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Autokephalie

(708 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
A., ein Terminus technicus des orth. Kirchenrechts, bezeichnet die Selbständigkeit einer Kirche. Diese manifestiert sich in der unabhängigen Wahl und Weihe des Oberhauptes (vgl. die Bedeutung der griech. Begriffe autós = selbst; kephalḗ= Haupt) und aller Bischöfe sowie der eigenständigen Regelung aller inner- und zwischenkirchlichen Angelegenheiten auf der Grundlage der die orth. Kirchen verbindenden liturgischen, dogmatischen und kanonischen Tradition. Die A. wird von der Autonomie unterschieden, die eine bedingte Selbständigkeit bedeutet, insofern bei de…

Stavropigiale Klöster

(247 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] . Die Synode von Chalcedon (451; Ökum. Konzil) nahm erstmals eine kirchl. »Einordnung« des Mönchtums vor, das nun den Ortsbischöfen unterstellt wurde; der Bau von Klöstern wurde an die bfl. Genehmigung gebunden (c.4). Äußeres Zeichen einer Klostergründung war die Aufstellung eines Kreuzes, die sog. Stavropigia (von griech. σταυρο`n̆ πηγn̆υ´n̆αι/staurón pēgnýnai), belegt im Staatskirchenrecht Kaiser Justinians I. (Cod.Iust. I 3,26; Nov. [Novellae] 5,1; 67,1; 131,7), das diese kanonische Rechtssetzung übernahm (Cod.Iust. I 3,39;…

Autocephaly

(775 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
The word autocephaly, a technical term in Orthodox canon law, denotes the independence of a church, manifested in the independent election and consecration of its head (compare the meaning of the Greek words autós, “self,” and kephal , “head”) and all bishops as well as the independent regulation of all internal and ecumenical affairs on the basis of the liturgical, doctrinal, and canonical tradition that links all Orthodox churches. Autocephaly is distinct from  Autonomy, which denotes a limited independence, in which a church is…
Date: 2019-03-20

Millet System

(372 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] The word millet (from Arab. milla, “religion”) means “religious nationality”; it was used in the Ottoman Empire for the national religious communities allowed self-government in ethnic, cultural, and religious matters on the basis of Islamic interna-¶ tional law. It was based on the overriding identification of the peoples governed with their religion regardless of all ethnic bonds and differences, together with contact between the sultan and the communities regarding their religious leadership. Thus these religious…

Zonaras, Joannes

(181 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (mid-11th cent. – mid-12th cent.), Byzantine historian and canonist who held high offices under Emperor Alexius I (1081–1118). After the emperor’s death, he became a monk and (besides several shorter works) wrote two major works: (1) a world chronicle ( Epitome historiarum, ed. L. Dindorf, 6 vols., 1868–1875) from Creation to the year 1118 (compiled from earlier sources for the period before 1081, after that independent), distinguished for its balance, which was translated into Slavic, Latin, and Romance languages, and (…

Fernandez, Alonso

(188 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1573, Malpartida de Plasencia – c.1633, Plasencia, Spain), OP (1587), historian and preacher. He was honored in 1618 at the General Chapter of Lisbon with the title Preacher General. Fernandez authored works on the history of the Dominicans in Spain, of which a few remain unpublished. He was prior in Zamora, Cuenca, Guadalajara, Cáceres and finally in Plasencia. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Works: Historia ecclesiastica de nuestros tiempos, 1611 Historia y anales de la devoción y milagros del Rosario, 1613 De los servicios que a los Reinos de España ha hecho la …

Androutsos, Chrestos

(86 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1869, Kios – 1935, Athens), professor of theology and ethics at Chalki (1895–1911) and Athens (1911–1935). Androutsos was a preeminent figure in 20th-century Greek theology. His Dogmatics has been considered the first complete and authentic systematic exposition of Orthodox doctrine. To “neopatristic” theologians, Androutsos embodies a scholastic theology infiltrated by Western rationalism, unrooted in the life of Orthodoxy. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Works (Greek and Romanian): Συμβολική ἐξ ἐπόφεως ὀρθοδόξου, 21930 Δογματικὴ …

Barsanuphius

(148 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (Barsanorius; feast: Feb 6), an ascetic author of Egyptian origin. He died c. 545 as a hermit in the monastery of Abba Seridos near Gaza. Together with the hermit John “the prophet,” he gave spiritual advice by answering letters sent to him by monks, bishops, and laypersons. Approx. 850 such questions and responses were collected ( biblos psychophelestate). They afford deep insights into the life of the Palestinian church in the 5th/6th centuries, attest to the reception of the asc…

