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Zakoria

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Station on the Pontic coast road (Arr. Per. p. E. 21: Ζάγωρα/ Zágōra; Tab. Peut. 10,1; Geogr. Rav. 2,17: Agoria; 5,10: Z.; Guido, Geographica 101) from Sinope to Trapezus between Gurzubathon (modern Kurzuvet) and Zaliches (at modern Alaçam), presumably at modern Çayağzı at the mouth of the Aksu. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caecinus

(67 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καικῖνος; Kaikînos). According to Paus. 6,6,4, the C. is the border river between  Locri and Rhegium, where the Athenians under  Laches [1] defeated the Locrians under Proxenus (Thuc. 3,103,3) in what is today Amendolea/Sicily. The Locrian fist fighter Euthymus was worshipped at a hero-shrine and regarded as the son of the river god C. (Ael. VH 8,18). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 955.

Laevi

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian (Liv. 5,25,2; Plin. HN 3,124) or Celtic (Cato in Plin. l.c.; Λάοι, Pol. 2,17,4) tribe which founded the city of Ticinum (modern Pavia), together with the Matrici; Ticinum later fell under the rule of the Insubres (Ptol. 3,1,33). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 179.

Tegianum

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (modern Teggiano). City in Lucania (Lucani) on the left bank of the Tanager (modern Tanagro) on the via Popilia from Consentia to Aquilonia [1] (Plin. HN 3,98: Tergilani = Tegianenses?; Liber Coloniarum 209). Municipium , which under Nero [1] was elevated to a colonia, tribus Pomptina. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography V. Bracco, Nuove scoperte archeologiche in Lucania, in: RAL 20, 1965, 283 f.

Cotyora

(103 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Xenophon | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius (Κοτύωρα; Kotýōra). Port town on the south coast of  Pontus Euxinus, assumed to be near Ordu, where remains of an ancient harbour pier are located. The ‘Ten Thousand’ of  Xenophon rested there for 45 days before they took to the sea in the west. Under Pharnaces I (185-160/154 BC), C. was united in a synoikismós with Cerasus in Pharnacaea and declined to a small town (πολίχνη, Str. 12,3,17) (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 24; Peripl. m. Eux. 34). Olshausen, Eckart (S…

Ximene

(78 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξιμήνη; Ximḗnē). Region in the territory of Amasea, which in the south of Diacopene and Pimolisene "reaches as far as the river Halys... In X. there are salt mines, from which the Halys, it is surmised, took its name" (Str. 12,3,39). According to the sequence of mentions in  Str. loc.cit. the X. is to be looked for in the area between Çorum and the River Kızılırmak. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Olshausen/Biller/Wagner, 174 (with map A 3).

Istros

(32 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴστρος; Ístros). Island documented by Steph. Byz. s.v. I. with homonymous city at the promontory of Triopium (modern Deveboynu Burnu or Kıriyo Burnu) near Cnidus. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Temnus

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τῆμνος/ Têmnos, Aeolic Τᾶμνος/ Tâmnos). Aeolian city to the southeast of Dumanlı Hill on the right bank of the Hermus [2], where in Antiquity the river flowed into the Aegean (Plin. HN 5,119); its ruins (fortress of Nemrut) are at modern Görece. Although not a member of the Delian League, in the 5th and 4th cents. BC T. was able to preserve its independence of the Persian Great King (Xen. Hell. 4,8,15). Apparently, by the end of the 3rd cent. BC T. was under the rule of the Attalids (Attalus; cf. the isopoliteía treaty between T. and Pergamum StV 2, 5…

River

(230 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Terrestrial relief and climate determine the size and direction of river courses; and for their part, the major river valleys of the inhabited world determined the trade and commerce of those societies through whose regions they passed, offering them both infrastructural and economic advantages. They seldom represented insurmountable obstacles to traffic. Rather, in varying degree they directed traffic flow over particular routes (fords, bridges). The economic usefulness of river …

Pelorias

(222 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πελωριάς; Pelōriás). Northeastern cape of Sicily (Pol. 1,11,6; 42,5; Diod. Sic. 4,23,1; 5,2,2; 23,1,3; Diod. 4,85,5; 14,56,3; 6; 57,2: Πελωρίς/Pelōrís), modern Capo Peloro or Capo di Faro; in a narrower sense a narrow easterly tongue of land, in a broader sense the whole mountainous promontory running northeast. According to myth, Orion [1] constructed the tongue of land and built a temple to Poseidon there (Hes. fr. 183). According to erroneous ancient ideas about the orientation…

Melanthium

(24 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River flowing into the Pontos Euxeinos to the east of Ordu, modern Melet Irmağı (Plin. HN 6,11). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Buphagus

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Βουφάγος; Bouphágos). Right-hand tributary of the Alpheius [1], rising in the north of Buphagium (city wall and other remains near Paliokastro; its source marked the border between Heraea and Megalopolis. The eponymous hero B., son of the Titan  Iapetus, was killed by Artemis in the Pholoe region (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,26,8; 8,27,17). Buthoinas appears, meaning the same as B., as an approximation of Hercules in Lindus (cf. Anth. Plan. 123). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 103ff.

Duranus

(43 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Aquitania, modern-day Dordogne; rises at 1680 m. on the Puy de Sancy (Mont-Dore), and after a course of 490 km flows into the Atlantic with the Garumna to its left (Auson. Mos. 464; Geogr. Rav. 4,40). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Orcistus

(113 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρκιστός/ Orkistós). Originally probably a polis in Galatia, south of modern Ortaköy (formerly Alikel Yayla), added to Nacolea (Phrygia) at the end of the 3rd cent. AD, but Constantine [1] the Great undid this before 331 AD (MAMA 7, 69-75). The small town of Malcaeteni [1. 2020] was part of the territory of O. Attested as a see from the 5th cent. (Domnus at the Council of Ephesus in 431, Longinus at the Council of Chalcedon in 451: Acta Conciliorum Oecumenocorum 1,1 no. 121; 2,1,1 no. 192). A few ancient or Byzantine remains. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography T. Dr…

Dokimeion

(69 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Marble (Δοκίμειον; Dokímeion). Town in Phrygia maior (Steph. Byz. s.v. Δ.; Str. 12,8,14: Δοκιμία κώμη; Ptol. 5,2,24: Δοκίμαιον; Hierocles [8], Synecdemus 677: Δοκίμιον;  Asia Minor III E.) on the road from Apamea [2] to Amorion (modern Hisar Köyü) near modern İscehisar. On the broken marble at D. cf.  Syn(n)ada.  Marble (with map) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Belke/Mersich, 237f.

