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Reproduction techniques

(677 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] were used in antiquity from the Geometric Period on for the serial production of art. It exists when a model created specifically for the purpose is used to manufacture a not always specified number of repetitions. The intention may be economic, aesthetic (if identical products are desired) or, in the particular case of coins, dictated by the very purpose of the objects. It is crucial to distinguish this from the subsequent repetition of an original which is itself of value, as se…

Tisicrates

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Τεισικράτης; Teisikrátēs). Bronze sculptor from Sicyon in the early 3rd cent. BC. There is literary evidence of portrait statues of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes, Peucestas [2] and an otherwise unknown Senex Thebanus ('elderly Theban man') and inscriptional evidence of others in Thebes, Eretria [1] and Oropus as well as a mythological group. T. and Piston created a chariot and pair (Plin. HN 34,89). None of his works survives; attempts to identify his Demetrius in copies are questionable. T.'s teacher was Euthycr…

Vulca

(132 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Etruscan terracotta sculptor from Veii. According to Plin. HN 35,157, V. made the clay cult image of Iuppiter Capitolinus in Rome commissioned by Tarquinius [11] Priscus (first half of the 6th cent. BC) for a temple which was not, however, dedicated until 509 BC. Ascribing to V. the rest of the building sculpture of this temple and that of the temple of Veii is hypothetical. A Hercules fictilis by V. in Rome (Plin. HN loc.cit.) is not more closely defined and is not identical with a statuette mentioned in Mart. 14,178. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography M. Pallottino …

Smilis

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σμῖλις/ Smîlis). Son of Euclides, a sculptor from Aegina, probably 6th cent. BC. Pausanias (5,17,1) saw S.' enthroned Horae in the temple of Hera at Olympia and gives an account of his cult image of Hera in Samos (7,4,4). A late source (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel) ascribes to S. a cult image of Hera in Argos. Ancient tradition places him among the mythical artists of the period of Daedalus [1]; Plin. HN 36,90 ascribes architectural marvels to him. His name can be derived from  σμίλη ( smílē, ‘chisel’). Speculation on S.' technical inventions …

Eumares

(128 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Εὐμάρης; Eumárēs). Painter in Athens. He was considered to be the inventor of the distinction between male and female figures, probably by means of the skin colour, and of a new flexibility of the bodies. If he can be correctly associated with this stage of development achieved around 600 BC, he cannot be equated with the bearer of this common artist's name who appears as the father in a signature of  Antenor and his brother and who himself placed his signature on a work on a base of the Acropolis around 520 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 295 Overbeck…

Theocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Θεοκλῆς; Theoklês). Son of Hegylus, sculptor from Sparta. T. was a pupil of Dipoenus and Scyllis and thus was active in the mid-6th cent. BC. A representation in cedar wood of 'Heracles with the Hesperids' in the treasury of Epidamnus in Olympia were by him and his son; at the time of Pausanias the Hesperids were in the Temple of Hera (Paus. 6,19,8). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 328 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 816  H. Marwitz, Hegylos?, in: AA 1969, 106 f.  Fuchs/Floren, 215.

Archermus

(139 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Chios like his sons  Boupalus and Athenis. His active period falls into the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Pliny (HN 36,11-14) refers to works in Lesbos and Delos where a base with his initials was found. A winged Nike in the archaic kneeling-running ( Knielauf) pose, found nearby, was dated to 560-550 BC and justifiably connected to a note attributed to  Antigonus of Carystus (Sch. Aristoph. Av. 574), stating that A. had been the first to produce a Nike figure with wings. A later signature of A. was found on the Ac…

Pasiteles

(289 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πασιτέλης; Pasitélēs). Sculptor, from Magna Graecia, Roman citizen probably from 89 BC and according to the sources active there at the time of Cn. Pompeius Magnus in the middle of the 1st cent. BC. Of P.'s work nothing has survived apart from one signature on the base of a statue, but his significance in the artistic expression of late Republican Rome seems to have been great, not in the least because of his treatise on opera nobilia (mirabilia) totius orbis ('noble (wonderful) works of the whole world'), which is not preserved. Since P. is mentioned as t…

Archaism [II]

(694 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] II. Archaeology The definition and application of this term, which has been transferred by modern scholars from Hellenistic literary criticism (ἀρχαισμός/ archaismós, ἀρχαίζειν/ archaízein = 'to archaize') to the fine arts, are disputed. Archaism exists where works of art from the Classical period and later (from c. 480 BC) intentionally adopt aspects of the Late Archaic period (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC). Such aspects are especially hair and beard styles, garments (zigzag folds) and motifs of gesture (splayed fingers, mo…

Myrmecides

(94 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Μυρμηκίδης; Myrmēkídēs). Sculptor in marble and toreutics . His creative period is not known, it probably lay in the 6th cent. BC. Mostly named in conjunction with Callicrates [2], he had a legendary reputation for producing microscopically small works in marble, iron and ivory. There are descriptions of a quadriga small enough to fit under the wings of a fly, a ship the size of a bee and a sesame seed enscripted with Homeric verses. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 293, 2168, 2192-2201  P. Mingazzini, s.v. M., EAA 5, 1963, 313-314.

Damophon

(190 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Δαμοφῶν; Damophôn) Sculptor from Messene. Based on prosopographic and historic evidence, it would seem that he was active from the end of the 3rd cent. BC until 168 BC; most of his divine statues known from written records must have been produced in Arcadia prior to the earthquake in 183 BC. He worked on colossal acroliths and was entrusted with the repair of Phidias' Zeus in  Olympia. Of a group of gods in the Asclepius shrine in Messene, the head and foot of the statues of Apollo…

Leochares

(431 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Λεωχάρης; Leōchárēs). Greek sculptor; his surviving works date from the mid 4th cent. BC to 320 BC; the period of main activity given by Pliny, 372-369 BC, is therefore too early. L.'s reputation rested on idols and portraiture, and led to a corruption of the evidence. Among the literary inventions are a statue of Apollo attributed to the still young L., which Plato is said to have sent to Dionysius II (around 365 BC). In 354 BC at the latest (death of work's commissioner Timotheu…