Germanus I of Constantinople

(204 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (patriarch; Aug 11, 715 to Jan 17, 730; b. before 669, d. after 730; feast day: May 12). Germanus became metropolitan of Cyzicus c. 705; in 712 he signed a declaration in support of Monotheletism, which he retracted in 713. From 727 to 729, he wrote a number of letters directed against the rise of iconoclasm, but gave up in the face of the iconoclastic policies of Emperor Leo III and was sent into exile. Anathematized by the iconoclasts in 754 (Anathema), he was rehabilitated in 7…

Synaxarion

(171 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (from Gk σύναξις/ sýnaxis, assembly). In the Orthodox churches, the Synaxarion contains the information on the daily propers for the liturgical commemoration of the saints (Saints/Veneration of the saints: III, 2). This information usually includes the day of the month, an epigram concerning the saint, brief historical notes, information about the saint’s commemoration, place of burial, and any translations of his or her relics, and an abridged vita. This information for the liturgical year, summarized in a book for the church in Constantinople (…

Pentarchy

(342 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] denotes a model of church polity that developed in the Early Church, in which the five patriarchates (Patriarch: I), in order of rank Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, had constitutive significance for the leadership of the whole church. The developing patriarchal constitution was reflected in cc. 6 and 7 of the Council of Nicea (325), c. 3 of Constantinople (IV: 1; 381), and c. 28 of Chalcedon (451), but the pentarchical hierarchy of the five cathedrae is …

Alivisatos, Hamilcar Spiridonus

(111 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (May 17, 1887, Lixurion – Aug 14, 1969, Athens) was professor of canon law and practical theology in Athens 1919–1956; academically, ecclessially and politically, he was one of the most important personalities in the Greek church in the 20th century. He authored almost 300 publications, co-authored the Church Constitution of 1923, organized the first Orthodox theological congress in Athens in 1936, was a pioneer in the ecumenical movement beginning in 1920, and was a member of the executive committee of the WCC from 1948 to 1968. Heinz Ohme Bibliography G.I. Konidares…

Theophanes the Greek

(136 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (Feofan Grek; c. 1325–1404/1415), an important Byzantine artist who worked in Russia from 1378 until his death. Indisputably from his hand are the frescoes in the Church of the Transfiguration in Novgorod. It has recently come into question whether the Deesis series in the iconostasis in the Cathedral of Proclamation in the Kremlin in Moscow is also his work. According to a 1415 letter by the hagiographer Epifanij Premudryj of 1415 (the most comprehensively preserved personal eval…

Nicea, Council of (787)

(435 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] This synod ended the first phase of the controversy over the veneration of images (VI). The Synod of Hiereia in 754 (Constantinople: IV, 5) had made iconoclasm the theological teaching of the Empire. The resistance of a few monks led to the destruction of icons and several martyrdoms. The iconophile empress Irene (780–802) worked to reverse the decision. Because only a new ecumenical council could have the authority to annul the decision of the synod in 754, she laid the groundwor…

Stavropigial Monasteries

(263 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] The ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451 for the first time set out to “integrate” monasticism, placing it under the authority of the local bishop; the erection of monasteries was made subject to episcopal approval (c. 4). The external sign of a monastic foundation was the erection of a cross, the so-called stavropigia (from Gk σταυρὸν πηγνύναι/ staurón pēgnýnai), mentioned in the civil ecclesiastical laws of Emperor Justinian I ( Cod. Iust. I 3.26; Novella 5.1; 67.1; 131.7), which adopted this canonical legislation ( Cod. Iust. I 3.39; Novella 133.4). The bishop h…

Blastares, Matthew

(104 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (died after 1346). A monastic priest and canonist, c. 1335 Blastares compiled a handbook of Byzantine ecclesiastical law ( Syntagma kata stoicheion), in which kanones and nomoi were arranged in alphabetic association with juristic lemmas. It comprises 24 chapters, each with subdivisions. It came into widespread use in Slavic as well as Byzantine areas. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Sources: G.A. Ralles & M. Potles, eds., Σύνταγμα τῶν θείων καὶ ἱερῶν κανόνων, vol. VI, 1859 PG 144, 959–1399 On Blastares: A. Soloviev, “L'œuvre juridique de M. Blastares,” SBNE 5, 1939, …