Achaia

(723 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] In its meeting of 13 January 27 BC, the Senate resolved to set up A. as a senatorial province (Cass. Dio 53,12; Str. 17,3,25), comprising central Greece and the  Peloponnese together with  Epirus, Acarnania ( Acarnanians) including the Ionian islands, also  Aetolia,  Thessaly,  Sporades,  Cyclades excluding Astypalaea and Amorgus, but with  Euboea. A. was to be governed by a   proconsul pro praetore (residing in the Roman colony of Laus Iulia Corinthus), alongside a   legatus Augusti pro praetore and a   quaestor ; several procuratores looked after the imperial i…

Notou keras

(118 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νότου κέρας; Nótou kéras). Modern Ras Guardafui or Ras el-Kheil in East Africa [2]. Artemidorus [3] (1st half of the 1st cent. BC) followed geographical knowledge of the time when he called the eastern point of Africa ‘the horn of the south’, that is the southern end of the known world. Ptolemaeus (Ptol. 4,7,11) acted accordingly in the 2nd cent. AD, obviously referring to modern Ras el-Kheil by NK after terms like Ἀρωμάτων ἀκρωτήριον ( Arōmátōn akrōtḗrion) or the like had come into use for the former NK [2]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 J. Desanges, Reche…

Drilae

(50 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Δρῖλαι; Drîlai). Tribe in the north Anatolian mountains south of  Trapezus; the Greeks with Xenophon were unable to capture their mountain refuge in 400 BC (Xen. An. 5,2,1-27; cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. D.), identified with the Sanni by Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 15. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sea

(630 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] The world inhabited by Graeco-Roman Antiquity was essentially determined by its geographical centre, the Mare Nostrum and the large adjacent seas, the Ionios Kolpos, the Aigaion Pelagos, and the Pontos Euxeinos; the peripheral seas - Mare Germanicum, Mare Suebicum, Caspian Sea, Erythra Thalatta and the adjacent seas Arabios Kolpos (the modern Red Sea), the Persian Gulf, and the Oceanus - formed fundamentally different worlds (particularly the Persian Gulf at the time of the Near E…

Prinus

(48 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρῖνος; Prînos). 1210 m high pass (διὰ Πρίνου καλουμένης: Paus. 8,6,4) leading from Argos [II 1] to Mantinea over Mount Artemisium [2], to the north of the main peak (modern Malevo). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, s. v. P., RE 22, 2314 f.  Pritchett 3, 32-46.

Prinkipos

(118 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρίγκιπος/ Prínkipos). Δημόνησοι/ Dēmónēsoi (Hesych. s. v. Δημονήσιος χαλκός) or Πριγκίπιοι νῆσοι/ Prinkípioi nêsoi (Synaxiarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae 158,26 Delehaye) is the description by which an archipelago of nine islands in the northern Propontis is known in the Byzantine literature of Late Antiquity: (from north to south) Prota (modern Kınalı ada), Orea (modern Sivri ada), Panormus (later Antigone, modern Burgaz adası), Pita (modern Kaşık adası), Chalce (modern Heybeli adası),…

Dahae

(242 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Δάαι; Dáai, Δάοι; Dáoi; Latin: Dahae) The D. were a nomadic tribe in Persis; according to Strabo, they were originally one of the Scythian tribes in the region by the Caspian Sea (Str. 11,8,2; 11,9,2f.). Like the Mardi, Dropici and Sagartii, the D. are mentioned by Herodotus in connection with the revolt of Cyrus II against Astyages in 550 BC (Hdt. 1,125,4); in the Persepolis Inscription they are called Daha. The D. fought under Darius ─ and, after his death, under Spitamenes ─ against  Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. An. 3,11,3; 3,28,10; Curt. 4,12…

Naro

(254 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νάρων; Nár ōn). River in Dalmatia (Dalmates; Strab. 7,5,5; 9; Mela 2,57: Nar; Tab. Peut. 6,4 without name), modern Neretva (in Hercegovina). It rises on the Dumos Planina (1879 m high), passes through the karst mountains in a deeply incised gorge, forms - after a course of 230 km - a swampy delta and flows into the Adriatic. In antiquity the N. flowed into the sea farther to the northwest than today. In its original bed the Norino, which used to join the N. after a much shorter course furthe…

Amisus

(348 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Syria | Byzantium | Caesar | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Pompeius (Ἀμισός; Amisós). Harbour town on the Pontic Black Sea coast, on the Kara Samsun peninsula (north-western suburb of the modern Samsun), not yet systematically excavated (prohibited military zone). Just like  Trapezus, A. was located at the northern end of an old trade route, which led, at a height of only 900m, across the northern Pontic mountains to  Amasea and on to  Cap…

Zeleia

(120 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Ζέλεια; Zéleia). City in the valley of the Aesepus (Hom. Il. 2,824f.; 4,91; 4,103; 4,121; Str. 12,4,6; 12,8,11) in the territory of Cyzicus in Mysia, near modern Sarıköy. Homer (loc. cit.) describes Z. as the home city of Pandarus [1] and the latter as belonging to the Lycii; for this reason ancient commentators (cf. schol. Hom. Il. 2,826f.) assumed two regions with the name Lycia – one in the southwest of Asia Minor (Lycii, Lycia), the …

Ager Caletranus

(36 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Region around the Etruscan town of Caletra, ruins near Marsiliana d'Albegna north of Orbetello (cf. Plin. HN 3,52; Liv. 39,55). Foundation of the colonia Saturnia in 183 BC. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Periegetes, Perihegetes

(265 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (περιηγήτης/ perihēg ḗtēs, guide to strangers’). The periegetes was primarily a tourist institution, an insight into whose activities is provided by Plutarch (Plut. Mor. 395a; 396c; 397d; 400d; 400f; 401e). This gave rise to the antiquarian genre of peri(h)ḗgēsis, particularly popular during the Hellenistic period, in which the guiding of strangers by a periegetes took on a literary form in prose or verse; closely related to this was the travel story, i.e. the account of an actual journey, which could be used by others as a travel guide (e.g. Pe…

