains were gathered ( ossilegium) for storing in cloth or vessels inside urns of terracotta, metal or stone. Because of the prevalence of cremation in the ancient Mediterranean, the urn was the usual vessel for contain…

Gitiades

(186 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Sparta, where he created the temple and cult image of Athena Polioúchos kaì Chalkíoikos as well as extensive mythological scenes in bronze reliefs (Paus. 3,17,2). The latter were presumably displayed on the walls of the temple, and according to later coin reproductions, the gown of the Athena statue was also provided with reliefs. G. had also written a hymn to Athena. Also on view in Amyclae were two bronze tripods by him with Aphrodite and Artemis as supporting figures that …

Archermus

(139 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Chios like his sons  Boupalus and Athenis. His active period falls into the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Pliny (HN 36,11-14) refers to works in Lesbos and Delos where a base with his initials was found. A winged Nike in the archaic kneeling-running ( Knielauf

Phradmon

(187 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φράδμων; Phrádmōn). Bronze sculptor from Argos. Plinius (HN 34,49) gives 420-417 BC as his prime. P. is known primarily for his participation in the competition over the statues of Amazons in Ephesus, among the copies of which the 'Doria Panfili' type (Rome, Galleria Doria Panfili) are attributed without adequate reason to him. Victors' statues by P. were to be seen in Olympia (according to Pausanias 6,8,1), and in Delphi (according to a restored inscription). An inscription in Os…

Phyromachus

(686 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φυρόμαχος/ Phyrómachos). Sculptor of Athens, teacher of the painters Heraclides [30] (active 168 BC) and Milon. The written and archaeological traditions, which are controversial, reveal at least the existence of a famed artist who was active under the Attalid kings (Attalus) of Pergamum. The Laterculi Alexandrini (late 2nd cent. BC) place him in a list of artists, and Pliny (HN 34,84) has the same in mind when documenting the sculptors who worked for Attalus and Eumenes. As Pliny only makes a generalized reference to the monumenta Attalidum, it cannot be demonstr…

Grylloi

(214 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] According to Pliny (HN 35,114), the name for caricature depictions in painting since Antiphilus [4] of Alexandria represented a certain Gryllus in that way. Originally these were dancers with grotesque physical proportions and contortions. As gryllographeîn and grylloeídēs later generally referred to ridiculously proportioned bodies, small-format free-standing sculpture representations can also be described as grylloi. Today the genre is no longer attributed to Alexandrian art only. To cover all animal caricatures and monstrous figur…

Damophon

(190 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Δαμοφῶν; Damophôn) Sculptor from Messene. Based on prosopographic and historic evidence, it would seem that he was active from the end of the 3rd cent. BC until 168 BC; most of his divine statues known from written records must have been produced in Arcadia prior to the earthquake in 183 BC. He worked on colossal acroliths and was entrusted with the repair of Phidias' Zeus in  Olympia. Of a group of gods in the Asclepius shrine in Messene, the head and foot of the statues of Apollo…

Bathycles

(131 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor and architect from  Magnesia on the Maeander, famous for his so called ‘throne’ of Apollo in Amyclae near Sparta, which is described in great detail by Pausanias (3,18,6-3,19,6): as a structure, it combined the grave of Hyacinthus, an  altar, and a colossal  cult image, decorated with 45 mythological scenes, statues, and a depiction of his co-workers dancing in a circle. Since we have no surviving remnants at all, we must regard its numerous reconstructions and its dating to the late 6th cent. as speculative. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A.…

Zenas

(74 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ζηνᾶς/ Zēnâs). Sculptor's name on two Roman portrait busts from the early 2nd cent. AD. The addition to the signature of the father's name Alexander (IG XIV 1241) in the one case and of β in the other (IG XIV 1242) suggests two different sculptors. The name points to a connection with sculptors from Aphrodisias (Aphrodisias [1], sculptors' school). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Loewy, Nr. 383 a-b P. Moreno, s. v. Z., EAA 7, 1247 f.

Boedas

(79 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (also Boidas). Sculptor, son and pupil of  Lysippus. He worked in Byzantium around 300 BC. Pliny was aware of his fame but mentioned only the statue in Rome of a worshipper. For a long time the statue of the so-called ‘Praying boy’ from Rhodes in Berlin (PM) was erroneously identified with it. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography R. Kabus-Preisshofen, Der ‘Betende Knabe’ in Berlin, in: AA 1988, 679-699 Overbeck, no.1516. 1521 (sources) B. S. Ridgway, Hellenistic Sculpture, 1, 1990, 227-228.

Phyles

(65 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)

Bryaxis

(339 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Bρύαξις; Brýaxis) Sculptor of Carian descent. The traditional list of his works implies such a long period of creative activity, that even in antiquity, his works were divided between two homonymous artists. A signed relief base in Athens (NM) is dated to c. 350 BC. Also assigned to the same period is the collaboration of B. on the Mausoleum of  Halicarnassus (351 BC: death of Mausolus); however, there are also valid a…

Hectoridas

(113 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor, listed in the accounts for the sculptures of a gable of the temple of Asclepius at  Epidaurus, which was finished around 370 BC. Therefore, the fragments of an original Iliupersis are to be ascribed to him and must be considered as an independent work and not - as often presumed - as copies in the fashion of models of  Timotheus. In addition, H. provided models for the painting of lionhead gargoyles. His signature is also to be found on the base of a lost statue in Epidaurus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A. Burford, The Greek temple builders at Epidauros, 1969 Lippold, 220 N. Yalouris, Die Skulpturen des Asklepiostempels in Epidauros, 1992.

Copies

(1,211 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] A. Original and copy In archaeological literature, any reproduction of classical and Hellenistic sculptures that is faithful in form to the original is regarded as a copy, even if the copy does not completely correspond in size, material, or degree of completion. Copies in the broadest sense are a main characteristic of ancient art production which was based on slow change of style, on the familiarity with the iconography of passed epochs and a deep respect towards them: innovations were judged as g…

Menophantus

(80 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Greek sculptor. A statue of Aphrodite (Rome, MN) bears his signature, with the additional note that the model is in the Troad. The work, which is a variation on the type of the Capitoline Venus, dates from the 1st cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Cressedi, s.v. Menephanto, EAA 4, 1961, 1026 Loewy, Nr. 377 B. S. Ridgway, Hellenistic Sculpture, 1, 1990, 356 O. Vasori, Museo nazionale romano. Le sculture, 1, 1, 1979, 109-111, Nr. 81.

Theocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Θεοκλῆς; Theoklês). Son of Hegylus, sculptor from Sparta. T. was a pupil of Dipoenus and Scyllis and thus was active in the mid-6th cent. BC. A representation in cedar wood of 'Heracles with the Hesperids' in the treasury of Epidamnus in Olympia were by him and his son; at the time of Pausanias the Hesperids were in the Temple of Hera (Paus. 6,19,8). …
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