Jeremiah II of Constantinople

(160 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1536, Anchialos – Sep, 1595, Constantinople), patriarch of Constantinople (1572–1579, 1580–1584, 1587–1595), contributed to the consolidation of Orthodoxy with important decisions: in his correspondence with Tübingen theologians (1573–1581) concerning the Confessio Augustana Graeca (Augsburg) he had been sent, he rejected their positions in three written responses. In 1583 and 1593, he refused to adopt the calendar reforms of Gregory XIII and a new edition of the Union and effected reconciliation with the Russi…

Canons/Canon Collections

(812 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] Into the 4th century, synods did not call their decisions “canon” or “regula.” In the Greek East, they used the term horos as the older term for ecclesiastical decisions (Ankyra, cc. 6, 19, et passim). In the Latin language sphere, designations including placita, statuta, instituta, decreta, sententiae were drawn from Roman legal language as the specific terminology applicable in such cases. The designation as canons appeared for the first time at the Synod of Antioch c. 330 (cc. 19 etc.) and quickly established itself in the East (Bas. Ep. 188, cc. 4, 10). Th…

Allatius, Leo(n)

(160 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1588, Chios – Jan 18, 1669, Rome), Catholic theologian and learned humanist of Greek origin, promoter of church union and the Counter-Reformation. In 1618, he was appointed Scriptor graecus of the Vatican Library, of which he became custodian in 1660. In 1622/23, he was responsible for incorporating the Bibliotheca Palatina into the collection. He authored some 60 works; 236 autograph volumes remain unpublished. His major work, De ecclesiae occidentalis atque orientalis perpetua consensione (1648), answers Orthodox charg…

Isidore of Kiev

(172 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1385, Peloponnese – Apr 27, 1463, Rome). As an abbot in Constantinople and a proponent of union, he was appointed “metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia” in 1436. He led the Russian delegation to the Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438/1439; Basel, Council of") and signed the union bull. As cardinal legate commissioned with the execution of the union in Russia in 1439, he was imprisoned in Moscow in 1441. After his escape, he was active for the union and finally succeeded in achie…

Antimension

(115 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] is, in the Byzantine tradition since the 13th century, an altar cloth consecrated by a bishop and with relics sown to it, necessary for the performance of the divine liturgy, on which is placed the chalice and the paten. It can also represent the altar (III) and make it possible to perform the liturgy in any suitable place. Previously, from the 7th century, it was the designation in the Christian East for the portable wooden altar (Greco-Lat.: anti-mensa, “instead of the altar table”). Heinz Ohme Bibliography I.M. Izzo, The Antimension in the Liturgical and …

Athanasius the Athonite

(156 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 925, Trebizond – c. 1001, Athos; Orthodox saint, feast day Jul 5) was the founder of cenobitic monasticism on Mount Athos. After studying and teaching in Constantinople, he became a monk at Mount Kymina in Bithynia in c. 952. Critically important was his acquaintance with the later emperor Nicephorus II Phocas (963–969), himself an ascetic…

Symeon the New Theologian (Saint)

(309 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (late 949, Galatea in Paphlagonia – Mar 12, 1022, near Chrysopolis), eminent Byzantine mystic and poet, whose works contain his personal testimony to mystical experience. He was a spiritual student of the Studite (Studios Monastery) Symeon the Pious (917–986/987). At the age of 21, amid prayer and tears, Symeon experienced the first of 970 visions of the divine Logos in the form of immaterial light. In 976 he himself entered the Studios monastery but soon had to leave because he w…

Athos,

(377 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] the eastern extension of the Chalcidian Peninsula, is known as ῞Αγιον ῞Ορος ( Hágion Óros, “Holy Mountain”); to the present day it has been the center of Orthodox monasticism. In the 9th century, monks fleeing iconoclasm (Veneration of images) or arriving as refugees from areas conquered by Islam swelled the number of those already living on Athos as hermits. Anchoritic eremitism, the earliest of the four forms of monasticism practiced in Athos (Monasticism), was put by …

Khlysty

(276 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (Russ. Chlysty, “flagellant”), a polemical designation of a Russian dualistic sect which originated in the mid-17th century as a result of ecstatic-prophetic experiences and which gave itself the name Christy (“Christians”) or Božʾi ljudi (“People of God”). It was founded by the farmer Danila Filippov, in whose person the manifestation of the god Sabaoth was venerated, by his spiritual son Ivan Suslov as the manifestation of Christ, and by Suslov's mother as the Mother of God. A ri…