Cerasus

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Xenophon | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Patricius (Κερασοῦς; Kerasoûs). Harbour town on the river of the same name on the south coast of the Black Sea ( Pontus Euxinus), a colony of Sinope, to be located three days' march west of Trapezus (Xen. An. 5,3,2; Diod. Sic. 14,30,5) and east of Vakfıkebir; to be differentiated from the C. west of Sinope (Scylax 89: Karaköy on the Karasu?), and also from the town which under Pharnaces I (185-160/54 BC) was joined in a synoikismós with Cotyora and renamed Pharnacaea…

Chabakta

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Χάβακτα; Chábakta on coins, HN 498; Χάβακα; Chábaka Str. 12,3,16). Pontic fortress, whose name appears on pseudo-autonomous coins of  Mithridates VI; likely fortress structures identified near Kaleköy/Ünye on the coast of northern Turkey (tomb and two staircases cut into the rock). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Olshausen/Biller/Wagner, 120 W. H. Waddington, E. Babelon, Th. Reinach, Recueil général des monnaies grecques d'Asie Mineure 1,1, 21925, 104f.

Noarus

(78 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νόαρος/ Nóaros). River flowing north into the Ister [2] (Danube) in the territory of the Scordisci (and navigable there) (Str. 7,5,2). Between the N. and the Margus [1] (Str. 7,5,12) was the land of the ‘Great Scordisci’. On the discussion of the identification of the N. (Drina, Korana, Mur, Raab, lower reaches of the Sava) cf. [1; 2]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 E. Polaschek, s.v. Noaros, RE 17, 783-785 2 J. Fitz, s.v. Noaros, KlP 4, 142.

Cithaeron

(139 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κιθαιρών; Kithairṓn, Latin Cithaeron). A mountain range that is still forested (1407 m, Hagios Elias) to the north of the  Isthmus of Corinth and separating Boeotia on the north from the Megaris in the south-west and Attica in the south-east; the Pastra mountains (1025 m), the Skurta plateau (between 540 and 570 m) and the Parnes adjoin the C. in the east. Important connecting routes from and to Boeotia led over passes that were secured by fortifications and watch-towers (Hdt. 9,38f…

Strongyle

(98 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Στρογγύλη/ Strongýlē). Volcanic island in the north east of the Aeoliae Insulae (12,6 km2, 924 m high; Ptol. 3,4,16; Mela 2,120), present-day Stromboli. The island was named (S.: 'the round') after the form of the volcano, which has been active from Antiquity (Str. 6,2,11; cf. Thuc. 3,88,2; Diod. Sic. 5,7,1; App. B Civ. 5,105). The island has been settled from c. 3000 BC. In mythology, it was considered to be the seat of Aeolus [2] (Plin. HN 3,94) or Hephaestus (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,761). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e pol…

Narona

(519 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Limes | Moesi, Moesia Town (Mela 2,57; Plin. HN 21,40; Itin. Anton. 338,4; Tab. Peut. 6,4) on the Naro (Norino) atop a flat hill in the midst of swampy land in the lower Naro valley near modern Vid, northwest of Metković/Croatia. A prehistoric settlement is assumed; the population and place name were Illyrian. In the 5th/4th cent. BC, Greek settlers joined and founded a trading station near N. ( empórion, Scyl. 24; cf. Theopompus FGrH 115 F 129). In the 2nd/1st cent., settlers from Italy followed. Aft…

Interamnium

(24 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Road station in the Sybaris valley in Lucania (Tab. Peut. 7,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,34). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 918.

Thospitis Limne

(146 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Θωσπῖτις λίμνη/ Thōspîtis límnē). Lake in Armenia. Str. 11,14,8 regards the TL and the Arsenḗ límnē (modern Lake Erçek) to the east as a unit (cf. also Dionys. Per. 988). Separate lakes are recognized there by Ptol. 5,13,7 ( Ársissa límnē) and Plin. HN 6,128 ( lacus Thospites, lacus Aretissa); the modern Lake Van in eastern Anatolia, a basin without outflow, 1648 m above sea-level with a water surface area of approximately 3574 km2 and a maximum depth of 451 m. Ancient authors knew that the water had an extremely high soda content and only a single s…

Selenes oros

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σελήνης ὄρος; Selḗnēs óros). "Mountains of the Moon, from which the lakes of the Nile receive melt water" (Ptol. 4,9,3) - according to the coordinate data in Ptol. l.c. probably modern Kilimanjaro (5895 m elevation) in northeastern Tanzania. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Ietae

(174 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἰεταί; Ietaí). Sicilian town near San Giuseppe Iato and San Cipirello on Monte Iato (852 m), 30 km south-west of Palermo ( Sicily with map). The site was settled from the 8th cent. BC by the  Elymi or  Sicani; about 550 BC, construction of a temple to Aphrodite which was renovated in the 4th cent., and destroyed in AD 50. In the Hellenistic era, among other things, a theatre, an agora with stoa, bouleuterion, podium temple, and living quarters (mosaics, paintings) were built; only…

Mossynoeci

(166 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μοσσύνοικοι; Mossýnoikoi). People in the Paryadres mountains to the south of the Black Sea coast between Cerasus and Trapezus (Hekat. FGrH 1 F 204f.; Xen. An. 5,4,2; 5,1; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1016ff.; Diod. 14,30,5-7) to the east of the Tibareni and Chalybes, from time to time with a large sphere of influence (to the south: Strab. 11,14,5; to the west: Xen. An. 5,5,1). Under Darius I and Xerxes, the M. belonged to the 19th satrapy (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78), in Xenophon's time they were independ…

Solus

(211 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Punic Wars (Σολοῦς/ Soloûs, Σολόεις/ Solóeis, Latin Soluntum). City on the northern coast of Sicilia at Cannita near modern Santa Flavia about 20 km to the west of Palermo (burial finds from the 6th cent. BC). Like Motye and Panormus S. was one of the bases to which the Phoenicians, under pressure from Greek colonists, retreated at the turn from the 8th cent. BC to the 7th (Thuc. 6,2,6). Dionysius [1] I captured the city in 397 BC, and after a…

Sipylus

(102 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σίπυλος/ Sípylos). Mountain range in Lydia (modern Manisa Dağı), extending between the Hermus [2] and Smyrna and about 30 km inland. Lake Saloe, in which the city of S. and its predecessor Tantalis are supposed to have been submerged, are presumed to be on the mountain range of S. (Plin. HN. 2,205; 5,117; Paus. 7,24,13; Tantalus). At the S. some 100 m above the Hermus valley, near two Hittite graffiti there is a rock sculpture the interpretation of which has been discussed since Antiquity [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 B. André-Salvini, M. Salvini…

Tyraeum

(71 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τυραῖον; Tyraîon). City on the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa near Philomelium (Xen. An. 1,2,14; Artem. in  Str. 14,2,29: Τυριαῖον; Plin. HN 5,95: Tyrienses; Anna Komnene, Alexias 3,211 f.) in the area of modern Ilgın. On his march against his brother Artaxerxes [2] II in 401 BC, Cyrus [3] the Younger also passed through T. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography W. Ruge, s. v. T. (1), RE 7 A, 1800-1802  Belke/ Mersich, 409f.