Critius

(308 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Κρίτιος; in written sources: Κριτίας). Bronze sculptor in Athens. C. is always mentioned together with Nesiotes. His prime was in 448-444 BC, Pliny's date is too late. C. was a contemporary of  Hegias [1]. In antiquity his style was considered antiquated and dry. He became famous as the master of the  Severe Style (1st third of the 5th cent. BC) with his statues of  Harmodius [1] and  Aristogeiton, the Tyrannicide group, which in 477/6 BC was set up in the Agora to replace a grou…

Cresilas

(294 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor of Cydonia. According to the evidence of inscriptions on existing socles, C. worked c. 450-420 BC in Delphi, Hermione and Athens. He created the most famous portrait of  Pericles in antiquity, ‘worthy of the epithet Olympian’ (Plin. HN 34,74). It was regarded as identical with the portrait statue of Pericles seen by Pausanias on the acropolis and which is clearly identified in copies. A statue by C. depicting a mortally wounded figure ( volneratum deficientem) was described by Pliny and is usually equated with the bronze statue depicting D…

Hectoridas

(113 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor, listed in the accounts for the sculptures of a gable of the temple of Asclepius at  Epidaurus, which was finished around 370 BC. Therefore, the fragments of an original Iliupersis are to be ascribed to him and must be considered as an independent work and not - as often presumed - as copies in the fashion of models of  Timotheus. In addition, H. provided models for the painting of lionhead gargoyles. His signature is also to be found on the base of a lost statue in Epidaurus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A. Burford, The Greek temple builders at Epidau…

Clipeus

(258 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] [1] Bust on a round shield ( clipeata imago). The bust on a round shield, in antiquity usually designated as clipeus et imago or εἰκὼν ἐν ὅπλῳ, is to be distinguished from relief medallions in the art of miniatures. Clipei painted on terracotta come from tombs (Centuripe); the earliest marble clipei attached to buildings come from Delos (Mithridates monument, c. 100 BC). The clipeus became widespread from the 1st cent. BC in Rome. Written sources on their invention suggest an origin in ancestor worship and military honours, though reports on Punic clipei of Hasdrubal ar…

Praxias

(141 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πραξίας/ Praxías). Son of Lysimachus, sculptor from Athens, pupil of Calamis. His pediment groups on the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, which are described by Pausanias (10,19,4), survive. They were completed by Androsthenes from 335-327 BC, after P.'s death. Signatures of P. from the period 368-338 BC survive from Oropus and Athens; others in Delos and Thasos are from his son of the same name. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 857, 860  Lippold, 193, 243  J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, vol. 2, 1957, 109-113  EAA 6, s. v. P. …

Gitiades

(186 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Sparta, where he created the temple and cult image of Athena Polioúchos kaì Chalkíoikos as well as extensive mythological scenes in bronze reliefs (Paus. 3,17,2). The latter were presumably displayed on the walls of the temple, and according to later coin reproductions, the gown of the Athena statue was also provided with reliefs. G. had also written a hymn to Athena. Also on view in Amyclae were two bronze tripods by him with Aphrodite and Artemis as supporting figures that …

Hypatodorus

(211 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ὑπατόδωρος; Hypatódōros). Bronze sculptor from Thebes, worked in the middle of the 5th cent. BC. In Delphi, H., together with Aristogiton, created the ‘Seven Against Thebes’, as well as, according to an extant signature, the votive for a Boeotian. The former was erected by the Argives as a victory votive after the battle of Oenoe (around 460 BC) (Paus. 10,10,3-4). Its base was identified at the beginning of the Sacred Way. H.'s bronze statue of Athena in Aliphera in Arcadia, the b…

Periclytus

(113 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Περίκλυτος; Períklytos). Sculptor, pupil of  Polyclitus [2]. P. is named as the teacher of an Antiphanes active in Delphi in 359 BC. Pausanias (2,22,7) mentions a brother of Naucydes, but the name is given variously in MSS as P. or Polyclitus. Hence P. plays a part in the reconstruction of the family tree of Polyclitus [2] and [3], whereas of his work nothing is known. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 985, 995  D. Arnold, Die Polykletnachfolge, 1969, 6; 12-14  A. Linfert, Die Schule des Polyklet, in: H. Beck (ed.), Polyklet. Der Bildhauer der gri…

Athanadorus

(210 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Son of Agesander; sculptor from Rhodes. Worked with  Agesander and  Polydorus; his marble copies of Hellenistic bronze groups were celebrated even in antiquity. The workshop's creative period was at first set in the mid 1st cent. BC, on the basis of Rhodian inscriptions, but after the discovery of the extensive sculpture complex of Sperlonga, most probably going back to the time of Tiberius, it can be fixed in the early Imperial period. The Scylla group is signed. Also by him are …

Kolossos

(310 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (κολοσσός, kolossós; lat. colossus). Statues of remarkable size were called kollossoi, originally in Greek literature with regard to their function as immovable representatives. Since the kolossos of Rhodes (293 BC), kolossos became a technical term for statues with a measurement of 100 feet (29 m) to as little as 10 feet. Modern scholars consider a kolossos to be at least twice life-sized. Marble kolossoi first appear in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC ( kouroi in Samos, Delos, Naxos), influenced by large Egyptian sculpture. In the 5th cent. BC, kolossoi were produced…

Pyrilampus

(92 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πυρίλαμπος; Pyrílampos). Bronze sculptor, son of Agias from Messene. A preserved Exedra base with signature of P. was dated in the 2nd or 1st century BC. It is uncertain whether this refers to the same P. of whom Pausanias (6,3,13; 6,15,1; 6,16,5) saw three victory statues in Olympia. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 1565-1567  Loewy, no. 274  Lippold, 380  EAA 6, s. v. Pyrilampus, 1965, 572-573  G. Maddoli, Pyrilampes, dimenticato scultore di Sicione, e la cronologia di Pyrilampes di Messene, in: Dialoghi di archeologia 7, 2, 1989, 65-69.

Athenis

(41 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Chios, son of  Archermus. He worked in the late 6th cent. BC on Delos, in Iasos, Chios and in Athens with his brother  Bupalus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 335-337 Overbeck, no. 314, 315, 318 (sources).