Dositheus of Jerusalem

(283 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (May 31, 1641, Peloponnese – Feb 6/7, 1707, Constantinople). Ordained to the diaconate at the age of 16, Dositheus became metropolitan of Caesarea in September 1666, and in January 1669 patriarch of Jerusalem, a position he held for 38 years, only two of which he spent in residence; the rest of the time he spent on fund-raising journeys in Russia, Asia Minor, and the Balkans. He played a central role in the process protecting Orthodoxy against Calvinistic and “Latin” influences, which dominated the century following the Confessio of C. Lucaris (1629). Of particular…

John the Faster (Saint)

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] John the Faster (Saint), patriarch of Constantinople, Apr 12, 582 – Sep 2, 595, previously deacon at the Hagia Sophia; because of his asceticism, he was already known during his lifetime as “the Faster” (ὁ Νηστευτής/ ho Nēsteutḗs). This is probably the reason why, from the 11th century on, a majority of the Byzantine literature on penitential discipline written since the 9th century was attributed to him. Popes Pelagius II and Gregory the Great erroneously understood the designation “ ecumenical patriarch,” already attested before John and after him the titl…

Balsamon, Theodoros

(114 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1110–1140, Constantinople – after 1195, Constantinople), a Byzantine canonist. As deacon of the Hagia Sophia, Balsamon combined the supreme authority for all affairs of the patriarchate (as its “Chartophylax”) with a juridical office in the service of the state (“Homophylax”). Having fallen out of favor after 1180, Balsamon became the patriarch of Antioch, although he never left the capital. His chief works – which remain fundamental for Orthodox canon law – are the commentaries on the Nomocanon 14 titulorum and on the Synodal and Patriarchal Canons. Heinz Ohme Bibl…

Nicaea

(359 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] (Nizäa/Nikaia), Konzil von 787. Diese Synode bildete den Abschluß der ersten Phase des Streites über den Bilderkult (: VI.). Durch die Synode von Hiereia (754 Konstantinopel/Byzanz: IV.,5.) war der Ikonoklasmus zum Reichsdogma geworden. Der Widerstand einzelner Mönche dagegen führte zur Zerstörung von Ikonen und einigen Martyrien. Die bilderfreundliche Kaiserin Eirene (780–802) bewirkte eine Wende. Weil eine Annullierung der Synode von 754 nur durch ein neues ökum. Konzil denkbar wa…

Nomokanon

(353 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] nennt man seit dem 11.Jh. die systematisierten Zusammenstellungen von Synodal- und Väterkanones (Kanones/Kanonessammlung) mit dem Staatskirchenrecht (von griech. no´moi, »Gesetze«), die seit dem 6.Jh. entstehen. – Seit Konstantin haben die christl. Kaiser staatl. Gesetze in kirchl. Angelegenheiten erlassen. In ihnen manifestierte sich die seitdem betriebene Synthese von Imperium und Kirche, deren Gipfelpunkt bei Justinian I. erreicht wird. Im Codex Iustinianus sind die ersten 13 …

Symeon

(275 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] der Neue Theologe (Ende 949 Galati in Paphlagonien – 12.3.1022 bei Chrysopolis), bedeutender byz. Mystiker und Dichter, der in seinen Werken persönliche Zeugnisse myst. Erfahrung überliefert. Als geistl. Schüler des Studiten (Studioskloster) Symeon »Eulabes« (917–986/87) erlebte S. mit 21 Jahren unter Gebet und Tränen die erste von insg. 970 Visionen des Gott-Logos in Form immateriellen Lichtes. 976 trat er selbst ins Studioskloster ein, mußte es aber wegen zu enger Bindung an sein…

Quinisextum

(337 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] (Πεn̆ϑε´κτη/Penthe´ktē) heißt die von Kaiser Justinian II. (685–695; 705–711) 691/92 nach Konstantinopel (: IV.,4.) als ökum. einberufene Synode, weil sie das kanonische Defizit des V. und VI. ökum. Konzils (Konstantinopel: IV.,2. und 3.) beseitigen wollte. Wegen des identischen Tagungsortes mit letzterem, dem kaiserlichen Kuppelsaal (Trullos), wird es auch »II. Trullanum« genannt. Der Kaiser und 220 Bischöfe beschlossen in 102 Kanones die bis dahin umfassendste kirchenrechtlich…