Mare Nostrum

(941 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (μεγάλη θάλασσα/ megálē thálassa, Mediterranean). Because of various earth movements that are still ongoing (rising, sinking; formation of numerous islands, e.g. the archipelago between Greece and Anatolia and Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearic Islands; still active volcanoes and earthquakes) the appearance of the Mare Nostrum (MN) changed constantly (connections to the various adjoining seas, e.g. the Atlantic, the Miocene seas in the northern foothills of the Al…

Nesactium

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Settlement in Istria at modern Vizac̆e, approx. 8 km north-east of modern Pula/Croatia (Plin. HN 3,129). Suburb of the Histri on a bank with a sanctuary dated to 1,000 BC; conquered by the Romans in 177 BC (Liv. 41,11,1: oppidum Nesattium). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography K. Mihovilić, Rezultati sondanog istraivanja u sjevernoj bazilici u Nezakciju (1977 godine), in: Histria Archaeologica 15/6, 1984/5, 5-29  M. Zaninović, Apsorus, Crexa e Nesactium. Badò sulla rotta marittima adriatica, in: Quaderni dell' Antiquità di Venetia 10, 1994, 179-188  V.Ved…

Himeras

(83 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of two rivers in Sicily which, rising not far from one another in opposite directions on S. Salvatore (1910 m) near Polizzi (modern Imera Settentrionale, Imera Meridionale), were regarded as a single river and as the north-south central line of the island, although the eastern half of the island, thus divided, is almost twice as big as the western half. Evidence: Pol. 7,4,2; Liv. 24,6,7; Str. 6,2,1; Mela 2,119; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,7; Sil. Pun. 14,233. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Cerausium

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κεραύσιον; Keraúsion). The springs of the Neda rise on Mount C., a part of the  Lycaeum, (Paus. 8,41,3); it is therefore to be localized in the mountainous region between the modern Likeo and Tetrazio. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. K, in: RE Suppl. 9, 382.

Divona

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Main town of the Celtic  Cadurci in Aquitania (now Cahors. dép. Lot); sources: Ptol. 2,7,9; CIL XIII 1541 [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Audin, J. Guey, P. Wuilleumier, Inscriptions latines découvertes à Lyon dans le pont de la Guillotière, in: REA 56, 1954, 297-347.

Tatta

(85 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τάττα λίμνη; Tátta límnē). Largest lake in Asia Minor (Str. 12,5,4; Plin. HN 31,84), modern Tuz Gölü ('Salt Lake'), an undrained basin in the highlands of central Anatolia (Galatia), about 900 m above sea level, mean depth 1 m, According to the season the surface area is between about 1100 km2 (summer, salinity up to 32%) and 2500 km2 (after winter rains). Salt extracted from Lake T. was considered to have healing powers (Dioscorides, De materia medica 5,109,1). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Belke, 230 f.

Ager Albanus

(165 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Area between   lacus Albanus ,  Bovillae, and  Aricia, passed through by the   via Appia , originally a part of  Alba Longa. A. was famous for its fertility (Hor. Carm. 4,11,2; Sat. 2,8,16; Plin. HN 14,30) and a preferred location for fashionable country seats (Cic. Orat. 2,224; Cluent. 141; Mil. 27; 46; Rab. Post. 6; Pis. 77; Att. 4,11,1). In imperial times, it was largely in the possession of the emperor (Dig. 30,39,8), much valued especially by Domitian (Suet. Dom. 4,19; Juv…

Zagros

(273 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζάγρος/ Zágros). Alpine mountain range, with the same name today, which runs from the northwest to the southeast in southwestern Iran, stretching from the Armenian highlands to the Kūh-e Fūrġūn on the Gulf of Oman with an area of c. 1200 × 200 km. In ancient literature, the Z. is first mentioned in connection with the rebellion of Molon [1] against Antiochus [5] III as a mountain range which sometimes divides into individual chains, sometimes merges again into a single chain, and is broken up by deep gorges and valleys (Pol. 5,44,7: τὸ Ζάγρον ὄρος/ tò Zágron óros in the yea…

Kainon Chorion, Kainon Phrourion

(116 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καινὸν Χωρίον; Kainòn Chōríon, Καινὸν Φρουρίον; Kainòn Phrouríon). Pontic fortification in the Paryadres mountains, captured by Pompey in 64/3 BC, the place where Mithridates VI kept the most precious treasures (Str. 12,3,31) and a secret archive (Plut. Pomp. 37,1). Kainon Chorion may have been located on the rock massif near Akgün (formerly Ahretköy) northwest of Niksar, where fortress ruins with stonework of the Hellenistic through the Byzantine periods, three flights of steps, and a cistern can be found. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Magie, 107…

Zela

(313 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Christianity | Hellenistic states (Ζῆλα; Zêla). City in Pontus [2] (Str. 11,8,4; Plin. HN 6,8; Ptol. 5,6,10; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ζ.) on the River Hotan, a left-bank tributary of the Iris [3], modern Zile. Originally Z. was a 19th–cent. BC Assyrian trading post ( kārum; Assyrian Durchamit, Hittite Durmitta; cf. Str. 12,3,37), then a priest-state of Anaetis and the Persian deities Omanos and Anadates who were revered together with her, and the administrative centre of the royal eparchía of Zeloniti…

Segustero

(144 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Township at the confluence of the modern Buëch and the Druentia, modern Sisteron, in the département of Basses-Alpes, without a doubt a vicus of the civitas of the Vocontii in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis (cf. Plin. HN 3,37), after Diocletian's province reform its own civitas ( Segesteriorum: Notitia Galliarum 16,7). Station on the heavily used stretch of road (cf. Sall. Hist. fr. 2,98,4 M.) from Arelate through Brigantio (modern Briançon), the Matrona [3] Pass (1854 m elevation) and Segusio to Augusta [5] Taurinoru…

Barbosthenes

(63 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Βαρβοσθένης; Barbosthénēs). Mountain, 14.8 km from Sparta, where  Nabis was defeated by Philopoemen in 192 BC (Liv. 35,27,13; 30,9 incorrect Barnosthenem), perhaps an eastward continuation of the  Olympus in the  Parnon near Vresthena or Varvitsa. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 2, 1868, 117 n. 1 A. Forbiger, Hdb. [in titles] der Alten Geogr. 3, 1877, 679 n. 77.