Theocosmus

(90 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Θεόκοσμος; Theókosmos). Sculptor from Megara in the late 5th cent. BC, father of Callicles [2]. With the help of Pheidias he created a gold-ivory cult image of Zeus (Gold-ivory technique) in Megara, which remained unfinished after 431 BC because of the Peloponnesian War. On the victory monument of Lysander [1] in Delphi (in 405 BC) T. made the statue of Hermon [3]. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 855; 979; 1035  Lippold, 203 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 816  A. Jacquemin, Offrandes monumentales à Delphes, 1999, Nr. 322.

Bryaxis

(339 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Bρύαξις; Brýaxis) Sculptor of Carian descent. The traditional list of his works implies such a long period of creative activity, that even in antiquity, his works were divided between two homonymous artists. A signed relief base in Athens (NM) is dated to c. 350 BC. Also assigned to the same period is the collaboration of B. on the Mausoleum of  Halicarnassus (351 BC: death of Mausolus); however, there are also valid arguments for dating this after 333 BC. The allocation of sculpture fragments -- none of which were found in situ (today London, BM) -- to the north side…

Butades

(51 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor of kouroi from Sicyon who in ancient sources is credited with the invention of figurative antefixes (7th cent. BC) and of portraiture. Until 146 BC, one of his works, probably a mask, was displayed in Corinth. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 196. 211 Overbeck, no. 259. 260 (sources).

Laocoon group

(858 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] A group of marble statues, found in 1506 in the area of the Baths of Trajan in Rome, highly regarded, widely received and academically controversial since its discovery (Rom, VM). It shows Laocoon and his two sons, entangled in sea snakes and nearing death. Its identity with a marble group praised by Pliny (HN 36,37: omnibus et picturae et statuariae artis praeferendum) of the artists Agesander, Athanodorus and Polydorus from Rhodes in the house of Titus, was recognized immediately. The first phase of reception stands under the influence o…

Branchidae

(81 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term used, since their discovery in 1765, for statues from the oracle sanctuary of Apollo Branchos in  Didyma. The 15 extant statues of seated males date from 590-540 BC, record the names of their sculptors and were placed on the sacred road linking  Miletus to the sanctuary. They are significant examples of Ionian sculpture style and of the oriental influence on Greek iconography. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 374-375 K. Tuchelt, Die archa. Skulpturen von Didyma, IstForsch 27, 1970.

Agesander

(34 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγήσανδρος; Agésandros) (Hagesandrus), son of Paeonius, sculptor from Rhodes. Together with  Athanadorus and Polydorus, he produced famous groups of Hellenistic sculptures in Rome. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography B. Andreae, Praetorium Speluncae, 1994.

Busts

(652 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] From the Renaissance, the word bust (from Italian busto) refers to a three-dimensional free-standing human image, which is restricted to head and chest ( Portrait). There is no ancient technical term, because busts were predominantly classified as portraits ( imagines). The term  bustum, on the other hand, meant gravesite, which in Italic cultures was marked by a  cippus or a stele, contouring a human head; in some instances as early as the 6th cent., but more commonly by the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, these developed int…

Strongylion

(176 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Στρογγυλίων/ Strongylíōn). Bronze sculptor (last third of the 5th cent. to the first third of the 4th cent. BC). None of his works attested in literature survives. Parts of the base of a detailed depiction of the Trojan horse, named δούριος ( doúrios, ‘The wooden one’, Paus. 1,23,8), have been identified on the Acropolis in Athens; it can be dated to before 414 BC. As well as some devotional images, S. and Cephisodotus [4] created some statues of the Muses on Mt Helicon. Small bronzes by S. were famous among Roman collectors, such as the so-called Puer Bruti and an Amazon, o…

Frontality

(258 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] The term introduced by J. Lange in 1892 as in the ‘law of frontality’ originally referred to a pre-Greek mode of portrayal, which, developed from the plane, displays all the essential individual forms paratactically in front view. Frontality was a label for an allegedly primitive form, which in evolutionary statements on style also seemed applicable to the early, pre-classical portrayal of people in Greek sculpture. In archaic statues frontality was supposedly expressed by mirror-…

Urn

(621 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Definition Originally a round water container, the Latin urna denotes the sepulchral vessel in a cremation (ashes and bones). Morphologically speaking, urns are not always distinguishable from vessels of everyday life or cult. They sometimes imitated furniture and building designs. The gathered bones and ashen remains were gathered ( ossilegium) for storing in cloth or vessels inside urns of terracotta, metal or stone. Because of the prevalence of cremation in the ancient Mediterranean, the urn was the usual vessel for contain…

Xoanon

(305 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (ξόανον; xóanon). Greek term, attested from the 6th cent. BC, for gods' images (derived from ξεῖν/ xeín, 'to polish') made of wood, ivory and stone, regardless of size or artistic period. The modern archaeological usage, however, often limits the term xoanon to an ancient cult figure made of wood, which goes back to the restricted use of the term by Pausanias, who has handed down most of the information on xoana. The most famous wooden xoana were created in the 8th-7th cents. BC. In ancient literature, their sculptors (Theocles, Angelion) were considered…

Canachus

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάναχος; Kánachos). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Sicyon Sculptor from Sicyon, lived and worked in the late archaic period. Sources describe his style as hard and strict. His most famous work, the bronze statue of Apollo Philesios in Didyma holding a movable deer in one hand, was looted in 494 BC by the Persians. C. created a copy out of cedar wood for the temple of Apollo Ismenios in Thebes. Reliefs and coins depict the statue which was also recognized in Roman reproductions. In Sicyon, C. create…

Naucydes

(242 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ναυκύδης; Naukýdes). Bronze sculptor from Argos, son of Patrocles, teacher of Polyclitus and Alypus. The position of  N. in Polyclitus's family tree is a matter of dispute; two sculptors of the same name are also postulated. Daedalus [2] and Periclytus are recorded as the brothers of N., the latter also as ‘Polyclitus’. Pliny gives N.'s prime as  400-397 BC. N. created several  victor statues (after  448 BC). The most famous was a discobolus (discus thrower), which is commonly identified with the ‘discobolus at rest’ (Rom, VM), dating from c. 400 BC, which survives …

Angelion

(77 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor in archaic times who, together with  Tectaeus, is regarded as a pupil of  Dipoenus and Scyllis. Plutarch describes the wooden cult statue of Apollo on Delos with a discus in his hand on which the three Charites stood; it was produced together with Tectaeus. Later, gold wreaths were added to the Charites by queen Stratonice. The statue is shown on later Athenian coins. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 179-180 Overbeck, no. 334-337 (sources).