Zonaras

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] Zonaras, Johannes (Mitte 11. – Mitte 12.Jh.), byz. Historiker und Kanonist, bekleidete hohe Ämter unter Kaiser Alexios I. (1081–1118). Nach dessen Tod wurde er Mönch und schrieb neben kleineren Werken v.a.: 1. eine Weltchronik (Epitane historiarum, hg. von L. Dindorf, 6 Bde., 1868–1875) von der Erschaffung der Welt bis zum Jahre 1118 (für die Zeit vor 1081 eine Kompilation älterer Quellen, danach eigenständig), die sich durch Ausgewogenheit auszeichnet und ab 1344 auch ins Slaw., …

Synaxarion

(156 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] (von griech. συ´n̆αξις/sýnaxis, »Versammlung«) heißen in den orth. Kirchen die Notizen zu den Propria der liturgisch geordneten täglichen Heiligenverehrung (Heilige: III.,2.). Dazu gehören in der Regel das Monatsdatum, ein Epigramm auf den Heiligen, kurze hist. Notizen, Angaben zum Gedächtnistag, zur Begräbnisstätte und evtl. Reliquientranslationen sowie eine Vita in Kurzfassung. Diese in der Kirche von Konstantinopel wohl ab dem 10.Jh. zu einem Buch zusammengefaßten Angaben des Ja…

Pentarchie

(303 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] nennt man das in der Alten Kirche entstandene Kirchenverfassungsmodell, bei dem den fünf Patriarchaten (Patriarch/Patriarchat: I.) in der Rangfolge Rom, Konstantinopel, Alexandrien, Antiochien und Jerusalem konstitutive Bedeutung für die Leitung der Gesamtkirche zukommt. Im Gefolge der sich herausbildenden Patriarchalverfassung, die sich kirchenrechtlich in den Synodalkanones c.6 und 7 von Nicaea (325), c.3 von Konstantinopel (: IV.,1.) [381]) und c.28 von Chalcedon (451) nieders…

Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts

(386 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] The Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, used in the Orthodox churches of the seven ecumenical councils, is Vespers (IV) with communion from sacred elements consecrated on the preceding Sunday in the Divine Liturgy (Eucharist: III, 3) and reserved for this purpose; hence the name: ῾Ιερὰ λειτουργία τῶν προηγιασμένων/ Hierá leitourgía tṓn proēgiasménōn, Lat. Missa praesanctificatorum, Liturgy of the Presanctified. It is first mentioned in the Chronicon paschale (early 7th cent.) and in canon 52 of the Quinisext Council in 692. Th…

Andrew of Crete, Saint

(145 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (660, Damascus – Jul 4, 740); Orthodox saint, feast day Jul 4. Andrew became a monk in 678; later he became archbishop of Gortyna and Metropolitan of Crete. More than 40 of his homilies for feasts of the Lord, Mary, and many saints are extant. Georgian, Latin, Arabic, and Slavonic translations attest to their wide popularity. But …

Quinisext Council

(410 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (Πεvϑέκτη/ Penthéktē) is the name given to the ecumenical synod convoked by Emperor Justinian II (685–695; 705–711) in Constantinople (IV, 4) in 691/692, as it was meant to resolve the canonical deficits of the 5th and 6th ecumenical councils (Constantinople: IV, 2 & 3). Because it convened at the same location where the 6th ecumenical council was held (the domed hall [Trullos] of the imperial palace), it is also known as “Trullanum II.” In 102 canons (Canons/Canon collections), th…

Nomocanon

(392 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] is the name given since the 11th century to the systematized collection of synodal and patristic canons (Canons/Canon collections) with imperial church law of the Roman Empire (from Gk nómoi, “laws”) that arose from the 6th century on. From Constantine onward, Christian emperors issued state laws on church matters. They manifested the synthesis of imperium and church that then became current, reaching its peak with Justinian I. In the Codex Iustinianus the first 13 sections of Book I are ¶ devoted to church law; in his Novels he continued to enact church legislatio…

Excommunication

(2,394 words)

Author(s): Wohlmuth, Josef | Ohme, Heinz | Link, Christoph | Oppenheimer, Aharon
[German Version] I. Catholic – II. Orthodox – III. Protestantism – IV. Judaism I. Catholic Excommunication must be defined as a privative term from communicatio and κοινωνíα/ koinōnía (cf. 1 Cor 10:16: sharing and participating in the body and blood of Jesus ¶ Christ; cf. 2 Cor 13:13: communion in the Holy Spirit). The word excommunication does not occur in the New Testament. The competence of the church to excommunicate is traced back to Matt 16:18f.…

Local Church

(1,563 words)