Antinum

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town of the  Marsi (CIL IX 3839; 3845) on the upper reaches of the  Liris, modern Cività d'Antino. In the Roman imperial age, it was a municipium of the tribus Sergia. Remains of the town walls (polygonal stonework). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Keras

(31 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Golden Horn' (Κέρας; Kéras). Synonymous with Chrysokeras/‘Golden Horn’ (cf. Amm. Marc. 22,8,7). Byzantium Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] see Gefäße, Gefäßformen/-typen (Drinking horn) see Rhyton

Apeliotes

(145 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀπηλιώτης sc. ἄνεμος; Apēliṓtēs sc. ánemos). Apeliotes denotes the ‘wind that blows from the sunrise’ (east; warm and misty: Aristot. Mete. 364 a 21; b 28), the wind god responsible for this wind (allegory of Apeliotes with autumnal fruits held in his garments on the extant horologium of Andronicus in Athens: cf. Varro, Rust. 3,5,17), and in general the easterly point of the compass. The Ionian form of the name (cf. Hdt.4,22; 7,188) was retained in the Attic (cf. Thuc. 3,23,5; Eur. Cy…

Polytimetus

(56 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πολυτίμητος/ Polytímētos). River in Sogdiana; modern Zeravshan in Uzbekistan, rising in the Alay and either petering  out c. 640 km in the Kyzylkum (desert) or flowing into the Oxus (Araxes [2]) (Aristob. FGrH 139 F 28a; Arr. Anab. 4,5,6; 4,6,7; Ptol. 6,14,2; Curt. 7,10,1-3). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Polytimetos, RE 21,2, 1836-1838.

Caesarodunum

(239 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (Καισαρόδουνον; Kaisaródounon). Capital of the Celtic  Turoni (Ptol. 2,8,14; Tab. Peut. 2,3; Notitia Galliarum 3); probably since Augustus the civitas Turonorum on a bluff on the left bank of the  Liger (the modern Loire), about 16 km above its confluence with the Cares (the modern Cher); the modern Tours (Dép. Indre-et-Loire). The Celtic settlement was directly opposite on the right bank of the river; in the 1st cent. AD it was transferred to the plain between th…

Syn(n)ada

(97 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύν(ν)αδα/ Sýn(n)ada; Lat. Synnas). City in Greater Phrygia (Diod. 20,107,3 f.; Cic. Fam. 3,8,3; 5 f.; 15,4,2; Cic. Att. 5,16,2; 5,20,1; Liv. 38,15,14; 45,34,11 f.; Synnas: Plin. HN 5,105,8; Tab. Peut. 9,4; Suda s. v. Συνᾴδων: Sýnada), modern Şuhut. At the village of Docimeum (Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.: Dokímeia kṓmē) in S.'s territory there were quarries in which an alabaster-like marble (with map) was obtained, named by the local inhabitants after Docimeum, and by the Romans after S. (Str. 12,8,13 f.: Synnadikòs líthos). Roman necropoleis, rock graves, and r…

Pedasa

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Persian Wars | Delian League (τὰ Πήδασα/ tà Pḗdasa, Πήδασος/ Pḗdasos). City of the Leleges in Caria in the mountainous country to the north of Halicarnassus (Str. 13,1,59; 7,7,2) near Gökçeler, to the east of the modern village of Bitez, which has preserved the name P. In individual cases accounts of P. give rise to doubt as to whether P., Pidasa or Pedason is meant (cf. [1. vol. 1, 535-538]). In 545/4 BC in the Lide mountains near P. (modern…

Plataniston

(46 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πλατανιστών; Platanistṓn). River in southern Arcadia (Paus. 8,39,1), rising on Mount Tetrazio (1389 m high), flowing north through  Lycosura and east of Calivia Carion into the left side of the Alpheius [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. P. (2), RE 20, 2335.

Tarusco

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in Gallia Narbonensis City in Gallia Narbonensis in the territory of the Salluvii (Str. 4,1,3; 12: Ταρούσκων; Ptol. 2,10,15), modern Tarascon. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, Gallia Narbonensis, 1988, 300. [German version] [2] City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages on the northern slopes of the Pyrenees (Pyrene [2]; Plin. HN 3,37), modern Tarascon sur Ariège. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Symaethum

(122 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύμαιθος/ Sýmaithos, Latin Symaethum). Border river between Leontini and Catane (Thuc. 6,65,2) in the east of Sicily. It rises according to Str. 6,2,2 like the Pantacyas at Mount Etna (Aetna [1]) and flows into the sea to the north of Catane (Ptol. 3,4,9; cf. Plin. HN 3,89). The modern Simeto, however, which can without doubt be identified with the S., rises on Mount Nebrodes and its mouth is to the south of Catane; the displacement of the mouth can be explained by the activities of…

Hodometron

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ὁδόμετρον; hodómetron). Hero (Dioptra 34) and Vitruvius (10,9) describe a mechanical device for distance measurement on land in which a connection of endless screws and sprockets mounted on different levels, driven by a cart wheel, transmits each rotation of the wheel to a display system in a retarding manner (Hero: pointer; Vitruvius: falling balls). The hodometron was sufficient for one day trip and then had to be put back to the initial position. Vitruvius knew of a corresponding device for sea trips based on a bucket wheel. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliograp…

Insulae Gorgades

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Unlocated archipelago mentioned by Pliny (HN 6,200; Mela 3,99: Dorcades), who refers to  Xenophon [8] of Lampsacus (location of the island two days' journey from the African west coast; name derived from the Gorgons who once lived there) and  Hanno [1] (characterization of the inhabitants as savages; their women are said to have hairy skin). In Hanno's report, which is available in a much altered form (Peripl. 18, GGM 1,1-14), the women of the Insulae Gorgades are called Goríllai (Γορίλλαι, possibly a misspelling of the Greek translation for Gorgades). Olshausen, Ecka…

Hyporon

(28 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Bruttium (bronze coins around 300 BC: HN 105), probably identical to Hipporum in It. Ant. 115. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 949.