Bupalus

(166 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor and architect from Chios, son of  Archermus. The anecdote about a pejorative portrait by the poet  Hipponax dates him around 550-525 BC. With his brother Athenis he created statues of  Artemis in Iasos, Delos and Athens and an Artemis mask with ‘changing facial expression’ in Chios. From the Charites, which were erected later in Pergamum under King Attalus, the base signature has possibly been preserved. The Tyche in Smyrna was apparently first represented by B. with a cr…

Alypus

(95 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of  Naucydes. By collaboration on the Delphic monument of the Spartans after Aegospotami (‘Lysander-anathema’, 405 BC,  Delphi), he is categorized under the so-called Polyclitus succession. Signature and base with traces of its support are preserved. Identifications of the four victors' statues by A., as seen by Pausanias in Olympia, are hypothetical. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography D. Arnold, Die Polykletnachfolge, JDAI supplement 25, 1969, 84-85, 187-188 J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs gr…

Dontas

(78 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Sparta, active as an alleged student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis about the middle of the 6th cent. BC. The treasury of the Megarians at Olympia contained a wooden relief set in gold by him depicting Hercules and figures of the gods. According to Pausanias it was clearly older than the late 6th cent. building. The treasury's sculpture therefore cannot be attributed to D. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 215 Overbeck, no. 330-331 (sources).

Tectaeus

(134 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Τεκταῖος; Tektaîos). Greek sculptor of the mid-6th century BC. Like his brother Angelion, T. is supposed to have been a pupil of Dipoenus and Scyllis and teacher of Calon [1] (Paus. 2,32,5). He and Angelion created a cult statue of Apollo on Delos; on the basis of  literary (Plut. Mor. 1136a; Paus. 9,35,3) and pictorial evidence of seals and reliefs Apollo was represented as a kouros with Charites on one hand and a Sphinx. A later account (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel) of an Artemis by T. in Delos is of doubtful veracity. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibl…

Cypselus chest

(251 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Container ( kypsélē, kibōtós, lárnax) made from cedar wood decorated with ivory and gold plaques and carvings, described by Pausanias (5,17,5-19,10) as a votive gift from  Cypselus [2] or the  Cypselides in the temple of Hera in Olympia. Legend declared the chest to be the vessel in which Cypselus [2] was saved from the Bacchiadae as a child, or rather as its replica. It was probably manufactured in the mid 6th cent. BC. Because of the description provided by Pausanias, the Cypselus chest is an important source for the exploration of archaic imagery. A…

Eucheir

(88 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (called E. II). A sculptor in Athens, the son of  Eubulides [4], called Eubulides II. Together with his son  Eubulides [5], also called Eubulides III, he signed honorary statues and votives in Attica, Euboea and Megara during the 1st half of the 2nd cent. BC. His Hermes in Phenea, which Pausanias described, is perhaps depicted on coins. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Becatti, Attika, in: RIA 7, 1940, 14-17 H. Brunn, Gesch. der griech. Künstler, 1, 1857, 551-552 Loewy, 134, 135, 222-227 P. Moreno, Scultura ellenistica, 1994521, 554

Akrolithon

(149 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archaeological term for statues where the exposed body parts are made of marble and the robes of metal, both attached to a wooden core. The term first occurs in temple inventories in the 2nd cent. BC, later in Vitruvius for colossal statues. The technique can be traced back to the earliest cult idols with clothing and, since the classical period, is often used for cult statues. Numerous descriptions of akrolitha are contrasted by just a small number of preserved fragments, such as…

Eutychides

(185 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Εὐτυχίδης; Eutychídēs) Sculptor and painter from Sicyon, pupil and son of  Lysippus. His acme was dated to 296-293 BC. His fame is based on the bronze statue ─ known in many replicas and copies ─ of Tyche of Antioch on the Orontes, which he created not long after the city's refoundation in 300 BC. It is one of the keystones for the chronology of Hellenistic sculpture, and was trendsetting in its composition in the round and its iconography of personifications of cities. E.'s work …

Phradmon

(187 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φράδμων; Phrádmōn). Bronze sculptor from Argos. Plinius (HN 34,49) gives 420-417 BC as his prime. P. is known primarily for his participation in the competition over the statues of Amazons in Ephesus, among the copies of which the 'Doria Panfili' type (Rome, Galleria Doria Panfili) are attributed without adequate reason to him. Victors' statues by P. were to be seen in Olympia (according to Pausanias 6,8,1), and in Delphi (according to a restored inscription). An inscription in Os…

Marble sculptures

(417 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Crystalline limestone marble was the preferred stone material in Graeco-Roman sculpture. Marble was partially painted or gilded, otherwise impregnated with a coating of wax and oil ( gánōsis). Coloured marble was used to match the colour of clothing and hair; painted effects were achieved by adding metals to jewellery, weapons, hairpieces and eyes. The term akrolithon is used for elaborate mixed techniques. Stucco was often added to economize with material or time. The proportions of the blocks often called…

Ageladas

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγελάδας; Ageládas). (Hageladas), bronze sculptor from Argus, was considered to be the teacher of  Phidias,  Myron,  Polycleitus. Victors' statues by A. are recorded since 520 BC. His votive offering by the Tarantines in Delphi has been dated to before 474 BC. His Heracles Alexikakos was erected in Athens after a pestilence (not necessarily 430 BC). From this, Pliny deducted the date for his zenith to be 432 BC. However, since this makes the postulated active period too long, ther…

Praxiteles

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πραξιτέλης/ Praxitélēs). [German version] I. Biography Sculptor from Athens, active c. 370-320 BC. Since Timarchus and Cephisodotus [5] were P.’ sons, Cephisodotus [4] is assumed to be his father. By using later namesakes, a family of sculptors can be pieced together extending into the 1st cent. BC. However, this is just as controversial as the suppositions about the wealth and political influence of the family in the 4th cent. P.’ anecdotal biography and fame sound a note of caution with regard to c. 55 named works. Even so, the abundance of sources has led to many, often i…