Author(s): Roosen, Rudolf | zu Schlochtern, Josef Meyer | Ohme, Heinz | Küster, Volker
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Meaning – III. Missiology I. Terminology The term local church owes its theological rediscovery to Vatican II and must be understood against the background of the Roman Catholic understanding of the church (VIII, 2.b). There it denotes the church in a specific region, usually a diocese. From a systematic perspective, it refers to the middle level of ecclesiastical organization, between the Roman Catholic universal church and the Catholic parish. In German Protestantism deaneries (Dean/Deanery) or church districts (Church polity:…

Synod

(3,747 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Brandt, Reinhard | Germann, Michael | Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] I. History As it developed in the Early Church and the Middle Ages, the term synod (from Gk σύνοδος/ sýnodos, “assembly, being together on the way”) cannot be separated from the term council. Only in 19th- and 20th-century Protestantism is a separate treatment warranted; in that context – with roots going back to the 16th century – the synod represents a new constitutional phenomenon (Church polity: IV, 2; V, 1.c). Its antecedents include medieval diocesan synods (as extensions of the provincial syn…

Synode

(3,126 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Brandt, Reinhard | Germann, Michael | Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich Der Begriff S. (von griech. συ´n̆οδος/sýnodos, »Zusammenkunft, zus. auf dem Weg sein«) kann bei der altkirchl. und ma. Entwicklung nicht vom Begriff Konzil getrennt werden. Nur im Blick auf den Protestantismus des 19./20.Jh. ist eine Isolierung sinnvoll, weil hier – vorbereitet seit dem 16.Jh. – die S. ein verfassungsrechtlich neuartiges Phänomen darstellt (Kirchenverfassung: IV.,2.; V.,1., c). Zu dessen Vorgesch. gehören die ma. Diözesansynode (als Fortentwicklung der…

Ortskirche

(1,390 words)

Author(s): Roosen, Rudolf | zu Schlochtern, Josef Meyer | Ohme, Heinz | Küster, Volker
[English Version] I. Begriff und Abgrenzung Der Begriff O. verdankt seine theol. Wiederentdeckung dem Vaticanum II und ist vor dem Hintergrund des röm.-kath. Kirchenverständnisses (Kirche: VIII.,2., b) zu verstehen. Hier bez. er Kirche auf regionaler Ebene, insbes. die Diözesen. In systemtheoretischer Perspektive benennt er die mittleren kirchl. Organisationsebenen zw. der röm.-kath. Welt- bzw. Gesamtkirche einerseits und den kath. Pfarrgemeinden bzw. Pfarreien andererseits. Im ev. Raum gibt es zwar mit den Dekanaten oder Kirchenkreisen (Kirchenverfassu…

Episcopal Titles

(878 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm | Ohme, Heinz | Müller, Ludger | Pree, Helmuth | Schima, Stefan | Et al.
[German Version] I. Auxiliary Bishop – II. Chorbishop – III. Regional Bishop – IV. Suffragan Bishop – V. Titular Bishop – VI. Vicar Bishop I. Auxiliary Bishop An auxiliary bishop is a bishop appointed at the request of a diocesan bishop to assist him in administration of the diocese. His rights, duties, and official functions are defined by canon law ( CIC cc. 403–411) and his letter of appointment. An auxiliary bishop is a member of the Bishops' Conference. Unlike a coadjutor, an auxiliary bishop does not have the right of succession. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography J. Listl, “Koadjutor-…

Veneration of Images

(6,489 words)

Author(s): Gladigow, Burkhard | Uehlinger, Christoph | Levine, Lee I. | Barrucand, Marianne | Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Veneration of gods in the form of man-made images (I) is part of the development of human ideas about God. The nature of such images varies widely, from natural objects with little or no human work involved (rocks, posts, trees) to professionally produced works of “art.” For the structure of the idea of God reflected in images, the crucial question is whether they “merely” facilitate epiphany rituals or whether the gods regularly manifest themselves in the images through ritual guarantee, i.e. are made prese…

Constantinople/Byzantium

(7,786 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram | Ritter, Adolf Martin | Ludwig, Claudia | Thümmel, Hans Georg | Ohme, Heinz | Et al.
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Early Church – III. After 600 – IV. Councils – V. Patriarchate – VI. Literature – VII. Art – VIII. Church Music – IX. Judaism I. Archaeology Settlers from Megara settled Byzantium in the early 7th century on a previously inhabited hill on the Bosphorus, the most important water route from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea; a deep bay, the “Golden Horn” offered additional protection. In 324 ce, after the victory over Licinius, Constantine chose Byzantium as a new capital and dedicated it on May 11, 330 as Nea Roma, “New Rome”; soon the name …
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