Leucosyri

(273 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Λευκόσυροι; Leukósyroi, ‘White Syrians’, meaning and origin of the term are unclear). Indigenous inhabitants (App. Mith. 292; Σύριοι/ Sýrioi, Hdt. 1,6,1; 2,104; Ἀσσύριοι/ Assýrioi, Dionys. Per. 975) considered by the Greeks as an ethnic entity of the Anatolian northern part of the region Assyria (Λευκοσυρία/ Leukosyría, schol. vetera ad Apoll. Rhod. 196,9; 198,10; 201,6; Λευκοσυριακή/ Leukosyriakḗ, 200,1; Λευκοσυρική/ Leukosyrikḗ, 198,3). According to Ps.-Scyl. 89, the area where they lived extended from the river Thermodon (modern Term…

Nedon

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νέδων; Nédōn).The largest river in Messenia after the  Pamisus; it rises on Mt. Taygetus and, following a south-westerly direction, it traverses Denthaliatis (Denthalii) with its numerous wellsprings (cf. Tac. Ann. 4,43; Steph. Byz. s.v. Δενθάλιοι), then flows into the Messenian bay at Pherae (Str. 8,3,29; 4,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 406.

Larinum

(123 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | (Λάρινα; Lárina). Town of the Dauni (Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.), afterwards of the Frentani (Ptol. 3,1,65) in Samnium on Monte Arone (475 m) to the right of the Tifernus (modern Biferno), south of Cigno, surrounded by a tributary of the Tifernus; 1 km east of modern Larino. Municipium, tribus Clustumina, regio II (Plin. HN 3,105; Mela 2,66). From the middle of the 3rd cent. BC, Greek (Campanian) and Latin (Apulian) bronze coins (HN 28f.). Considerable remains: city wall, bat…

Hellespontus

(520 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἑλλήσποντος; Hellḗspontos, Dardanelles, Turkish Çanakkale Boğazı). Strait, formed from a river valley during the glacial epoch, between the Propontis in the north and the  Aegean Sea in the south, the Thracian peninsula Chersonesus [1] in the west (Europe) and the Troad in the east (Asia; cf. Plin. HN 4,49), c. 65 km long, between 1.2 km (between Sestus and Abydus [1]) and 7.5 km wide, between 57 m and 103 m deep. As in the  Bosporus [1], a strong (maximum 5 knots; cf. Hom. Il. 2,845; 12,30; Hsch. s.v. Ἑ.; Aristot. Mete. 2,8; A…

Gorgopis limne

(99 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γοργῶπις λίμνη; Gorgôpis límnē). In Aesch. Ag. 302, it belongs to the chain of fire signals from Ida to Mycenae between  Cithaeron and Aigiplanktos ( Gerania in the Megaris) and is therefore regarded as identical with the eastern part of the gulf of Corinth, the bay of Eleusis, and several lakes on the Isthmus of Corinth (Limni Vouliagmenis to the west of the Gerania, cf. Xen. Hell. 4,5,6; Limni Psatho to the east of Schinos). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. G. 1), RE 7, 1658f. W. Leiner, Die Signaltechnik der Ant., 1982, 59ff. Philippson/Kirst…

Orestae

(156 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρέσται/ Oréstai). People in the upper Haliacmon valley around Lake Kastoria (Celetron, cf. Liv. 31,40,1-4 [1. 236-239; 3. 163-166; 4. 110-116]). Hecat. FGrH 1 F 107 and Str. 7,7,8 and 9,5,11 (cf. also Thuc. 2,80,6) numbered them among the Molossi or the Epeirotae, Str. 9,5,11 among the Macedones (for a discussion of this contradiction cf. [5]). From the 4th cent. BC under Macedonian rule (a division of O. in Alexander [4] the Great's army in Diod. Sic. 17,57,2). In 196 BC, the O. were declared independent by Rome and organised as a koinón  (Pol. 18,47,6; Liv. 33,34,…

Uspe

(42 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] High-lying fortified chief town of the Sarmatic Siraci on the bank of the Panda [1] in the north of the Caucasus (Tac. Ann. 12,16,3); not located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography D. D. Kacharava, G. T. Kvirkveliia, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoi epokhi, 1991, 284.

Pirustae

(170 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πειροῦσται/ Peiroûstai). Illyrian tribe (Str. 7,5,3; Ptol. 2,16,8) in the ore-rich region between Lim and Drin in modern Albania, first mentioned in Liv. 45,26,13 in the context of the conclusion of the 3rd Macedonian War, 167 BC, as a civitas libera et immunis. At that time, its relationship with Rome was governed by a treaty. However, in 54 BC the P. undertook excursions into the Roman province of Illyricum for plunder. In reaction, the proconsul of the province, Caesar, restored order in the frontier region by taking h…

Gazioura

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni (Γαζίουρα). Fortress of the Pontic kings in Zelitis on an isolated mountain peak near Turhal with a flight of steps from the Hellenistic period and late Byzantine wall remains. Also an inscription from the time of Mithridates VI, and two Roman milestones on the road from  Amasea to Nicopolis [1. 251-253 no. 278; 2. 348f. no. 960f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Anderson/Cumont/Grégoire 3,1 2 D. French, Roman Roads and Milestones of Asia Minor 2 (British Institute of Arc…

Eupatoria

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Patricius The town established by Mithridates the Great in Pontus at the confluence of the Iris (modern Yeşilırmak) into the Lycus (modern Kelkit Cayı) had without a fight opened the gates to the Romans under Lucullus in 71 BC in the 3rd Mithridatic War; as a result it was totally destroyed by the king four years later. The reconstruction had not yet been completed when Pompey captured E. in 65 BC and, renamed Magnopolis, incorpor…

Thymbrium

(86 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Θύμβριον; Thýmbrion). City in eastern Phrygia, 10 parasangai ( Parasángēs ; 57 km) both from Caystru Pedion [2] in the west and Tyriaeium in the east, to be found in the area of modern Doğanhisar to the southeast of Akşehir (Xen. An. 1,2,13; Plin.  HN 5,95: Thymbriani in Lycaonia in the early Imperial period  province of Asia; Hierocles, Synecdemus 673,9: Τιμβριάδων in the late Antiquity  province of Pisidia). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Magie, 792 f.