Grylloi

(214 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] According to Pliny (HN 35,114), the name for caricature depictions in painting since Antiphilus [4] of Alexandria represented a certain Gryllus in that way. Originally these were dancers with grotesque physical proportions and contortions. As gryllographeîn and grylloeídēs later generally referred to ridiculously proportioned bodies, small-format free-standing sculpture representations can also be described as grylloi. Today the genre is no longer attributed to Alexandrian art only. To cover all animal caricatures and monstrous figur…

Heraclidas

(115 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Atrax in Thessaly, active in the 4th cent. BC. Together with Hippocrates he signed a victory votive of the Pharsalians in Delphi, where it was set up in the mid 4th cent. BC. Because of the measures at the base, it may have been the bronze group of Achilles on horseback and Patroclus, which Pausanias (10,13,5) describes. However, because the base bears a rededication to Claudius there can be no certainty. Pausanias may not have seen the original work. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Daux, Pausanias à Delphes, 1936, 141-143 J. Marcadé, Recueil de…

Calamis

(634 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Greek sculptor; ancient sources praise his horses and female figures, refer to him as the sculptor who made the transition to the classical period. He endowed his works with both ‘hardness’ and ‘grace’. He is linked with  Onatas,  Praxiteles and  Scopas. Many researchers have tried to solve the chronological contradictions by assuming that there were numerous sculptors of the same name with various surviving works ascribed to them. Since no work can be sufficiently proven to originate from C., the extent of his work is not known. From the famous C. originated a stat…

Pasticcio

(587 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Italian for 'pie, hotchpotch'). The figurative meaning, which arose in the 17th cent., referred to works in which elements of style or motifs of different artists were imitated, as charming features or for purposes of deception. In figurative art, pasticcio first referred to the combination of ancient friezes with plaster-work on Roman palazzi of the 17th and 18th cents. Pasticcio thereafter described esp. modern combinations of various ancient fragments with new works. In archaeology, the term was used mostly pejoratively for eclectic wo…

Silanion

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σιλανίων; Silaníōn). Bronze sculptor from Athens. According to Plin. HN 34,51 he was the height of his career in 328-325 BC. S. created statues of the mythical figures Achilles, Theseus and Jocasta, and in Olympia the victor statues of the boxers Damaretus, Telestas and Satyrus. A 'sports instructor' ( epistaten exercentem athletas, Plin. HN 34,82) ascribed to him can perhaps be interpreted as Connidas, Theseus' teacher. Of S.'s portraits a statue of Plato in the Athenian Academy is recognised has been reliably identified in Roma…

Zeuxiades

(86 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ζευξιάδης/ Zeuxiádēs). Bronze sculptor, pupil of Silanion (Plin. HN 34,51). A base from Rome, recorded in the 19th cent. and since lost, was evidence that Z. had created a sculpture of the rhetor Hypereides, which can be dated on historical grounds to after 307 BC. The usual identification of this sculpture with a certain type of which only copies have survived must be rejected. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, 1350 Loewy, Nr. 483 Lippold, 303 P. Moreno, s. v. Z., EAA 7, 1267 f. Richter, Portraits 2, 210 f.

Alexander Sarcophagus

(174 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Modern technical term for the most opulent of all Greek relief sarcophagi ( Relief;  Sarcophagi). Found in 1887 in the royal necropolis of Sidon, it is attributed to the local regent  Abdalonymus (333-312 BC). It belongs to the group of house sarcophagi with architectural decor and is famous for the relief images on which residues of painting have been preserved. It is usually believed that Alexander is the warrior with the lion's trophy in the battle against the Persians, and tha…

Micciades

(99 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Μικκιάδης; Mikkiádes). Father of Archermus, of Chios. Pliny (HN 36,11) places him at the head of a Chian family of sculptors, erroneously giving him as the son of one Melas [4]. However, the source which Pliny misread (and which survives), a votive epigram from Delos, dated to approx. 550 BC, does not say that M. was a sculptor. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 314 Loewy, No.1 J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, Vol. 2, 1957, 75 B. S. Ridgway, The Nike of Archermos and Her Attire, in: J. Boardman (ed.), Chios, 1986, 259-274.

Alxenor

(47 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Naxos. He signed a grave stele from Orchomenus to be dated around 500-490 BC, which shows the deceased in a standing pose with his dog. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography LSAG, 292 pl. 55 Lippold, 114 G. Richter, Archaic Greek Art, 1949, fig. 255.

Endoeus

(165 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἔνδοιος; Éndoios) Sculptor in Athens in the late 6th cent. BC. He made statues of goddesses in ivory and wood for Ephesus, Erythrae and Tegea, the latter were later brought to the forum of Augustus in Rome. His seated marble figure of Athena, the dedicatory gift of a certain Nicias on the Athenian Acropolis, is identified as the statue Athens, AM Inv. No. 625 ( c. 520 BC). The suppletion of his signature on the votive relief of a potter is plausible, but the association of a signed base with the kore Athens, AM Inv. No. 602 is uncertain. The p…

Portraits

(1,884 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. General remarks By the modern definition, a portrait is a rendering of an individual person's appearance. Typological and physiognomic characterizations serve this end. However, portraits recognizable as portraits only through their intention or by furnishing a name lack such characteristics. A typological portrait uses canonical features to indicate that its subject belongs to a certain group. A physiognomic portrait guarantees the identification of its subject by reproducing phy…

Chaerestratus

(105 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Son of Chaeredemus; Attic sculptor from  Rhamnus. On a prosopographical basis, his creative period has been deduced to have been in the early 3rd cent. BC, but by some to c. 320 BC. This is significant for the chronology of early Hellenistic developments in style, as the statue of Themis in the sanctuary of Nemesis at Rhamnus (Athens, AM) is signed by C. Further works are attributed to him by way of style. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculpteurs grecs, 1, 1953, no. 11-12 P. Moreno, Scultura ellenistica, 1994, 168-172 fig. B.…