Zabida

(127 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζάβιδα/ Zábida). Village settlement in the centre of a large oasis in the interior of Arabia Felix (Arabia), on the Wādī Zabīd to the northeast of modern Zabīd (in Yemen), mentioned by Uranius [3] in the third book of his Arabiká (in Steph. Byz. s. v. Z.). Z. and its port on the Erythra Thalatta [1] was the starting point of an important trade route into the high mountains through Achoma (modern Aḫum) and Adana (modern Al-Udain) to Tarphara (modern Ẓafār), the chief town of the Homeritae, the Ḥimyar of Arab literature. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Dietric…

Xodrace

(44 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξοδράκη; Xodrákē). City in the western part of India, left of the lower reaches of the Indus [1] (Ptol. 7,1,60), on the southeast border between modern Pakistan and India; not precisely locatable. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2149-2152.

Zaliches

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζαλίχης/ Zalíchēs). Coastal city on the coastal river of the same name (Marcianus [1], Epit. Peripl. Menipp. 10: Ζάληκος/ Zálēkos; Peripl. m. Eux. 24; Ptol. 5,4,3: Ζαλίσκος ποταμός/ Zalískos potamós) in Pontus, in late Antiquity one of the seven cities of the consular province of Helenopontus: Σάλτος ( Saltus ) Ζαλίχης/ Sáltos Zalíchēs (Hierocles, Synekdemos 701,6 - an imperial domain?) with the suffragan bishopric of Amasea, now also called Leontoupolis (possibly from the reign of the emperor Leon [4] I, 457-474, onwards; Not. Episc. 1, 240: Ζ. ἤτοι Λεοντούπολις/ Z.…

Mithridatic Wars

(1,388 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
Mithridatic Wars (MW) is the term for the military conflicts between Mithridates [6] VI Eupator, the ruler of the kingdom of Pontus, and Rome. The wars each originated in Mithridates' attempts to expand his domain in the manner of the Diadochi in Asia Minor and constantly led to conflicts with Rome, which did not wish to permit a concentration of power in the region. [German version] A. The First Mithridatic War (89-85 BC) It was out of the attempt by Mithridates after the death of Nicomedes [4] III (94) to pass over the legitimate successor, enthrone Nicomedes' brot…

Philomelium

(168 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Φιλομήλιον; Philomḗlion). City in southern Phrygia, in the valley of the Gallus [1] (coins: HN 683), on the road leading east from Ephesus at the crossroads to Dorylaeum and Caesarea (Str. 11,6,1; 12,8,14; Ptol. 5,2,25; Tab. Peut. 9,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φιλομήλειον; Cic. Verr. 2,3,191; MAMA 7,38-42). It was founded in the 3rd cent. BC by a Macedonian dynast named Philomelus (Lit. in [1. 131317]). At the time of Cicero's proconsulship, P. was part of the province of Cilicia (Cic. Fam. 3,8,5f.; 1…

Pleraei

(103 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πληραῖοι; Plēraîoi). Illyrian people, whose area of settlement on the Ionios Kolpos stretched from the left bank at the mouth of the  Naro and from Corcyra Melaina to Risinium (Strab. 7,5,5; 7; Mela 2,3,56f.; Plin. HN 3,144; cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Πλαραῖοι, who also has the form Πλάριοι). Like the neighbouring Ardiaei, they were notorious pirates (Piracy). In 135 BC they were subjugated by the Romans (App. Ill. 29: Παλάριοι). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, The Kingdoms in Illyria circa 400-167 BC, in: ABSA 61, 1966, 239-253  G. Alföldy, A. Mó…

Lebedus

(176 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League (Λέβεδος; Lébedos). A harbour town founded by Ionians in the area settled by Carians (Paus. 7,3,2; formerly Ἄρτις/ Ártis, Str. 14,1,3 Hecat. FGrH 1 F 219; Hdt. 1,142), member of the Delian League, surrendered by Lysimachus in favour of Ephesus (Paus. 1,9,7), refounded in 266 BC by Ptolemy II as Ptolemaïs; but the name L. was soon revived again. In the 2nd cent. BC, seat of the Artists of Dionysus ( technítai ), who were originally located in Teos. If - on the basis of Hor.…

Tanager

(51 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tributary of the Silarus, modern Torrente Tanagro in Lucania (Verg. Georg. 3,151 and Serv.: siccus T.; Plin.  HN 2,225 without giving a name; Vibius Sequester 151 R.; ad Tanarum, the station at the river crossing:  It. Ant. 109,5). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Philipp, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2153.

Celadon

(92 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κελάδων; Keládōn). Tributary of the  Alpheius between Pylos and Arcadia, rising on Mt. Lycaeum -- its identification is a Homeric problem (Hom. Il. 7,133-135: Nestor's tale of the fight of the Pylians against the Arcadians ‘by the rapid river C. under the walls of Pheia, and round about the waters of the river Iardanus’). Even ancient Homeric philologists tried in vain to determine the location of the C. in the coastal region (cf. Didymus, schol. Hom. Il. 7,135; Str. 8,3,21; cf. also Paus. 8,38,9: Κέλαδος/ Kélados). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Seleucus mons

(137 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in the territory of the Vocontii (It. Ant. 357,8; It. Burdigalense 555; Seleucus is the Latin form of a Celtic personal name [1. 1462]) on the road from the Matrona Pass to Valentia (modern Valence) on the Rhodanus, modern La Bâtie-Montsaléon in the département of Hautes-Alpes, about 6 km to the northeast of Serres. Numerous finds (inscriptions, votive gifts; now in the museum of Gap) attest to its having been a frequently visited cult site (Allobrox, Silvanus, Mars, Victoria, Isis, Mithras). Magnentius was decisively…

Oanis

(67 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὤανις/Ṓ anis). Small river on the south coast of Sicily, probably the present-day Rifrascolaro, which flows into the sea to the east of Camarina. The MS tradition for Pind. Ol. 5,11 wavers between Ὤανις/ Ṓanis and Ὤανος/ Ṓanos; cf. the discussion for [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 K. Ziegler, s.v. O., RE 17, 1675-1677 2 E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 118.

Themisonium

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Θεμισώνιον/ Themisṓnion). City in southwestern Phrygia (Str. 12,8,13; Paus. 10,32,4; Ptol. 5,2,26; Hierocles, Synekdemos 666,3), presumably to the north of Acıpayam at modern Dodurga in the valley of the Kazanes (coins: BMC Phrygia 418 f.); this river can probably be identified as the Casus (modern river Karayük), which Manlius [I 24] crossed on his march from Tabae to Cibyra in 189 BC (cf. Liv. 38,14,1). T. was named after Themison, a fri…

Mare Suebicum

(492 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Baltic Sea). Shallow marginal sea of the Atlantic or the North Sea ( mare Germanicum ); since about 8000 BC the connection with the North Sea has been broken in various ways. Subdivisions are the shallow Kattegat and the shallow Bælt Sea, the actual Baltic Sea with various basins and depths up to 50 m (west of Bornholm), 100 m (east of Bornholm), 249 m (east of Gotland), 459 m (east of Landort, maximum depth of the Mare Suebicum (MS)) and larger islands (Fyn and Sjæland in th…

Themiscyra

(87 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Θεμίσκυρα/ Themískyra). Highly fertile coastal region (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 7a; Apollod. 2,101; Plin. HN 6,9; Just. Epit. 2,4,1) or Greek city (at modern Terme, Peripl. m. Eux. 29; Ps.-Scyl. 89; possibly destroyed in the third of the Mithridatic Wars since for later times there is no information) in the north of the Paryadres mountains on the southern shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) on the lower River Thermodon [2], where in Greek myth the Amazons lived (cf. Aesch. PV 724 f.; Hdt. 4,110). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Naresii

(72 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ναρήσιοι; Narḗsioi). Illyrian tribe (Ptol. 2,16,8) on the upper and lower Neretva/Hercegovina. The N. were among those conquered by the future Augustus in connection with his Dalmatian campaign (Dalmatae) of 35/33 BC (App. Ill. 47). Incorporated into the Roman province of Illyricum, they participated in the conventus of Narona (Plin. HN 3,143) with 102 decuriae. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography I. Bojanovski, Bosna i Hercegovina u antičko doba, 1988, 379.

Phrixa

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φρίξα/ Phríxa). Settlement in western Arcadia or south-eastern Elis or Triphylia (Xen. Hell. 3,2,30), east of Pisatis on the left bank of the Alpheius [1], where the Leucyanias flows into it from the north (Hdt. 4,148,4: Φρίξαι/ Phríxai; Paus. 6,21,5f.; Str. 8,3,12; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μάκιστος). It stood on a prominent hill (305 m; modern Paliophanaro) at what today is once more known as Phrixa, 9 km east of Olympia. P. later adopted the name Phaestus, probably also Phaesana (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φαιστός). Even by the tim…

Peltae

(123 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Πέλται; Péltai). Settlement, already in existence by the end of the 5th cent. BC (cf. Xen. An. 1,2,10) and subsequently a Seleucid military colony (coin: HN 682: ΠΕΛΤΗΝΩΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ; PELTĒNŌN MAKEDONŌN) in Phrygia (Str. 12,8,13; 13,4,13: τὸ Πελτηνὸν πεδίον; tò Peltēnòn pedíon; Ptol. 5,2,25; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; Hsch. s.v. Βέλτη/ Béltē, possibly misspelled for Π./ P., cf. [1. 120 § 145]; Pelteni, Plin. HN 95; 106) on the upper reaches of the Meander [2] (cf. the coin HN 682: ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ; MAIANDROS), presumed south of…

Azanes, Azania

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀζάνες, Ἀζανία; Azánes, Azanía). Tribe and region (of proverbial inhospitableness, cf. Zenob. 2,54; Diogenianus 1,24) between the rivers of Erymanthus and Ladon, at the border of Arcadia with  Elis (Str. 8,3,1; 8,1).  Paeon was a town of the A. (Hdt. 6,127). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 1, 1959, 211.

Chalybes

(116 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Χάλυβες; Χάλυβοι; Chálybes, Chályboi, Hecat. FGrH 1 F 203). A people famous for their skill in ironwork; they were even credited with the invention of iron; indeed the extraction and working of gold and silver were associated with the C. Sometimes located on the north shore of the Black Sea (original homeland? Aesch. PV 714f.), but generally in the northern Anatolian mountains west of the  Halys (Hdt. 1,28), extending in the east as far as  Pharnacaea and  Trapezus (Str. 12,3,19ff.), in the south to the territory of the Armenians. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Gerunium

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Apulia, 200 stadia (= 24 miles) from  Luceria (Pol. 3,100,3) on a side-road reaching the coastal road between Larinum and Teanum Apulum (Tab. Peut. 6,3), can probably be located near Castel Dragona to the south of Fortore. In 217-216 BC, it served as Hannibal's winter quarters (Pol. 3,100ff.; Liv. 22,18ff.; App. Hann. 15f). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 785.

Tauris

(56 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Island between Pharus [2] and Corcyra [2] Melaina off the Dalmatian coast (Tab. Peut. 6,4), modern Šćedro (in Croatia). Caesar's legate P. Vatinius [I 2] was victorious at T. over the fleet of Pompey's party in 47 BC (Bell. Alex. 45,1,2). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. Kozlic̆ić, Historical Geography of the Eastern Adriatic, 1990, 300.

Gaeson

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γαίσων; Gaísōn). Small river on the southern slopes of the Mycale mountains (Samsun Dağı), cf. Hdt. 9,97; Mela 1,87 ( Gaesus); Plin. HN 5,113 ( Gessus). Scolopoeis (Σκολοπόεις) with a temple of the Eleusinian Demeter was located at the G.; it was the location of the battle between Greeks and Persians in 479 BC (Hdt. 9,97). A lake named after the river (Γαισωνὶς λίμνη; Gaisōnìs límnē, Ath. 7,311e) is also to be located in the vicinity. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Isindus

(30 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴσινδος; Ísindos, Ἴσινδα; Ísinda). Place name ocurring with these two name forms only in Steph. Byz. s.v. Isindos as a town in  Ionia. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
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