Cippus

(273 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] As a stone monument with or without inscription, the cippus was used in particular for territorial delineation. Made as a free-standing sculpture, it marked burial sites and was linked as reference to the dead to magical ideas and should not be confused with steles. The basic form was phallic, 30-50 cm high and it was represented in diverse ways especially in Etruria ( Etruscan Archaeology). Mostly onions, spheres or eggs top a pillar or cylinder. Special regional types in the 6th…

Corinthian alloy

(247 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Corinthium aes, according to Plin. HN 34,6-8 an alloy of  copper,  gold and  silver, with an artificial patination that made it gleam like gold. Attempts to identify Corinthian alloy (CA) with so-called ‘black gold’ and ‘niello’ are not convincing, as only a lesser sort of CA was dark in colour. The term CA was always associated with legendary invention, names of old masters, and dubious authenticity. Juridical sources (Dig. 32,100,3), however, distinguish CA from plain bronze, ref…

Appliqués (pottery)

(158 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term for attached decorative items representing figures or plants. On bronze vessels of the 7th cent. BC, they are attached as protome (e.g. griffin cauldron). In Hellenistic and imperial times, crustae on tableware are highly valued masterpieces of  toreutics, and also on clothing, luxurious armour such as gladiators' helmets, on horse harness and carriage components. On kline rests ( fulcra), bronze animal protomes can be found, appliqués of ivory on furniture. Wooden sarcophagi in Taranto and south Russia of the 4th cent. BC had relief…

Hermathena, Hermeracles

(98 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Cicero called the  Herms of Athena and Hercules, which Atticus had obtained in 67-65 BC for Cicero's Tusculanum (Cic. Att. 1,1; 4; 8; 9; 10), Hermathena and Hermeracles. The bronze heads were set on marble pillars and were considered an appropriate ornamentum for his peristyle, which was compared to the Academia and a gymnasium. These terms are Cicero's creation. Setting up Herms of this type in the gardens of Roman villas became a common practice. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography R. Neudecker, Die Skulpturenausstattung röm. Villen in Italien, 1988, 11-18 H. Wr…

Styppax

(83 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Cyprus in the 5th century BC. He was famous for his statue of a splanchnoptes (Plin. HN 34,19,81), a slave who blows on the fire to roast the entrails at a sacrifice. It was erected on the orders of Pericles [1] as a votive offering after his slave was injured during the building of a temple and miraculously healed. The work does not survive. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 868-869  P. Moreno, s. v. S., EAA 7, 1966, 535-536.

Agoracritus

(246 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγοράκριτος; Agorákritos). Sculptor from Paros, master of the high-classical period in Athens. Uncertain attributions to A., his rival  Alcamenes and their teacher  Phidias are reflected in anecdotes of ancient literature, which makes attributing the œuvre difficult. When it came second in a contest with Alcamenes, A. is said to have sold a statue of Aphrodite to a buyer in Rhamnus as one of Nemesis, or that Phidias had one of his own statues signed by A. The signature was discove…

Tabula Iliaca

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archeological technical term for marble plates with illustrations of the Homeric epics (Homerus [1]). The small plates with a height of up to 25 cm are covered on both sides with low reliefs in miniature with accompanying texts. Most of the 22 extant plates refer to the Iliad, one to the Odyssey. The most complete plate, the so-called Tabula Capitolina (Rome, KM), contains parts of the Aethiopís as well. The plates are dated to the early Imperial Period and were all found in Rome. Some are attested to have been produced by T…

Phyromachus

(686 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φυρόμαχος/ Phyrómachos). Sculptor of Athens, teacher of the painters Heraclides [30] (active 168 BC) and Milon. The written and archaeological traditions, which are controversial, reveal at least the existence of a famed artist who was active under the Attalid kings (Attalus) of Pergamum. The Laterculi Alexandrini (late 2nd cent. BC) place him in a list of artists, and Pliny (HN 34,84) has the same in mind when documenting the sculptors who worked for Attalus and Eumenes. As Pliny only makes a generalized reference to the monumenta Attalidum, it cannot be demonstr…

Apellas

(117 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀπελᾶς; Apellâs). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor, 4th cent. BC (Apelleas). Bronze sculptor, son of the sculptor Callicles from Megara. He created the victory monument described by Pausanias for Cynisca, sister of Agesilaus of Sparta, who participated in the Olympic chariot races in 396 and 392 BC. Parts of the base with the epigram handed down in general tradition was discovered; apart from this, the base of a reduced replica of the commemorative statue was also found. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography W. Dittenberger, Die Inschr. von Olympia, 1896, no. 160, 634 F. Eckste…

Phyles

(65 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φυλῆς; Phylês). Son of one Polygnotus, bronze sculptor from Halicarnassus. 23 bases of lost portrait statues with the signature of P. survive in Delos, Rhodes and Lindos; according to them he was active between 258 and 213 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Lippold, 343  J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, vol. 2, 1957, 89-100  EAA 6, s.v. P., 1965, 142-143.

Argeadas

(50 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Argus. In Olympia, he was a collaborator on the substantial votive offering by one Praxiteles, dated between 484 and 461 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography W. Dittenberger, Die Inschr. von Olympia, 1896, no. 266, 630, 631 F. Eckstein, Ἀναθήματα, 1969, 61-64 Loewy, no. 30 p. XVIII.

Sculptor

(546 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] In Graeco-Roman culture sculptors were less artists than technicians, as were, in the early period at least, architects and inventors. The ancient terms for them relate to the materials they use, e.g. lithourgós/ sculptor (for stone), chalkourgós/ aerarius (bronze), plástēs or koropláthos/ fictor (clay), ceroplastes (wax), and the social esteem of the product, e.g. lapidarius (stonecutter), agalmatopoiós and andriantopoiós (artist of pictures of people and gods) and toreutḗs (maker of small bronzes). Signatures occasionally give information about…

Phidias

(1,377 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Φειδίας/ Pheidías, Latin Phidias). [German version] I. General remarks Son of Charmides, Athenian sculptor. In Antiquity,  Hegias [1] was named as P.' teacher, others suggested Ageladas. P.' artistic efforts were seen as closely associated with the Athenian statesman Pericles [1] and lasted from about 460 to 430 BC; main period of productivity: 448-445 BC. Ancient reports of P.' life and work are rife with scandal (sources in [1]). Between 438/7 and 433/2 BC, P.' connections with Pericles resulted in ch…

Damocritus

(82 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Δαμόκριτος/ Damókritos; also: Democritus [Δημόκριτος/ Dēmókritos]). Sculptor from Sicyon, active during the first half of the 4th cent. BC. Pausanias saw a victor's statue of his in Olympia. Pliny chose the Attic form of the name, for a Democritus, who made statues of philosophers. In Rome his name was found on the statue of Lysis from Miletus in a lost collection of copies of 4th cent. works. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 463, 466-468 (sources) Loewy, no. 484 Lippold, 247-248.

Menophantus

(80 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Greek sculptor. A statue of Aphrodite (Rome, MN) bears his signature, with the additional note that the model is in the Troad. The work, which is a variation on the type of the Capitoline Venus, dates from the 1st cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Cressedi, s.v. Menephanto, EAA 4, 1961, 1026 Loewy, Nr. 377 B. S. Ridgway, Hellenistic Sculpture, 1, 1990, 356 O. Vasori, Museo nazionale romano. Le sculture, 1, 1, 1979, 109-111, Nr. 81.

Zenas

(74 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ζηνᾶς/ Zēnâs). Sculptor's name on two Roman portrait busts from the early 2nd cent. AD. The addition to the signature of the father's name Alexander (IG XIV 1241) in the one case and of β in the other (IG XIV 1242) suggests two different sculptors. The name points to a connection with sculptors from Aphrodisias (Aphrodisias [1], sculptors' school). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Loewy, Nr. 383 a-b P. Moreno, s. v. Z., EAA 7, 1247 f.

Boedas

(79 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (also Boidas). Sculptor, son and pupil of  Lysippus. He worked in Byzantium around 300 BC. Pliny was aware of his fame but mentioned only the statue in Rome of a worshipper. For a long time the statue of the so-called ‘Praying boy’ from Rhodes in Berlin (PM) was erroneously identified with it. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography R. Kabus-Preisshofen, Der ‘Betende Knabe’ in Berlin, in: AA 1988, 679-699 Overbeck, no.1516. 1521 (sources) B. S. Ridgway, Hellenistic Sculpture, 1, 1990, 227-228.

Statue

(1,377 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Term and general Derived from the Latin statuere ('to set up'), in sculpture, 'statue' denotes a completely three-dimensionally designed figure. This form of stand-alone depiction of people, animals and the more than human is at the centre of Greek artistry. In archaeological usage, statues which are integrated into architecture are also included in the term (pediment, akroterion ), but reliefs are not. Individual statues can be combined in a group in content and execution. The format of the statue ranges from sm…

Dameas

(135 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] [1] (also: Demeas) Sculptor from Croton (also: Demeas). Sculptor from Croton. In 532 BC he created the victor's statue of Milon in Olympia that is described by Pausanias; there is a base with fragmentary inscriptions that is seen as going together with it. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 428 Loewy, no. 414 Overbeck, no. 484 (sources). [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Cleitor, c. 405 BC Bronze sculptor from Cleitor, student of Polycletus. In Delphi he created, for the victory statue of the Spartans who went to Aigosp…

Herms

(610 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Hermai (ἕρμαι/ hérmai, ‘Hermes heads’), also hermádion (‘small Hermes’), schêma tetrágōnon, tetráglōchis, describes in Graeco-Roman art a special form of anthropoid freestanding sculpture. The herm consists of a pillar with a head, mostly with wooden lateral beam stumps instead of arms ( cheîres, cunei) and a male sexual organ attached at the front that is always ithyphallic in early herms. Double herms bear two heads turned away from each other. Three- and four-fold herms on one pillar are also to be found. In Arcadian he…

Calon

(250 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(also Callon; Kά(λ)λων, Kál(l)ōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Aegina Sculptor from Aegina. C. was considered a contemporary of  Hegesias and a pupil of Tectaeus and  Angelion; his style was seen as archaic compared to that of  Canachus. An extant base from the Acropolis is dated to c. 500 BC. Pausanias describes a bronze tripod made by C. at Amycae -- a Spartan dedication after a victory against Messene -- featuring Kore as its support. It appears that other tripods, by  Gitiades, were also part of the offering, so that this tripod c…

Theke

(104 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (θήκη; thḗkē) is a term for any kind of container. In particular, from the 5th/4th cent. BC onwards it is used in texts and inscriptions for niche-shaped burial places, whether for burials in funerary buildings (Melos, 4th cent. BC) and vaults (Hdt. 1,67,3; 2,148,5), or for storing cinerary urns (Alexandria), but not sarkophagoi (Sarcophagus). Latin theca , in contrast, refers exclusively to holders for objects, primarily writing implements. Loculi Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography E. Saglio, s. v. loculus, DS 3.2, 1904, 1292-1295  A. Hug, s. v. T., RE …

Aphrodisius

(93 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀφροδίσιος; Aphrodísios) Son of Lybius, sculptor from Athens; in Augustan times, he worked in the copyist workshop of Baiae. A copy, bearing his initials, of the type ‘Hera Borghese’ used for portrait statues has been found. A sculptor of the same name, however, whose statues filled the emperor's palace on the Palatine, came from Tralles. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography C. Landwehr, Die ant. Gipsabgüsse aus Baiae, 1985, 88-94 Overbeck, no. 2300 (sources) P. Zancani Montuoro, Repliche romane di una statua fidiaca, in: Bullettino della Commissio…

Copies

(1,211 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] A. Original and copy In archaeological literature, any reproduction of classical and Hellenistic sculptures that is faithful in form to the original is regarded as a copy, even if the copy does not completely correspond in size, material, or degree of completion. Copies in the broadest sense are a main characteristic of ancient art production which was based on slow change of style, on the familiarity with the iconography of passed epochs and a deep respect towards them: innovations w…

Daitondas

(51 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Sicyon. He created victors' and portrait statues in Olympia and Thebes in the later 4th cent. BC, as well as one of Aphrodite in Delphi. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Lippold, 299 J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, 1, 1953, no.25 Overbeck, no. 1582 (sources).

Gold-ivory technique

(548 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (also called Chryselephantine technique). The naked parts of a statue were primarily worked from  ivory; and the garments and hair from sheet-gold, and materials like glass, precious stones and coloured metals were also used. Chryselephantine works were rare because of the value of their materials and are only extant in fragmentary form. The manufacturing technique is therefore not known in detail and appears to be mainly dependent on the size of the work. If the work was life-siz…

Antignotus

(67 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor in Athens. Preserved are his initials of the memorial statues for the Thracian kings Raskouporis (around 13 BC) and Kotys. Making statues of philosophers and athletes, an A. mentioned in Pliny is more likely to be a sculptor of the 4th cent. BC when taking a dated base into account. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Loewy, no.314-316 s. v. A., EAA Suppl. 61.

Sthennis

(136 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σθέννις/ Sthénnis). Bronze sculptor from Olynthus, active in Athens from 348 BC. According to surviving inscribed bases, he and Leochares created a family group on the Acropolis in Athens in the late 4th cent. BC, and a statue for Lysimachus [2] in Oropus in the early 3rd cent. There is literary evidence for several statues by S. of gods and one of a philosopher, which were later moved to Rome, one of flentes matronae et adorantes sacrificantesque (‘weeping, adoring and sacrificing women’, Plin. HN 34,19,90) and victor statues in Olympia. Although none…

Lycius

(152 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Eleutherae, son and pupil of Myron. According to written tradition, he created a votive offering in Olympia with single combats from the Trojan War (Achilles and Memnon, among others) and an Argonaut group. Notes about a boy with a votive water vessel, a puer sufflans and a statue of the pancratiast Autolycus ( Pankration) have been too damaged to allow for identification. From the Athenian Acropolis an autographed plinth for equestrian statues is extant, which is dated historically to around 430-420 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Over…

Caecosthenes

(101 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Καικοσθένης; Kaikosthénēs). Son of Apollonides, bronze sculptor from Athens. Eight bases from the early 2nd cent. BC are inscribed with his and his brother Dies' signature. Some originate from portrait statues, which is why C. is usually identified as Chalcosthenes, who, according to Pliny, is supposed to have mostly sculpted statues of actors and athletes. In the Athenian Kerameikos, one could find ‘rough’ statues of gods and goddesses made of terracotta, perhaps the clay models for bronze statues. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck no. 1380-1381 Lo…

Dipoenus

(123 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Crete. Like his brother Scyllis, assumed to be a pupil or son of the legendary  Daedalus and one of the original exponents of the art of marble sculpture. Tales of his flight from Cyrus and his first commissions in Sicyon reflect the fact that the ‘Daedalic’ marble-sculpture of the Greek islands preceded that of the mainland and date its arrival on the mainland to the earlier half of the 6th cent. BC. Even in ancient literature, some archaic works were attributed to …

Bathycles

(131 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor and architect from  Magnesia on the Maeander, famous for his so called ‘throne’ of Apollo in Amyclae near Sparta, which is described in great detail by Pausanias (3,18,6-3,19,6): as a structure, it combined the grave of Hyacinthus, an  altar, and a colossal  cult image, decorated with 45 mythological scenes, statues, and a depiction of his co-workers dancing in a circle. Since we have no surviving remnants at all, we must regard its numerous reconstructions and its dating to the late 6th cent. as speculative. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A.…

Sphyrelaton

(247 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archaeological term for a metal-working technique ('embossed with a hammer'), not documented in Antiquity. As described in Paus. 3,17,6, sheets hammered out of bronze or precious metals are joined together with nails over a wooden core. The technique is an attempt in the 7th cent. BC - before the invention of hollow casting at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC - to make large-scale free-standing bronzes. Accounts of sphyrelata emphasize the great age of such cult images, e.g. the …

Silver hoards

(206 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Compound hoards composed predominantly of ancient silver objects. As treasure these were hidden to protect them from theft or plundering (known as hoarding). As grave goods or thesauroi in sanctuaries or church treasures the treasure was collected and deposited in fact or ideally as an investment. In the private domain at all times and generally it acted simultaneously as both house contents and an investment. SH were predominantly composed of valuable eating and drinking utensils. Their importance to schol…

Onatas

(391 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Ὀνάτας; Onátas). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Aegina, 5th cent. BC Bronze sculptor from Aegina, son of Micon. O. was a contemporary of Hegias [1] and Ageladas and one of the most important masters of the Severe Style. None of his numerous works is extant or secured in the form of copies. His signature is found on a pedestal of a bronze horse on the Athenian Acropolis and a pedestal in Olympia, both from the early 5th cent. BC. In Olympia, O. sculpted a votive offering ( anáthēma ) for the Achaeans in around 470-460 BC with Nestor and nine Trojan h…

Terracottas

(1,788 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | E.K.-B.
[German version] I. Introduction Terra cotta (an Italian term meaning 'burnt clay') was the commonest material used for many kinds of ancient utensils, vessels and art objects. In archaeological terminology, it refers to artistically formed objects. As well as free moulding by hand, mass production was also usual, in the Near East (from the 3rd millennium BC) and the Mediterranean (from the 6th cent. BC). A matrix was derived from the patrix (original) to serve as a mould. If the object was made hol…

Aristion

(181 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀριστίων; Aristíōn). [German version] [1] Epicurean philosopher, ' Tyrant' of Athens (88-86 BC) Epicurean philosopher, who, in 88 BC, became very influential in Athens with the help of  Mithridates VI (‘Tyrant’). In order to win the Greeks over to Mithridates, A. supported  Archelaus, e.g. in the battle against the proquaestor Q. Braetius Sura at  Chaeronea. In the spring of 87 BC, he retreated from  Sulla back to Athens. The city fell on 1 March 86 BC; A. managed to hold out on the Acropolis for a short w…

Colotes

(673 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Erler, Michael (Würzburg)
(Κωλώτης; Kōlṓtēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Heraclea in Elis Sculptor from Heraclea in Elis. C. was a pupil of  Phidias, and worked together with him, e.g. on the Zeus at Olympia. He worked principally in gold and ivory. In gold-ivory C. created an Asclepius in Kyllene and, according to Pliny (Plin. HN 35,54), an Athena in Elis, which according to Pausanias (Paus. 6,26,3), however, was attributed to Phidias; as this Athena's shield is said to have been painted by  Panaenus, a collective effort …
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